A Micro-Level Implementation Mechanism to Enhance Corporate Sustainability Performance: A Social Identity Perspective

Nazahah Abd Rahima*, Syed Inaam Ullah Shahb, a,bUnivisiti Utara Malaysia,

Email: a*nazahah@uum.edu.my"

According to United Nations Agenda 2030, the concept of corporate sustainability is deemed to be a significant driver for sustainable development. The literature of corporate sustainability has paid little consideration to the conceptual understanding of sustainability implementation process in organizations to enhance corporate sustainability performance. Therefore, this paper aims to develop the process of effective implementation of sustainability in organizations. Drawing upon social identity theory, this study proposes that the CEO’s responsible leadership may enhance corporate sustainability performance by involving employees in sustainability activities. Using data from 313 middle managers from 38 organizations listed on the Pakistan stock exchange (PSX), the study found that employee involvement in sustainability activities mediates the relationship between CEO responsible leadership and corporate sustainability performance. Pages 1 to 23




Exploring the Link between Income Inequality, Poverty Reduction and Economic Growth: An ASEAN Perspective

Syamsul Amara*, Idrisb, Ikbar Pratamac, Ali Anisd, a,b,dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia, cSchool of Accountancy, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia, Email: a*syamsul_amar3@yahoo.com"

The main objective of the current study is to investigate the role of economic growth and income inequality in poverty reduction. In the emerging economies, there are more significant challenges of income inequalities as compared with the vibrant economies. For dealing with the issues of poverty in a successful way, there is a need to tackle the income inequalities. It has been proposed that policies working at redistribution of income should be implemented by the governments to support low-income families. Increase of income inequality is linked with economic growth. For development of economy, high-income inequality is essential as it decreases the advantages of economic growth for poor people. The increasing inequality of income and extensive poverty are major issues in the process of development. The key objective for most of the policies on economic growth is to reduce these issues. The previous research studies have used the traditional measures for income poverty, including index of the poverty gap and a headcount ration. However, the measures of human poverty that have become crucial estimators of social development and living conditions have been used in this research. The study has employed the dynamic panel data approach and used the data of 13 years from the period starting from 2004 to 2017. It has been suggested by the empirical analysis, that poverty levels reduce through economic growth in the emerging world. The levels of income poverty and poverty have a downward trend. It is implied by the results of research that the incomes of the poor should not be the only focus on countries to reduce poverty. Instead, there is a need to improve the provision of necessary facilities and an improvement in life expectancy rates to eliminate the poverty levels. Pages 24 to 41




The International Trade, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: ASEAN Perspective

Danial Thaiba, Yusro Hakimahb*, Yolandac, aFaculty of Economics, Institute of Business and Informatics Kosgoro 1957, Jakarta, Indonesia, bFaculty of Economics, Universitas Tridinanti Palembang, Palembang, Indonesia, cFaculty of Economics, Universitas Borobudur, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: b*yusrohakimah@yahoo.co.id"

This research proposes to answer the question as to whether International trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) have effects on economic growth over time in ASEAN or not. International trade is often seen as a catalyst for economic growth. This study will contribute to the current literature studies based on development economics. The research will differentiate between some views on the association of FDI, exports, and economic growth. Second, many empirical studies are based on cross-sectional data covering different groups of countries. Sometimes the critics of those studies ignore the difference between the parametric variation. If a single country is used, the difference should be less than the cross-country analysis and it may get more significant results This paper extends the previous empirical studies on the issue by providing some evidence from time-series data, of the period over 1990-2017, of ASEAN countries. The error correction model is used to investigate the response of the system to economic shocks; the results showed that, the country’s economic growth is influenced by its lagged values of GDP. Finally, this paper draws some policy implications for the further studies to focus on the economic growth in China, to ensure that economic growth would not drop. Pages 42 to 62




Exploring the Nexus between Foreign Aid, Corruption and Economic Growth in ASEAN Countries

Andi Yakuba*, Andi Sessub, Herman Sjahruddinc, Haryonod, aFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia, bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka, Jakarta, Indonesia, cFaculty of Economics and Business, STIEM Bongaya, Makassar, Indonesia, dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Bhayangkara, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: a*andyakub@gmail.com"

The prime objective of the research is to explore the nexus between foreign aid, corruption and economic growth in ASEAN countries. The present research begins by providing background information about corruption as well as its current situation in ASEAN. Afterwards, the previous models used in previous research will be explored, followed by the discussion of data and estimation techniques. Moreover, the next section involves a discussion about the theoretical foundation of corruption models, and present estimation equations, data sources and mathematical derivations. In addition, the current study may also facilitate in spreading awareness regarding corruption and possible policy options for the policy makers to combat corruption in ASEAN. The study has employed a robust statistical analysis on the data covering period from 1985 to 2018. The fixed effect and Granger causality test are used to examine the relationship between foreign aid, corruption and economic growth. Finally, this paper aims to present a summary of the obtained empirical findings, policy implications, concluding remarks and future research direction. The study aims to particularly emphasise corruption’s indirect and direct effects on government expenditure, capital accumulation, economic growth and foreign aid. Pages 63 to 83




E-Learning to Enhance Educational Competitiveness in the Sultanate of Oman

Subrahmanian Muthurmana*, Rengarajan Veerasamyb, Mohammed Al- Hazaizic, a,b,cFaculty Members, Arab Open University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, Email:  a*subrahmanian.m@aou.edu.om"

E-Learning will address the needs of the learners and provide quality programs which enable a basic understanding of the modern world.  At present, most universities and colleges in Oman have either introduced an e-learning plan or have implemented it. Current e-learning programs are severely limited in scope simply because they continue to operate within classroom-based educational paradigms. Diverse digital environments should be created in universities where academics can experiment with technology enhanced learning tools and discuss the pedagogy underpinning their uses, in order to facilitate student engagement. Traditional universities and colleges must transform themselves by adopting e-learning systems which will enable people to study at any university in the world, from home. Recent strategic decisions in the Ministry of Education in Oman have led to plans for developing some online content for every subject in education sectors. These high-quality exemplar modules will inspire future developments and improvement. Pages 84 to 92




Social Capital Contribution and Community-Based Waste Management in the City of Cirebon

Eko Handoyoa, Dewi Liesnoor Setyowatib, Dewi Nurkomalasaric, a,bLecturer at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, cTeacher at SMAN 9 Cirebon, Email: aeko_pkn@yahoo.co.id"  bliesnoor2015@mail.unnes.ac.id", cdewinurkomalasari05@gmail.com"

The rapid population growth in the last decade, was followed by an increasing amount of waste. Community-based waste management becomes one alternative solution to reduce the waste run by the government and society. This study aimed to analyse the implementation of waste management and social capital contribution to waste management. A qualitative approach was chosen to solve the problem. The research location is in the “Secerah Pagi” Community in Merbabu Asih Village, Cirebon City. Community-based household waste management already using the concept of 3R i.e.: Reduce Reuse and Recycle. Waste management activities are coordinated by the “Secerah Pagi” community, which includes composting, manufacturing an organic-waste craft, greening, Trash Bank, making biopori and education. Social capital such as trust, norm, and social networks, which is owned by the society and the Secerah Pagi Community had a significant contribution in creating a healthy and clean environment through community-based waste management. The values developed in the community binds a sense of trust, commitment, and a profitable relationship that waste management is being conducted. The existence of institutional capital, in the form of adequate support from the government of Cirebon, motivates citizens in waste management. Pages 93 to 113




Exploring the Legal System in Saudi Arabia

Awad Ali Alanzia, aAssistant Professor, Department of law, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, 173 Alkharj 11942, Saudi Arabia, Email: adr.awad.alanzi@gmail.com"

This research explores the legal system of Saudi Arabia through different stages of legal system development. The legal system of Saudi Arabia reflects the nation's religious and cultural values. Sharia classifies as one of the fundamental sources of law in the Kingdom, in addition to Statutory Law, and Royal Orders. The basic foundation of Saudi Law is the Ottoman law and Hanbali School of Thoughts. The legal system is reflected in a very minute duality due to the dominance of a few French laws in the basic of Ottoman laws, but Islamic scholars consider these laws alien to the Sharia. The Islamic scholars consider the Sharia as the legislative authority and God is the only legislator. A lot of reforms are taking place in the legal system of the Kingdom according the modern age, but these all are following the basic principles of Sharia. Pages 114 to 123




Adaptive Capability: Capability to Create Innovation and Competitive Advantages of SME’S in the Industry 4.0 Era

Reni Shinta Dewia*, Taher Alhabsjib, Zainul  Arifinc,  Yusri Abdillahd, aDepartment of Business Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, b,c,dDepartment of Business Administration, Faculty of Administrative Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, East Java, Email : a*renishinta@yahoo.co.id"

The main contribution of this research is to explore the adaptive capability of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) as a company’s capability that will increase the competitive advantages through innovation; especially with the occurrence of environmental changes. The analysis of structural equation modelling on 220 samples with the response rate of 56%, was used. The research results show that the adaptive capability has had a positive influence on innovation and competitive advantages. Innovation has become the mediation variable between adaptive capability and competitive advantages. The research finding supports the Dynamic Capability View (DVC) stating that the competitive advantages do not always come from the asset, but also from the capability to keep changing and adapting for environmental changes, through the improvement of innovation. Pages 124 to 143




The Impact of Colour-Drawing in Reducing Behavioural Disorders for Autistic Children: An applied study on a Sample of Autistic Children

Shaimaa Adnan Tayeh Dhiaba, aCollege of Education for Women University of Anbar, Email: amohamed_oday@yahoo.com"

This study aims at realising the influence of using colours in drawing and its role in reducing the behavioural disorders for autistic children while merging them with their peers. The paper used 50 autistic children whose ages range from 5-14 years old including both males and females. The researcher employed certain measurements to gauge the behavioural disorders and considered the autism list of American Association of Psychiatry focusing on the fourth edition from the statistical guide to diagnose the mental diseases (DSMIV) for the year 1994. This list is concerned with diagnosing autistic cases and is composed of four main fields and 15 chapters: the first field is the typical shortcoming of social communication, while the second field is the linguistic shortcoming and the third is samples of redundancy in behaviours, whereas the fourth one is the shortcoming of growth. The outcomes of statistical tests applied on hypotheses have concluded that there is a statistical difference between the ranges of the two groups in which the experimental group takes the lead in reducing the behavioural disorders in the samples under review, with relevance to the first hypothesis and the same is true with the second hypothesis. Pages 144 to 163




The Influence of Leadership, Organisational Structure, and Organisational Culture on the Company Performance of PT NK TBK

R. Luki Karuniaa, aNational Institute of Public Administration (Stia Lan Jakarta), Email: akarunialuki@yahoo.com"

The construction industry is more competitive now. This encourages construction firms, including PT NK Tbk, to further improve their performance. One attempt to do this, is to improve company  performance by improving the function of leadership, organisational structure and organisational culture. This study analyses the influence of leadership, organisational structure and organisational culture on firm performance. To examine these issues, a questionnaire was distributed to 200 employees of PT NK Tbk, who represented all employees in each department. The analysis technique that was used in this study was Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to the part of the Structural Equation Model (SEM), and then it continued to use Multiple Regression Analysis technique to test the relationship between independent and dependent variables. The results of this study indicated that all of the variables, which are leadership, organisational structure and organisational culture, affect company performance in a positive and significant way. The magnitudes of the influence of the variables on the company’s performance are 0.319, 0.425, and 0.454 for leadership, organisational structure, and organisational culture respectively. Therefore, organisational culture has the biggest impact on the company's performance. Leadership is important to win the competition and the ability to implement an innovative strategy in acquiring something new, or new ways in an ongoing basis which will directly affect the efficiency and effectiveness of the company's business processes. Hence, it can encourage better business ethics practices in achieving the goals set by the company. A good organisational structure allows companies to allocate human resources optimally, so that it will improve coordination and make clearer division of tasks and authority, so as to create employee job satisfaction, better internal control, fairer rewards and punishment, more organised work methods, and no job redundancy. On the basis of these results, to increase the company’s performance, the managerial implications that can be suggested are creating and maintaining organisational culture, providing good working facilities to be more productive, implementing labour protection, creating a conducive working atmosphere, and encouraging involvement in organisations and discipline to achieve optimal work performance. Pages 164 to 178




The Reality of the Application of e-learning on the Quality of information: An Applied Study in Alrissala Preparatory School for Girls in Baghdad, Iraq

Firas Adnan Abbas Altabtabaea*, Shatha Abood Shakirb, aUniversity of Al_Qadisiyah Ministry of Education College of Business Administrations and Economics  Dept. of Business Administrations,  bMinistry of Education    Al-Yemen Secondary School for Boys, Email: a*Firas.a.abbas@qu.edu.iq"

This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge about the reality of the application of e-learning for the preparatory school of Alrissala for girls in the capital of Baghdad in Iraq. The application of e-learning is the optimal solution to cope with the technological developments in the sphere of education and in order to achieve this target we have to elevate the reality of teaching by using the technology, face the obstacles and attempt to change through building a distinctive generation  that is able to face the challenges and the environmental changes, especially in the field of education. This research paper used the sample of opinions of the teachers in Alrissala preparatory school for girls in the capital Baghdad, according to questionnaires that have been distributed among 30 teachers. The researcher in this questionnaire has focused on the degree to which the application of the e-learning in the educational environment is implemented, and among the most important results that the paper arrived at is that there is significant statistical relationship for the dimensions of the quality of information (Reality, Contextual, Representation and Accessibility) on  e-learning from another side. Pages 179 to 197




Organisational and Individual Linkages on Employee Performance: A Case Study on State-Owned Enterprises in Indonesia

Purnamie Titisaria, Arnis Budi Susantob*, Iranda Swastikac, a,b,cDepartment of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Jember, Indonesia, Email: aapurnamie@unej.ac.id"  b*arnis.feb@unej.ac.id"

This study aims to examine the relationship between organisations and individuals in the form of organisational climate, organisational support, and self-efficacy on employee performance. This study is a confirmatory study. The population and sample used in this study was 84 employees. Data collection methods were done by interviews, questionnaires and literature studies. The data obtained were then analysed using multiple regression. The results of the research shows that employee performance will get better if the organisation has a good organisational climate, has organisational support for employees and the organisation is able to maintain employee self-efficacy well. This should be a concern for the organisation to be able to improve the performance of it’s employees. Pages 198 to 215




Developing an Electronic Module of Local Wisdom Based on the Area Learning Model at Kindergarten Jambi City

Hendra Sofyana*, Evita Anggereinib, Nyimas Muazzomic, Niken Larasatid, a,cLecturer of Early Childhood Education Study Program, Universitas Jambi, Indonesia, bLecturer of Biology Study Program, Universitas Jambi, Indonesia, dStudent of Early Childhood Education Study Program, Universitas Jambi, Indonesia, Email: a*hendrasofyanpaud@gmail.com"

This research is underlined by technological advancement, which develops rapidly, however, it is contrary to the preservation of local cultural wisdom. Therefore, it needs innovation to equalise both of them by using electronic module local wisdom based on area learning. The purpose of this research is to develop a proper and effective module about area learning at Kindergarten Jambi City. This research used research and development (R&D). The development model used was ADDIE development model (Analysis, Design, Development or Production, Implementation, or Delivery, and Evaluation). For the appropriateness of this module, it was validated by the expert of materials and the expert of media. Material and media validation were conducted at stage II, in which the results are that the electronic module is already appropriate and ready to be used. To know the effectiveness, this model was tried by prospective users. The subjects of the try-out in this research were 63 respondents consisting of 30 students and three lecturers of Early Childhood Education (PAUD) University of Jambi (UNJA), and 30 teachers in Jambi City. The results of the try-out show that the electronic module of local wisdom based on the learning area model at Kindergarten of Jambi City is stated as proper and effective to be developed and used in the learning process. Pages 216 to 231




The Role of Innovation in Improving Small Medium Enterprise (SME) Performance

Titi Kurnia Fitriatia, Dedi Purwanab, Agung Dharmawan Buchdadic, a,b,cState University of Jakarta, Email: atitikurnia_im17s3@mahasiswaunj.ac.id">titikurnia_im17s3@mahasiswaunj.ac.id,  bdpurwana@unj.ac.id",  cabuchdadi@unj.ac.id"

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the innovation variable in improving small-medium enterprise (SME) performance. Also, it will study the impact of dynamic capabilities, knowledge management, and entrepreneurial orientation on SME performance. Then, it will analyse whether innovation can be the mediator variable among the relationship between dynamic capabilities and SME performance, knowledge management with SME performance, and entrepreneurial orientation with SME performance. The research data is obtained  from SME data provided by the government of Indonesia and by distributing questionnaires to 350 SMEs in Indonesia. The analytical method used is correlation and regression to determine the relationship among variables and path analysis to determine the direct effect of dynamic capabilities with SME performance, knowledge management with SME performance, entrepreneurial orientation with SME performance and the indirect effect of innovation on SME performance. The results showed that (1) there was a positive influence of dynamic capabilities with innovation, (2) there was a positive influence of knowledge management with innovation, (3) there was a positive effect on entrepreneurial orientation with innovation, (4) there was a positive influence of dynamic capabilities on SME performance, (5) there was a positive influence of knowledge management on the performance of SMEs, (6) there was a positive effect on entrepreneurial orientation with the performance of SMEs, (7) there was a positive influence on innovation with the performance of SMEs, (8) there was a positive influence of dynamic capabilities on SME performance through dynamic capabilities as mediation, (9) there was a positive influence of knowledge management with SME performance through innovation as mediation, and (10) there was a positive influence on entrepreneurial orientation with SME performance through innovation as mediation. The implication of the findings that the innovation variable which has indicators as product innovation, marketing innovation, process innovation, and organisation innovation plays a crucial role in enhancing the capability of the SMEs. Pages 232 to 250




Enterprise Architecture Planning for E-Government

Hilmi Aulawia, Leni Fitrianib, aDepartment of Industrial Engineering, Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Garut, Indonesia, bDepartment of Informatics, Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Garut, Indonesia, Email: ahilmi_aulawi@sttgarut.ac.id", bleni.fitriani@sttgarut.ac.id"

As technology advances further, the use of information systems in governance is very important in order to support electronic government services. It is applied to make governance untainted and transparent. Therefore, the public's trust in the government will increase. This study is aimed to create a model of enterprise architecture planning, which is in line with the needs of e-government services. The methodology used in this study is Enterprise Architecture Planning which has four stages in its procedures. The research was conducted with a case study of the Garut District Transportation Department. The result of this study is a blueprint for the development of e-government services. The conclusion of this study is producing architectural model designs in general and can be applied to the Department of Transportation. The recommendation for the transportation department is to plan a migration from the old system to the new integrated system. Pages 251 to 270




Community Empowerment in Entrepreneurship Development Based On Local Potential

Sungkowo Edy Mulyonoa*, Joko Sutartob, Abdul Malikc, All Fine Lorethad, a,b,c,dDepartement of Nonformal Education Universitas Negeri Semarang Jl. Sekaran Gunungpati Semarang, 50229, Indonesia, Email: a*sungkowo.edy@mail.unnes.ac.id

Empowerment education is one of the basic needs of economic development and social status in urban society. The purpose of this study is to give the result of training entrepreneurship development skills at the student of equality program PAKET C, based on local potential through training of making wooden watches. The skills given are about the production of wooden watches, and also developing the marketing skills product domestically and abroad. This research uses the descriptive qualitative approach. The descriptive qualitative method can be interpreted as a problem solving procedure by describing the subjects or object situation (person, institution, or society) based on the present facts that appear as they are. Data collecting use observation, interviews and documentation methods to subjects as a key persons and correspondents, and also literature review from relevant research to get the secondary data. The data was analysed using descriptive qualitative. The results of the study are that the student has skills to produce and market the wooden watch from a training programs on PKBM Citra Karya. Based on the program, students can  produce the wooden watches of 10 pieces every month; they also have to market the watches to domestic and abroad. Students can make 4 until 5 million rupiah as the results of the selling process every month. This research provides scientific contributions to the study of nonformal education that leads educational quality in the community. Pages 271 to 283




The Factors that Influence the Skin Care Purchasing Behavior of South-East Asians

Montajula Suvattanadiloka, aFaculty of Administration and Management King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand, Email: amontajula.su@kmitl.ac.th"

This research concentrated on the effect of customer purchasing behaviour in a matured marketing environment. There were 800 participants from Thailand and Laos who answered questions on the advertising influences on their passenger whitening skin care purchases. Earlier research focuses on Thailand and Laos and how much social factors affect their business and purchases. To determine how social factors contribute to purchase intentions, structural equation modelling will be used. Using a structural equation model, the study will allow people to understand how various modifications can be made to influence purchases and thus to learn about social factors. Nationality has also been one of the main pre-existing factors affecting buying behaviour. Furthermore, the findings of this study provide a reference point for academics to conduct empirical confirmatory studies and professional development in cosmetics markets for demographic and cultural factors such as nationality, ethnicity or age. Pages 284 to 305




Innovating Rural: A Comparative Analysis of Community-Driven Rural Innovation in North Sumatera and Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Retnayu Prasetyantia*, Hamidah Rosidanti Susilatunb, a,bSchool of Administration-NIPA, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*retnayu.prasetyanti@gmail.com"

Innovation in a new fast-growing industrial revolution era is crucial as a means to enhance public service quality and achieve development goals, particularly at region context where gaps of development and services commonly exist. Relevant regulations are made as guidance for innovation, yet, such successful innovation practices at region level, especially rural areas, has not been well developed due to complex problems related to rural governance, human capacity, and many other socio-economic issues. By narrowing analysis to a more specific innovation practice in rural areas (rural innovation), this study aims to determine community-driven rural innovation in order to provide an empirical analysis of the importance of community participation in developing rural innovation. The research locations are Sekip Village, North Sumatra and Panggungharjo Village, Yogyakarta. Those two are chosen to represent rural innovation from different contexts both demographically and geographically. This study uses a qualitative method with a comparative-case study approach to provide a comprehensive understanding as lesson learnt of rural innovation practices. By elaborating both empirical data and theoretical frameworks on innovation and community participation, this study focuses on particular aspects of rural innovation, including rural innovation principles (innovation embryo, innovation institution, innovation network, innovation culture, knowledge and technology adjustment), and the Arnstein’s community participation ladder. The significant results of this study showed that Panggungharjo Village has successfully performed all rural innovation principles and made the best use of community participation as the leverage of rural innovation. Meanwhile, at the same time, such practice has not been successfully developed by Sekip Village. The research results concluded that, in Panggungharjo village, significant factors which determine the success of rural innovation are innovation institution and the “delegate power” level of community participation ladder. In contrast, the low capacity of village government in developing innovation institution and the “placation” level of community participation have become the most inhibiting factors in achieving goals of rural innovation in Sekip Village. Pages 306 to 324




An Antecedent, Consequences, and Policies View of Cyber Loafing among Students

Mohmmad M.Dmoura, Hanif S.Bakarb, Mohammad R.Hamzahc, a,b,cJalan Wang Ulu Arau, Sg. Chuchuh, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Email: amohmmaddmour24@gmail.com bhanifsuhairi@unimap.edu.my  crezal@unimap.edu.my

As the Internet has brought a lot of benefits to the education environment, the Internet also creates new problems that were not found before such as cyberloafing. Cyberloafing is defined as students’ behaviours or tendencies to use the Internet for a personal purpose unrelated to class during class time. In this paper, the researcher will show the demographic areas and the factor that effects on the students to attraction to cyberloafing from the previous studies have been shown consciences of cyberloafing in both of students and universities. Finally, this paper will present some of the strategies and suggestions to control and reduce cyberloafing in the universities. This paper describes cyberloafing among students in a comprehensive way and it will help the researchers, and anyone interested in cyberloafing to get comprehensive descriptions for cyberloafing among students. Pages 325 to 338




The Effect of Professionalism, Auditors Human Resource Competency and Executive Follow Up Commitment on Internal Auditors Performance

Erwin Hadisantosoa, Made Sudarmab, Mediatyc, Yohanis Rurad, Kurniatye, Arnis Budi Susantof, aHalu Oleo University, bBrawijaya University, c,d,eHasanuddin University, fUniversity of Jember, Email: aerwinhadisantoso@uho.ac.idbmade@mtd.co.id">made@mtd.co.id,  cunhasmediaty@gmail.com  drurayohanis@fe.unhas.ac.id ekurniaty@pasca.unhas.ac.id",  farnis.feb@unej.ac.id

This study aims are to test and analyse (i) the effect of auditors professionalism on internal auditors performance; (ii) the auditors human resources competence on internal auditors performance; (iii) the executive follow-up commitment on auditors performance; (iv) the auditors human resources competence on auditors performance through the auditors spirituality dimension; and (v) the executive follow-up commitment on auditors performance through the auditors spirituality dimension. This is an explanatory research with a quantitative approach. The population is internal auditors and Supervisors at a Local Apparatus Work Unit (LAWU). Samples are 172 auditors. Data was collected by questionnaires and analys using a structural equation model (SEM) with AMOS software, 21.0. The research results showed that auditors professionalism and auditors human resource competence have insignificant effect on auditors performance. Executive follow-up commitment has a significant effect on auditors performance. Auditors HR competence has significant effect on auditors performance through spirituality variables. Executive follow up commitment has significant effect on auditors performance through auditors spirituality. Pages 339 to 362




Antecedents of Customer Satisfaction in E-Service Transactions

Harris Siddique Tahira, aAssociate Professor, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, KSA,

This paper addresses how online service quality is linked to customer satisfaction using four alternative operationalisations of the service dimensions. The study found that: expectation-perception variables were not highly reliable, simple overall measures of service quality outperformed independent service dimensions for all models, the only significant individual predictors were sense of internet community and site customisation. Internet buyers are not greatly sensitive to individual service dimensions, as buyers are more sensitive to the transaction outcome than process. A halo effect across service dimensions was also found. Satisfaction was linked to cognitive, affective, and conative loyalty but not behavioural loyalty. Pages 363 to 379




Consensual Democracy: A Challenge for Differentiated Citizenship

M. Dian Hikmawana, aDepartment of Government, Faculty of Social and Political Science. Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Email: adian.hikmawan@untirta.ac.id

This research aims to explore the consensual democracy model which has many weaknesses in practicing democracy, including diversity of ethnicity, groups, social andeconomic status, race, culture and so on. These became a challenges for consensual democracy. Nowadays, the multi-extreme-identity and the oppression from dominant groups creates a gap in the daily-life of citizens. Using qualitative methods and a phenomenological approach, this research aims to describe and perceive the majorities and minorities gaps as citizens in consensual democracy. The phenomenon of domination and gap in power relations as citizens try to elaborate using an inclusion-differentiated model of policy is discussed. This research also perceives how the ideology and power relation has a deep impact to the public discourse, moreover the majority rules as a policy to distribute the power for the different citizens just made citizens excluded from their public sphere. The findings from this research are domination and oppression caused by this gap must be approached by recognition. The ability to recognise must be expanded in public discourse through policy and power distribution, which is offered in this research, including how the government approaches to perceive the multi-extreme-identity not only put all the policy in majority but also make a different policy for different citizens to distribute equally. Pages 380 to 396




Investigating the Determinants of Academic Entrepreneurial Intention: Evidence from Indonesia

Setyo Ferry Wibowoa, Dedi Purwanab,  Agus Wibowoc*, a,b,cFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: c*agus-wibowo@unj.ac.id

This study explores the impact of university environmental factors and personal factors of faculties on academic entrepreneurial intention. We contend that entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial culture as part of the university environment affect the attitude and intention of faculties to involve in academic entrepreneurial activities. We also investigate the effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on academic entrepreneurial intention. This study involved 130 faculty members of a public university in Indonesia as the respondents. To analyse the association among variables, SEM-PLS was employed. The results supported the argument about the role of orientation, culture, attitude, and self-efficacy as the determinants of academic entrepreneurial intention. The implication of the results is also discussed. Pages 397 to 417




The Effect of OECD Principles of Corporate Governance on Social Responsibility Accounting

Yousef Shahwana, aAccounting Department, Zarqa University, Jordan, Email: ashahwanyousef@yahoo.com

This study aims to examine the relationship between the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance on social responsibility accounting disclosure (SRAD) in Jordanian companies listed in the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). The questionnaire and annual reports were both employed to collect the information from 104 companies in financial, services, and industrial sectors. SmartPLS3 was used to analyse the data. This study found that there is a relationship between the principle of the role of stakeholders, the principle of the rights of shareholders and key ownership functions and social responsibility accounting disclosure at p-value 0.029* and 0.022* (one tail) respectively. While there isn’t a relationship between the other principles with social responsibility accounting disclosure. Therefore, it is recommended that Jordanian government should formulate a policy which will further encourage the listed companies toward social activities and their disclosure. The findings will no doubt be useful to the Jordanian policy makers, the board of directors, and other stakeholders in both ASE listed and unlisted companies. Pages 418 to 431




Profitability Determinants of Islamic Private-Owned Banks and Conventional State-Owned Banks in Indonesia

Taufika, Yulianib,  Agung Putra Raneoc, Reza Ghasarmad, Mohamad Adame*, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Economics, Sriwijaya University, South Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: e*mr_adam2406@yahoo.com

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of profitability determinants i.e. capital ratio, loan, size, deposits and credit risk of Islamic private-owned banks and conventional state-owned banks in Indonesia from 2012 to 2017. The population was 11 Islamic private-owned banks and 6 conventional state-owned banks. Based on the criteria of purposive sampling technique, a total sample of 12 banks was obtained (6 Islamic private-owned banks and 6 conventional state-owned banks). A multiple regression analysis was applied. The findings indicated that capital ratio, size, deposits and credit risk did not affect profitability of Islamic private-owned banks but loan positively did. The results also proved that capital ratio, deposits and credit risk did not affect profitability of conventional state-owned banks but size positively did. All profitability determinants of the two kinds of banks had no mean difference except credit risk. Due to the limitations of this research, it is recommended for further research to add other related variables of profitability determinants. Pages 432 to 450




Impacts of Service Quality, Satisfaction and Trust on the Loyalty of Foreign Patients in Malaysian Medical Tourism

Ahmad Aljumaha, Mohammed T. Nuseirb, Aminul Islamc, a,bCollege of Business, Alain University, Abu Dhabi Campus, P.O. Box 112612, Abu Dhabi, UAE, cSchool of business innovation and technopreneurship University Malaysia Perlis Perlis, Malaysia, Email: aAhmad.aljumah@aau.ac.ae"  bMohammed.nuseir@aau.ac.ae"  cAmin@unimap.edu.my"

Medical tourism is one of the fastest-growing tourism sectors in the world generally and in Malaysia specifically. The main aim of this study was to examine the moderator’s effect on the role of trust; trust on the influence of satisfaction and foreign patient’s loyalty. In addition, satisfaction as mediation between service quality and foreign patient loyalty in Malaysia medical tourism. The study generated quantitative research, questionnaire data collection purposes, 640 questionnaires were distributed to foreign patients in Malaysia. From this number, 389 responses were finally found usable for analysis, which showed a 60% response rate. Data was analysed using the partial least Squares–structural Equation Model PLS-SEM. Overall, the findings showed that service quality significantly related to foreign patient loyalty in Malaysia. A further result of the moderators’ role show that trust is a success moderator between satisfaction and foreign patient loyalty. Also, satisfaction showed a positive result between service quality and foreign patient’s loyalty. Furthermore, this study contributes to the theory by validating the attributes of Theory of “Self-Regulation of Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviours” regarding customers intention to stay longer in order to create a solid relationship with Malaysian hospitals. Pages 451 to 467




As the World Turns: Men Left Behind Due to the International Migration in Indonesia

Misbah Zulfa Elizabetha, Irwan Abdullahb, Tyas Retno Wulanc, Ririh Megah Safitrid, Muhammad Darwise, a,dFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, State Islamic University of Walisongo, Semarang, Indonesia, bDepartment of Anthropology, Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, cDepartment of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, General Soedirman University, Purwokerto, Indonesia, dState Institute of Islamic Studies, Palopo, Indonesia,

Studies of women's migration have generally focused on two important elements, namely their economic contributions and their experiences as migrant workers (particularly the abuses that occur during migration and employment). Few studies have focused on men, particularly those who are left behind by migrant workers (80 percent of whom are women). This article explores the social processes experienced by men as a consequence of women's mobility and ability to work abroad. It shows that the labour migration of women challenges the patriarchal structures and concepts of their communities and their cultures. As the idea of a "male breadwinner" is eroded, fundamental transformations occur in their status and their social ordering. Through its examination of the male perspective, this article emphasises the need to understand migration as part of a broader social transformation, and that men also require protection as such transformation occurs. Pages 468 to 478




Traditional Sundanese Games as Play Therapy for Traumatic Risk Reduction of Child Earthquake Victims: A Cultural and Psychological Study

Nani Darmayantia*, Dian Ekawatib, Ani Rachmatc, a,b,cFaculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, West Java, Indonesia, Email: a*n.darmayanti@unpad.ac.id

This research aims to investigate the Sundanese traditional games that could be used as Play Therapy for reducing the traumatic risk of children after natural disasters; especially earthquakes. In addition, the main purpose of this research is to describe the types of Sundanese traditional games in regards to their roles as Play Therapy which are based on the local genius of the Sundanese. The methodology used in this research is qualitative ethnography. The theories employed in this research from the cultural sciences focus on Sundanese language and psychology. The results of this research show that there are five traditional Sundanese group games that have potency as Play Therapy which can be used to reduce the traumatic risk for child earthquake victims. Those games are suitable to be played in natural disaster areas since they do not use media in the playing process. Furthermore, the games are also able to develop the attitudes of cooperation, socialisation, fitness, support one another, strategies, problem solving, anticipation, happiness, and emotion control. The values and characters during and after playing could be used as therapy for the children, i.e. to resolve resistance, open communication and socialisation, redevelop creativity and problem solving, and rebuild the positive emotion of the children. Pages 479 to 494




Political Roles of Actors in Indonesian Vocational Education: A Case Study in South Sulawesi Province

Yasdin Yasdina, Amirullah Abduhb, Bakhrani Raufc, Email: ayasdin@unm.ac.id bamirullah@unm.ac.id  cbakhranirauf@unm.ac.id

 a,b,c The Universitas Negeri Makassar 

The purpose of this research was to explore the key roles of each actor who is actively involved in vocational education. A case study research design is applied to this research. Data were collected by using in-depth interviews from 15 actors in vocational education. The 15 participants represent key actors in vocational education including legislative members, executive members, business and industry, educational agents, and teachers’ associations in vocational education. The findings of the study reveal that the actors have been grouped into four categories based on their roles. The four categories of actors play different roles in facilitating the development of vocational education sectors. More importantly, the four actors agree that facilitating the key budgetary and policy for vocational education can foster the development of the vocational education sector to meet the demands of local, regional and national industries. The implication of this study is that the executive and legislative actors should establish mutual partnerships to mediate the flow of collaboration among interested parties and stakeholders in vocational education. The different roles found in this study can be a model and reference for actors in establishing reciprocal partnerships in vocational education. This study can contribute to the debate of vocational education nationally and internationally. Pages 495 to 505




Building a Proposed Model for Knowledge Management in Iraqi Universities: Babylon University Model

Ihsan Ali Al Ramaha, aGeneral Secretariat of the Central Library, University of Babylon, Iraq, Email: a*alihsanhl@gmail.com

This study aims to extrapolate some of the global models of knowledge management and then build a proposed model for knowledge management in Iraqi universities; specifically in the University of Babylon. The study then recommendeds to implement the model to serve as a quantum leap in knowledge  management and as a gateway to the economy, which was built on knowledge. Pages 506 to 519




Orientalists’ Position on the Collection of the Holy Quran: An Analytical Study

Saad Kadhom Abed ALjanabia, Mustafa Kamel Mohammedb, a,bCollege of Education, Qadisiyah University, Iraq, Email: aalganabisaad@yahoo.com bMustafa_iraqi999@yahoo.com

Among the most prominent issues of Islamic history is the issue of the collection of the “Holy Quran”. Due to the multiplicity of opinions surrounding it, “Holy Quran has received considerable attention from historians, jurists and interpreters. This is what made Orientalists pay great attention to it in their studies, as this group is known for their tendency to focus on thorny issues in our historical and intellectual heritage. Very few of them have come up with proposals that achieve objectivity, which is one of the most important qualities of an historian. Pages 520 to 532




Accept us or Reject us for Who we Are: Zadie Smith’s ‘White Teeth’

Mishaal Harb Mkhailefa*, Maytham Abed Alrazzaq Abbasb, a,bMinistry of Education, Thi-Qar General Directorate of Education, Email: a*mishaalrawan@gmail.com

Post World War II, numerous colonised countries retrieved their liberty from the British colonisation subsequent to the United Kingdom withdrawing to reinforce and regain its strength. The millions of people that were affected by the war turned to Britain, making it a multicultural country. Yet this confusion of the nation’s identity made many immigrants struggle to keep their history, heritage and identity intact. Zadie Smith’s White Teeth (2000) addresses the issues of the past, present and future English superiority against the immigrant inferiority as the people were forced to leave their homes to establish a new home. This study will be textually limited to Zadie Smith’s White Teeth (2000). Theoretically, this study will be limited to the concept of identity by Homi Bhabha (1994) and national identity by Anthoney D. Smith (2001). This study will examine the concept of identity and national identity in a multicultural country; it will also investigate the process of settling and assimilating minority immigrants. Finally, this study will highlight the cultural confusion and immigration struggles to reclaim their own heritage, culture and history. Pages 533 to 546




The Dialectical Constant and Variable in the Poem of the Statue (Elia Abu Madi) Structural Reading

Inas Kazem Shanbaraa, aDepartment of Quranic and Linguistic Studies, Faculty of Islamic Sciences, Islamic University, Babylon, Iraq,

The linguistic structure consists of thirteen houses built on a well-structured linguistic system in which linguistic intent is evident, and is based on a regular vertical structure in the presentations (Long Sea) that have been judged in the rhyme of indicating belonging, identity and stability. The poetic structure is divided into two structures: the first is the structure of dialogue and spans four verses, based on the pattern of mutual dialogue and prevarication between the parties of the individual narrator and the group. This structure has been dominated in the past (82%). As time refers to stability, the past cannot be changed. Consistency emerges in the structure of the grammatical structure. Throughout the dialogue, the structure begins with the following system: conjunction, past verb and actor. The narrator starts from stillness to rhetoric. The structure of a set of dichotomies is revealed including strong / weak, constant / variable, rich / poor, benefit / damage, night / morn, sun / moon. The statue is embodied in the person of the cleric at a time when the clergy have been exemplary. The poet Elia Abu Madi wanted to invalidate the prevailing idea in an attempt to break the continental cultural system. Pages 547 to 561




The New Trends in English Language Testing

Najm Abdullah Burhana, aCollege of Education, Maysan University, Iraq, Amara, Email: anajm.www@gmail.com

The field of language education is changing at an ever-increasing rate. Traditional notions of education are giving way to newer, more innovative ways of thinking about how we learn, teach and acquire knowledge. This article makes hot spot about new trends in English language testing that have supplemented English teaching and testing in authenticity and literacy such as reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills of students. English is the only valid language that can be understood by everyone all around the world. Students learn faster and easier than before because of the use of technology in schools. If students are trained during their school years, they have the chance of becoming experts in technology. It is proved by the research that has occurred; early beginnings are always beneficial, and there are new trends without using technology. Through this research, these new trends will be discussed. Learning English and using new trends in education in schools makes students willing to learn the language. The aim of this study is to review new trends in English learning activities that are being used by instructors and learners recently. The study was conducted on the base of a literature survey. We need it in different fields of life. This research report has been prepared to help educational teachers understand current trends in language education. This work is by no means exhaustive. It is, rather, a meta-analysis of the trends that can be identified based on current research. Its intention is to stimulate discussion, provoke thought and generate reflective responses. It is worth stating that one assumption underpinning this research is that students and their needs, hopes and aspirations must be kept at the heart of language learning and education. Readers are encouraged to share this report with colleagues, use it as pre-reading material for professional development sessions and staff meetings. Pages 562 to 572




The Heroic Role of the Poet in Whitman's Works in Light of Martin Heidegger

Kamran Ahmadgolia, Maher Abdulhameed Alasadib, a,bKharazmi University, Tehran, Iran, Email:aahmadgoli@khu.ac.ir,  k.ahmadgoli@gmail.com

Purpose: The current article is to explore Whitman's concept of the hero and to scrutinize poets as suitable models of heroes depending on Heidegger's thoughts reflected in his works. It will show Whitman's ideas regarding the function of poetry in the modern societies that poets are the vanguard of humanity who can lead people to a new understanding of being especially in the time of destitution where there is a steady longing for a security and a need for authenticity.  Methodology: Various lines and texts from Whitman’s literary works, namely Leaves of Grass and Democratic Vistas, will be examined to extract Whitman’s concept of the heroic role of the poet. This concept will be read through Heidegger’s lenses. The study will consult different texts from Heidegger’s literature to explain his theory of the hero and the role of the poet in the modern nations. Literature from other critics and scholars will be consulted to enrich the topic.   Implications: Because people engage in the inauthentic materialistic world, subjugated to subjectivism, live in the mystery of being, perish in the mystery of everyday life, and lose the way towards truth, poets can lead people to an authentic life and unconcealed truth of being through their authentic poetic language according to Heidegger. Findings: The study concludes that we can read Whitman's perspective through Heidegger's lenses and conclude that poets are the only mortals who can take the place of the priests and politicians in the modern societies and leads people to find the reality of life. Pages 573 to 590




Appropriating Hawthorne: The Fourfold Symbols in the Scarlet Letter

Kamran Ahmedgolia, Sameer Abd AL Hussein Hassanb, a,bKharazmi University, Tehran, Iran, Email: asameerhassan926@gmail.combahmedgoli@khu.ac.ir

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s the Scarlet Letter unmistakably is a realistic novel, but its central themes take on profound symbolic value. The purpose of this article is to decipher the primary symbols in the novel The Scarlet Letter and to come up with an appropriate understanding of these symbols and what they stand for. For this purpose, the article is inspired by a number of scholars who address the significance of the symbols from different perspectives. The general contours of these scholars can increase our understanding of the nature and function of symbols in human culture and henceforth navigate our way around the symbolic territory of the novel, exploring each one separately. In doing so, we are prompted to offer an appropriate interpretation of the symbolic language embodied in Hawthorne's plot creativity. Pages 591 to 600




Eid Festival (Mihrajan) and Its Effect on Arabic Literature until the End of the Abbasid Era

Ali Kadhim Ali Almadania, aUniversity of Al-Qadisiyah, College of Education, Email: aali.kadhem@qu.edu.iq

One of the most important things produced by the cultural interaction between neighbouring peoples is the transmission of customs, traditions and social manifestations that permeate the general culture and affect them clearly. Persian festivals had an important presence in the cultural life and Arabic literature of the Abbasid period in particular due to the interplay between the two cultures of that era. This study tries to understand the festival, the second most important holiday after Nowruz in Persian culture. He entered the Arab society and became one of his celebrated occasions. Here we try to find out its origin, and how it enters into Arab society, and then try to touch its impact in Arabic literature until the end of the Abbasid era. Pages 601 to 616




Digital Marketing Adoption Influenced by Relative Advantage and Competitive Industry: A UAE Tourism Case Study

Mohammed T. Nuseira*, Ahmad Aljumahb, a,bDepartment of Business Administration, College of Business, Alain University, Abu Dhabi Campus, P.O. Box 112612, Abu Dhabi, UAE, Email: a*Mohammed.nuseir@aau.ac.ae bAhmad.aljumah@aau.ac.ae

The prime concern of this study entails the tourism industry of UAE to determine the presence of the digital marketing phenomenon. The study focuses on digitalisation of marketing aspect and its usefulness for any industry. The present research examined the influential factors for adoption of digital marketing strategies to become competitive in a rapidly changing environment. The study examined the direct and moderating affect of agile marketing between independent and dependent constructs. The results of study depicted that relative advantage as independent constructs of the study significantly influence the digital marketing adoption but the competitive industry doesn’t influence the adoption of digital marketing as it observed to be insignificant. The moderating effect of agile marketing was observed in both moderating hypotheses, that agile marketing moderate the relationship between relative advantage, competitive industry and digital marketing adoption. The study suggests adopting latest technological advanced equipment and applications to approach customers with cost effective and efficient manners to gain long-term competitive advantages. Pages 617 to 631




Development of Press Sites for Media Departments and Online Public Relations in Universities

Adheem Kamel Zriziba, Thaan Ismail Rasheedb, a,bCollege of Arts, University of Babylon, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq,

The communication and media map in the light of digital communication has brought about drastic changes in the priorities of the press organisations and the public. The presence and excellence in this communication umbrella has become a priority for countries, societies, institutions, groups and individuals. The digital characteristic of most human societies, including those of developing countries, has become an investment in the online environment is part of the communication axioms to achieve communication with the public. Media and public relations departments in universities have websites and social pages and electronic accounts, but the problem lies in the extent of investing the Internet environment and the use of its websites to win the support of the target audience on the one hand and achieve its objectives on the other. This study reached a vision to develop the performance of media and public relations departments in universities by investing the Internet environment by opening groups of electronic portals related to the overall activities of universities and the needs of different communities Pages 632 to 638




The Impact of Financial Development on Activating the Banking Sector in Iraq (Econometrics Study)

Sahar Kareem Kataa, Maiami Salal Sahebb, Amel Asmar Zaboonc, a,b,cEconomics Department College of Management and Economics University of Al-Qadisiyah, Alqadisyah, Iraq, Email: asahar.kata@qu.edu.iq  bMaiami.alshukri@qu.edu.iq  cAmel.zaboon@qu.edu.iq

The research aims to investigate the impact of financial development on the activation of the banking sector in Iraq for the period from 1996 to 2015. The research was based on a standard multivariate model, as the Philips-Perrion Test and the Johansen test were used. For the sake of testing the time series of research variables and analysing joint integration among them, a basic hypothesis has been put forward for research that financial development positively affects the activation of the Iraqi banking sector in a manner that is commensurate with the rapid and successive changes and developments accompanying the modern business environment, and has been applied in a sample of Iraqi banks, as the focus was on Rafidain and Rashid and other banks in the country. For the sake of testing the research hypothesis, a standard multivariate model based on the self-regression model was used during the specified slowdown period. After analysing the impact between the search variables, a group was reached. One of the results was the most important which was the availability of the basic ingredients to achieve financial development in Iraqi banks in a manner that is appropriate for the modern business environment and the rapid and successive changes accompanying them, as the financial development helps in activating the Iraqi banking sector as well as improving the quality. Banking is offered to customers a way that helps to meet the needs and requirements of customers. Pages 639 to 659




Lamenting as a Dominant Speech Act in Riders to the Sea

Akram Hamid Hamzaha, Zahra Hasan Jasimb, a,bGeneral Directorate of education /Babel, Email: aakram198290@gmail.combah_stars2002@yahoo.com

Aran Islands in the north of Ireland are populated by the fishermen community whose life struggle continues with the dominant natural force of sea. Tragedy is a common aspect in the lives of these men and their speech reflects expression of emotion of suffering and agony. J. M. Synge as a recognised Irish dramatist dramatises the sufferings of the Irish fishermen through the play ‘Riders to the Sea’. It is a brief, one-act play, with straight forward action that engages the reader with questions of how death affects individuals and families. The sea on which the family is dependant has brought death to the family and his sons. Maurya, the mother, the central figure, is the great sufferer who has lost her husband and six sons. Murya and her two daughters are desolate and give vent to their grief through speech acts of lamenting. It is essential to make a linguistic pragmatic analysis of the contextual potentials of the utterances dealing with their emotions on account of the tragic events that they encounter. The present paper is an attempt to make a pragmatic study of lamenting in the play and to see how the speech act dramatises the sufferings of the poor women and how the dramatist makes heavy use of the lamenting speech act. Pages 660 to 672



American Policy: The Direction of Indonesia during the Period (1967-1968) in the Light of Documents Regarding the American Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Sabla Talal Yassin Abdel Khadera, aDepartment of History, College of Arts, University of Basra, Iraq,

The United States had excellent relations with Indonesia in the period following the fall of Ahmad Soekarno, the first president of the Republic of Indonesia and the assumption of the rule of General Muhammad Suharto temporarily. Although the latter did not receive training in the United States, the United States relied on him during the period of research, especially as he was acting governor in Indonesia during the period (12 March 1967 until March 1968). The topic of research during the period is the wisdom of the proxy, which was determined only because this period witnessed a change in US policy towards Indonesia and increased economic assistance to them dramatically. Pages 673 to 689

The News of the Christians in the visions of IBN Rif'ah (645-710 AH / 1247-1310 AD.)

Warood Nouri Hussein Al-Moussawia, aDepartment of History, College of Education, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Email: a*D.wroodnoore@gmail.com

This topic deals with the news of the Christians in the visions of Ibn Al-Rifaa, who wrote a book entitled: Valuables in the evidence of the demolition of the churches, as he is one of the important religious scientific figures in the Mamluk era (648-923 AH). He is one of the pillars of the science and the most prominent intellectual, and to reach this rank and graduate it scientifically with what is recognized as a wonderful intellectual achievement is reflected in his remarkable scientific position and the ongoing praise of many scientists, thinkers and historians over time. He wrote many religious and jurisprudential books, including "measurement and scale" and "rank in the application of the supervision. He issued many fatwas and some of them singled out the Christians, especially in the construction of churches and restoration. He was subjected to both rejection and acceptance particularly in the case where he refused to demolish any church built before the Islamic conquest and others supported the demolition of churches built after the Islamic conquest, where this incident happened as a result of the arrival of the Christians of arrogance in their treatment with Muslims, especially the people of Egypt; this resulted in fatwas. Pages 690 to 706

Cross-Sectional Transformation in the Structure of Verbs When Assigned To Pronouns in the Light of Modern Morphology

Ashraf Adnan Hassana, Nizar Abdel Latif Saberb, a,bFaculty of Islamic Sciences, University of Babylon, Iraq,

This research aims to study the cross-sectional structure of verbs when assigned to pronouns in the light of modern exchange laws, and to show the voice changes in the acts assigned to those pronouns. This will be achieved through a presentation of what was said by the applicants in the changes in the structure of the verbs and compared with what was said by the modernists; especially the voices of them, The research concluded a number of results, including: 1. The pronouns that make a change in the structure of the verb are the pronouns, and there are other pronouns already related, but they do not change in their structure, the pronouns of the monument, if these pronouns are already connected they do not change in the sectional composition; they are related suffixes.. 2. The change in the composition of the syllabus of any action based on the basis of ease and facilitation; to get rid of difficult sections, and replace them with other sections, does not require a large muscle effort. 3. One of the reasons for the change in the syllable composition is the formation of unacceptable passages in Arabic, such as the sequence of two summits in one syllable. The change in the structure of the verb when assigned to pronouns may be in quantity or in-kind and maybe in both. 5. The most formed syllables after assigning verbs to pronouns are the short open section (r + h), the long open (r + h + h) and the long-closed (r + h + r); because they are the lighter pronouns and do not require a large muscle effort. 6. The syllable composition of the verbs after assigning them to the pronouns of the long silent closed section (y + h + h + y), as well as the long section, closed silent (y + h + y + y)requires a greater muscular strain than other sections that are lighter on the tongue. Pages 707 to 720

Levels of Linguistic Deviations in Dickens’  “Hard Times”

Wesam Sarmed Hussaina, Hasanian Hasan Shaheedb, Asaad Qahtan Najimc, a,b,cDepartment of English, College of Basic Education, University of Babylon, Ministry of Higher Education and scientific Research, Babylon, Iraq,

Dickens’ Hard Times is abundant with many kinds of linguistic deviations to such extent that they might be considered as one of the most prominent stylistic markers in the novel. They have been explored throughout this paper according to the various levels of linguistic analysis: phonological level, syntactic level, morphological level, lexical level, and the semantic level. Furthermore, the deviations scored throughout this paper are employed specifically for literary aesthetic purposes. Although the deviations are not confined to one level at the expense of the others, they have been characterised by various degrees in terms of their limits of deviance and aesthetic employment. Consequently, some levels of deviation have been grounded against the others insofar as the aesthetic function is concerned. Pages 721 to 733

Bull Symbolism in Ancient Iraqi Thought

Iman Lafta Husseina, aDepartment of History, College of Education, University of Qadisiyah, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq,

The symbolism of the bull occupied a great place in ancient Iraqi thought. This status was made clear by its appearance on the artistic remnants since the Alliance era (5th millennium BC), with the forms of rattles and pottery drawings mentioned on its head or its horns, which I think gives the idea of the beginning of the bull in religious beliefs. The bull's paintings and sculptures have also appeared on various artistic productions of the civilizational roles of Mesopotamia and throughout the ages, and in all parts of the northern and southern countries. The paintings of the bull also appeared on stone and bone, pottery doll models, milk and even musical instruments (Lyre), as well as on cylindrical and flat seals, and clay figurines (winged bulls). This symbolism was manifested as representing religious situations, rituals and religious rites and different rituals including the symbol of power, fertility, reproduction, great gods, a symbol of divinity, wisdom, balance and protection from evil spirits, and other symbols like those in the ancient Iraqi mythology.  Pages 734 to 749

Structures of the Condition in the Words of Imam Hassan Mujtaba

Jabbar Ihlayyil Zghayira, Hashem Jafar Husseinb, aCollege of Education for Humanities, Wasit University, Iraq, bCollege of Education for Human Sciences, University of Babylon, Iraq

The syntax of the condition is one of the methods most frequently used in linguistic analysis. The concept is linked to cause and effect, two concepts that are closely related to the everyday life of the language user, as most of its functions are causal and have desired results. The field of this research is to study this composition in its various types in the words of Imam Hassan al-Mujtaba as a linguistic code in the highest degree of eloquence, belonging to the limit imposed on the linguistic extrapolation on which the rules and provisions were established, but from which linguists have distanced. The Code and others were an important reason for the lack of extrapolation of linguistic evidence under which the linguistic system was adopted. After extrapolating the study material, it was divided on a preamble that included the structure of the condition in the linguistic use, and then three topics, the first lesson: the original composition of the condition in the words of Imam Hassan Mujtaba, and the second: the non-original structure of the condition in the words of Imam Hassan Mujtaba, and a third: the repetition of conditional sentences in the words of Imam Hassan Mujtaba and then the conclusion of the most important search results, and a list of sources and references are presented here. Pages 750 to 760
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