The Use of the ASSURE Model in Developing Animation Video as English Teaching Materials for Islamic Kindergarten Students

Zubaedia, M. Arif Rahman Hakimb*, Asiyahc, a,b,cFakultas Tarbiyah and Tadris, Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN) Bengkulu, Indonesia, Email: b*arifelsiradj@iainbengkulu.ac.id

Based on preliminary studies conducted by researchers,  many Islamic kindergartens found that it is difficult to find suitable teaching materials for the students and the teachers. Similar problems were expressed by teachers in several Islamic Kindergartens in Bengkulu, Indonesia. The finding of this study was a teaching material product in the form of animation developed using ASSURE model that has gone through the stages of needs analysis, development of teaching materials, expert validation, try-outs, and final revisions. In the teaching material that has been developed, the researchers also included Islamic content which is based on the results of tryouts that have been conducted in five Islamic kindergartens in Bengkulu. This product received a positive response from teachers and students and proved useful in completing and covering shortcomings teaching in several Islamic education institutions for early age learners as the research location. Pages 1 to 19




Exploring Javanese Interpersonal Communication using the Catur-Atahiktri Approach: the Four Basic Values of Javanese Interpersonal Relationships

Muhammad Iqbala, Agus Surosob, Wiwiek Rabiatul Adawiyahc, aPhd Student, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Indonesia, b,cProfessor, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Indonesia, Email: asweetiqbal96@gmail.com,   broso.fe2014@gmail.com,  cwiwiekra@gmail.com

This paper examines and validates Javanese interpersonal communication's dimensionality. A survey of 120 Batik employees was conducted. The new construction of Javanese interpersonal communication is stated to be built and tested. At the first point, preliminary form development, in-depth interviews, reviewing prior theoretical and empirical research in the field of interpersonal communication is constructed. During the second stages, item generation, content validity testing and construct validity assessment is accompanied to examine the dimensionality of the proposed construct. At the final stage, we employed reliability and validity information. Our results validate Javanese interpersonal communication as a multidimensional construct comprising of (a) Narimo (giving in), (b) Ngalah (accepting all things in life with gratitude), (d) Empan papan (place consciousness) and (d) Andhap Asor (humbleness/modesty). The research results contribute to a better understanding of the dimensionality and drivers of interpersonal communication based on catur-atahiktri approach. This can help managers to enhance their corporate strategies to build harmony among employees in a Javanese community working environment. Pages 20 to 36




Willingness to Communicate in a Foreign Language: the Factors Affecting Students with a High English Ability in the Higher Education Classroom

Sylviaa, Gunadi Harry Sulistyob, Safnil Arsyadc, a,bState University of Malang, Indonesia, cUniversity of Bengkulu, Indonesia, Email: asylvia.1702219@students.um.ac.id,  bgunadi.hs@um.ac.id,  csafnil@unib.ac.id

While there are ample studies on willingness to communicate (WTC) that do not specify the subject characteristics of the studies, a study on low willingness to communicate focusing on the factors of students with a high English ability is needed. This study investigates WTC factors in 110 EFL students majoring in ELT in Indonesia with low WTC and high English ability using a mixed-method approach. After assessing the inferential statistics, the partial and multiple regression analyses were applied to know the variables. To get more comprehensive data about the positive and significant variables, deep-interviews were carried out on the selected students. The findings show that the WTC factors are influenced by some conditions such as confidence and classroom environment. It is suggested that WTC factors for the subject characteristics are required to be carried out by other antecedents, propensities and contexts. Pages 37 to 52




The Use of Malaysian Phonology in Developing a Malaysian Mouth-chart for the Animation Industry

Nur Safinas Albakrya*, Mohd Ekram Alhafiz Hashimb, Norzalina Noorc, Mohd Hafiz Che Othmand, a,b,c,dUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*nursafinas@fskik.upsi.edu.my

Referring to previous studies, it has been found that mouth-charts refer to the mother tongue and the spoken language of a place and environment. In animation, a country's mouth-charts are  different because of the language, the way it is spoken and the way it expresses symbols and objects in the form of speaking. According to pilot studies and observations on animation studios, this paper found that references to mouth-charts are widely used from western and other Asian countries by doing a little bit of improvising on these animated characters. This paper, concerns of this phenomenon and proposes a study of the mouth-chart for Malaysian animation as a reference. Phonology theory and viseme are integrated to recapitulate how the correct pronunciation refers to the native language and the mother tongue in the Malaysian context. This paper accumulates a set of mouth-charts that were obtained through visual analysis by experts and translated through animated characters. Arising out of this the mouth-charts suggest the first research phase before being used as a design and reference for the animated character's mouth. Pages 53 to 74




Value In Exchange: The Importance of User Interaction as the Center of User Experiences

Ramlan Jantana, Norfadilah Kamaruddinb, Shahriman Zainal Abidinc, Tajul Shuhaizam Saidd*, Harozila Ramlie, a,d,eUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia, b,cMara University of Technology (UiTM), Malaysia, Email: d*tajul@fskik.upsi.edu.my

In this era of technology, the co-creation approach has become a new development trend. In light of this, most design businesses have transformed their development strategy from being goods-dominant into service-dominant, where more attention is given to the end-users and their roles in the development process. As a result, the conventional development process is being replaced with a more cooperative one. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to explore the extension of the co-creation method in the design development process. Most studies have focused on issues found during the production process. This study aims to investigate potential values established during the pre-production process, known as the ‘unique value proposition’. User involvement is questioned and crucially debated at the entry level of the pre-production process in the provider sphere, where the creation of value in-exchange took place. Thus, this paper proposes a potential framework of the co-creation approach for Malaysian interactive multimedia development. The framework is formulated from both parties involved: the users and designers. The framework will clearly give an explanation on the value of the co-creation approach and could assist relevant design industries/companies in developing a blueprint for the design process. This paper further contributes to the literature on the co-creation of value and digital ecosystems. Pages 75 to 83




Contemporary Malay Dance in Singapore – Riding the Waves of Change

Muhammad Fazli Taib Saearania*, Azrin Abdul Rahimb, aDepartment of Performing Arts, Faculty of Music and Performing Arts, Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia, bAKSI – Regional Arts & Cultural Academy Limited, Goodman Arts Centre, Singapore, Email: a*fazli@fmsp.upsi.edu.my

Malay dance in Singapore has evolved dramatically since the birth of the nation in 1965. However, Malay dance itself has a long history stretching back hundreds of years in the Malay Archipelago with Arabic and Portuguese influences shaping the various dances over the centuries. This research aims to capture the moment when the paradigm shift occurred and the subsequent transformation of the Malay dance scene in Singapore. One of the aims of this research is to record the evolvement of Malay dance for the preservation of Malay cultural heritage as part of Singapore’s history for future generations.  As the researchers try to record the paradigm shifts that have taken place in Malay traditional arts, the researchers are reminded of the centuries of unwritten history that have been inherited from our forefathers. This tradition of the oral dissemination of history could have been the reason why important milestones in the Malay traditional and performing arts have not been recorded and are difficult to trace. There is now a sense of urgency to record the plethora of evidence of shifts and movement in Malay dance in Singapore which plays a vital role in the nations’ cultural landscape. It is hoped this article could be an impetus for the social recapitalization of Malay traditional arts in Singapore. This article, “Contemporary Malay Dance in Singapore – Riding the Waves of Change” is an extract from a study by the same researchers about the “History of Malay Dance In Singapore.” This article specifically demonstrates a paradigm shift in the 1980’s which was the period of change for Malay Dance in Singapore.  It also highlights some of the problems that have arisen in relation to change and growth. Pages 84 to 101




Development and Validation of the Music Education Teaching Practice E-Supervision System Using the Google Classroom Application

Mohd Hassan Abdullaha*, Mohd Azam Sulongb, Mahayuddin Abdul Rahimc, a,b,cFaculty of Music and Performing Arts Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak Malaysia, Email: a*mohd@fmsp.upsi.edu.my

Teaching practices have been regarded as one of the most important components of a teacher training program that will produce quality beginning teachers. One of the most important elements of teaching practice is supervision. Currently, In Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia, supervision is conducted by the supervisor only two or three times for each teaching practice session. This leads to the questions regarding the effectiveness of the way to guide the trainee efficaciously. Through these processes, both supervisors and trainees have faced many problems and constraints which include factors of distances, time and budget constraints, as well as supervisory skills. This study aims to develop a complete teaching practice e-supervision system in music education using the Google Classroom application to complement face-to-face supervision currently in practice. This experimental case study utilized a mix of qualitative and quantitative study design. Research data was obtained through document analysis, focus group discussions, interviews, observations and questionnaires. The E-Supervisory Teaching Practice System has undergone expert validation before being implemented in a real setting during the session involving music education teachers, trainees, and supervisors. The results were analysed and triangulated to see their usefulness and the impacts on their teaching practice. The findings of this study can be used by various institutions of higher learning, policymakers, and stakeholders involved in teaching practice especially music teachers. Pages 102 to 116




Practices of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) In Teaching Islamic Studies in Malaysian Public Universities

Ibrahim Hashima*, Syakirah Samsudinb, aFaculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia, bFaculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia, Email: a*ibrahim@fsk.upsi.edu.my

The needs of 21st century skills among students are very crucial in facing the demand of the nation and the world. It is also important that these skills align with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Malaysian Education Blueprints – Higher Education (MEB-HE) in developing and enhancing students with interpersonal skills focussing on critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaborative and creative and innovative Islamic Studies have always been seen as a discipline that has been preserved and the delivery of the knowledge is also expected to be conventional and traditional. This study was conducted to identify the Problem-Based Learning implementation in selected public universities and the lecturer perceptions on PBL. A total of 298 questionnaires have been filled out by students. A total of 10 lecturers were interviewed to identify their perceptions on PBL implementation. The questionnaires items were analysed descriptively for percentage in identifying students’ perceptions and interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically to identify the lecturers’ perceptions. Results showed positive perceptions on PBL implementation in Islamic Studies. Suggestions to improve the PBL implementation are also discussed. Pages 117 to 129




Social Media and High Academic Achievers' Learning Experiences

Norlaile Salleh Hudina, Noraine Salleh Hudinb, aFaculty of Management and Economics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak Malaysia, bFaculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak Malaysia, Email: anorlaile@fpe.upsi.edu.my,  bnoraine@fsmt.upsi.edu.my

Purpose: The study aims to explore the experience of using social media in the learning process of high academic achievers. Methodology: A qualitative approach was employed by interviewing 10 final year high academic achievers from pure science and social science programs in a Malaysia public university. Data was analysed by using a thematic analysis.  Main Findings: The findings revealed that social media was mainly used as supporting sources to increase students' understanding of a lesson. However, most of the participants agreed that social media contents, particularly peers' academic achievements and motivational quotes, increased their motivation to study and obtain high academic achievement.  Applications: The universities could optimize their social media platform by highlighting individual students' achievement through good narration and photos that could develop intrinsic motivation to learn among students. Novelty/Originality: This study extends the current literature about social media and learning experience among students by focusing on high academic achievers perspectives.  Pages 130 to 142




The Influence of Total Quality Management and Transformational Leadership on Teacher Quality in Malaysian Secondary School

Mohd Rahimi A Rahmana, Mohamed Yusoff Mohd Norb*, Jamallulail Ab Wahabc,  Azlin Norhaini Mansord, aTunku Syed Idrus Secondary School, Tampin, Malaysia  b,c,dFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia, Email: b*yusoff1963@ukm.edu.my

This study aims to examine the influence of total quality management and transformational leadership on teacher quality in secondary schools. This study used a cross-sectional survey to collect data from 423 secondary school teachers from all over Malaysia. Data was collected using questionnaires adapted from Total Quality Management Instruments (Zhang, Waszink, & Wijngaard, 2000), Multi-Factor Leadership Questionnaire (Avalio & Bass, 2004) and Malaysian Teacher Standards Instruments (MOE, 2008). This study used Multiple Regression to determine the relationship between variables. Simple random sampling procedures and proportional random sampling were employed in this study. The results portrayed that reward is the best total quality management practice that influence teacher quality. Whereas idealized influence as in leadership dimension influences dominantly on teacher quality. Therefore, the practices of rewarding and implementing charismatic leadership styles are encouraged to improve teacher quality in Malaysian secondary schools. Pages 143 to 158




The Influence of Organizational Governance Factors in the Implementation of the National Dual Training System (NDTS)

Sariyah Adama, Mohamad Sattar Rasulcb*, Ruhizan Mohamad Yasinc, Rose Amnah Abd Raufd, Ahmad Rosli Mohd Nore, a,b,cFaculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia, dFaculty of Education, University of  Malaya, Malaysia, eCommunity College of Masjid Tanah, Malaysia, Email: b*drsattar@ukm.edu.my

The National Dual Training System (NDTS) is a co-operative training program conceptualized in a real working environment. This study aims to examine organizational governance influence on industrial involvement in the of NDTS programs. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 15 industry representatives with a pre-set constructs derived from literature review which are leadership, commitment, trust, and coordination were used.  The findings revealed that the way leaders make decisions, commit, interact, and share creates a sense of trust to establish a cooperative relationship. In conclusion, how a leader in an organization and industry decides, is committed to giving and receiving information, effectively communicates and shares positive values, establishes trust and effective coordination elements. Thereby affecting organizations and industries to establish cooperative relationships. Pages 159 to 179




Smile Reflection: Social Development of Peers in Indonesia

Ady Ferdian Noora*, Sonedib, Siti Irene Astuti Dwiningrumc, Haryantod, Muhammad Nur Wangide, Erika Sarif, a,c,d,eYogyakarta State University, Indonesia, bMuhammadiyah University of Palangkaraya, Indonesia, fUniversitas Nahdatul Ulama Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, Email: a*ady.ferdian@umpalangkaraya.ac.id

Organized education has direction and purpose. The implementation of good education to teach and educate individuals must be imbued with five noble values of the Indonesian nation's life outlook. Individuals, as social beings, always learn and interact with peers. The objective of this research is to analyze the social development of their peers outside of school and family settings to determine an individual's social development. The research method is a meta-analysis of the literature   in various journals and books from exisiting research. The results of that study the behaviour of individuals affect peer relationships both positively and negatively on social development. Pages 180 to 198




A Study of Visual Impairment in the Art Creation Process Using Clay

Nur Fajriea*, Tjetjep Rohendi Rohidib, M. Syakirc, Ibnan Syarifd, Arif Suryo Priyatmojoe, a,b,c,d,eUniversitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia, Email: a*nur.fajrie@umk.ac.id,  btrrohidi@mail.unnes.ac.id,  ckirmuharrar@mail.unnes.ac.id43,  dibnans@mail.unnes.ac.id,   earifsuryo@mail.unnes.ac.id

The focus of this study discusses art activities conducted by visually impaired people in a Social Rehabilitation House (Panti Rehabilitasi Sosial). This study uses a technical approach and clay material using as an agreed theme. The research process was directed by the creativity of art in aesthetic activities, processes and artworks, and sensitivity of the participants. The artwork was presented through collaborative researchers with the experiences of five participants who were visually impaired and had different characteristics. The fruits, which became the theme, generated artworks based on their favourite form, scent, and curiosity. The intensity of sensitivity could be seen in the activities of holding, recognizing, identifying objects and expressing opinions. The nature of the clay material created a re-creation process of art-making techniques that produced quality from the elements and principles of art. Artworks using clay material produced the media of expression-communication-actualization in a non-verbal way. The aesthetic role of the visually impaired participants was affected by complexity in the sensitivity of individual experiences and cognitive abilities. Pages 199 to 218




Home Economics Education: A Subject for Moral and Character Building in Junior High School Students in Indonesia

Asih Kuswardinaha*, Dyah Nurani Setyaningsihb, Sita Nurmasitahc, a,b,cDepartment of Home Economics, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Kampus Sekaran, 50229, Indonesia, Email: a*asih@mail.unnes.ac.id

Home economics, as an education subject, became the main option for junior high school students in Indonesia before the year 1960. The material is aimed at fostering morale and strengthening the character of learners. However, in 1997, home economics was replaced by a creating handcraft subject.  This study aims at forming an academic argument for the reinstatement of home economics in Junior High School’s 2013 curriculum. Additionally, this study looks at the feasibility of the justification for ten values in home economics as book material for Junior high school. This case study involved 103 home economics teachers in Junior High School in Central Java. The data was collected using questionnaire and forum group discussion. Research results show the following responses from teachers for the reinstatement of home economics as a subject: 14% (14 teachers) "strongly agree" and 71% (73 teachers) "agree", and 15% (16 teachers) "neutral". The followings are the responses from the teachers concerning the inclusion ten values in home economics as book material for Junior high school: 33% (34 teachers) rate "very feasible", and 57% (58 people teacher) "feasible", and 10% (11 persons) “somewhat feasible”. The inclusion of ten values is appropriate to foster morale and character education. Pages 219 to 237




The Lesson of Mbah Maridjan: The Locksmith of Merapi Mountain to Face the Threat of Eruption

Septian Aji Permanaa, aUniversitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Jalan PGRI I, Sonosewu No. 117, Yogyakarta, 55182, Indonesia, Email: aaji@upy.ac.id

This research aims at revealing the society’s perception towards the Merapi Mountain and understanding the lesson of Mbah maridjan to face the eruption of the mountain. This research employs a qualitative approach to reveal the perception of society regarding the Merapi Mountain. The respondents, or the informants, of this research are the family of Mbah Maridjan and the inhabitants of Cangkringan as the place where Mbah maridjan lived, and carried out his life-activities. To collect the research data, observations, interviews, and documentation were conducted. The gaining data will be analysed using a descriptive analytic model. The results indicate that the society has the perception that Merapi Mountain is a sacred place.  It is the centre of the spirit in the Java Island.  Mbah Maridjan was known as an elder, not because he is more than 80 years old, but because he possesses the spiritual capabilities. He is the role model of others, because of his big responsibilities.  He is more as the ship captain. A captain will not leave his ship, no matter happens, he will prefer to sink and die with the ship. Mbah Maridjan, as the locksmith of Merapi Mountain, insisted not to leave Merapi when it began to give signs of eruption. In his heart, he prefers to die because of the ash clouds in the slope of Merapi rather than leave it. Pages 238 to 251




Merapi’s Sacred Advice as a Warning of the Volcanic Eruption Disaster

Septian Aji Permanaa, aUniversitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Jalan PGRI I, Sonosewu No. 117, Yogyakarta, 55182, Indonesia, Email: aaji@upy.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to analyze the perception of the society against the eruption of Merapi, to find a system and mechanism of Merapi's sacred advice as the local wisdom of the society for preparedness in facing the threat of its eruption, and to discover the concept of inheritance of Merapi's sacred advice as a form of  disaster education for society. This research uses a qualitative approach. The informants in this study are people from the Cangkringan society, the caretaker of Mount Merapi, and the officers of Yogyakarta Regional Disaster Management Agency. The data collection techniques are conducted by observing and interviewing the participants. The collected data is analysed using domain, taxonomic, componential, and cultural themes analysis techniques. The results showed that the people have a perception in understanding the threat of Merapi eruption, namely, the Cangkringan society trusts the advice obtained from traditional stakeholders more than the volcanology agency. With this Merapi advice, it is expected that the society can be more prepared to take a stand independently and spontaneously (leadership) in facing the threat of Merapi’s eruption. The contents of Merapi's sacred advice are local ideas that are full of wisdom, good value, and are embedded in the society to answer various problems. Pages 252 to 266




Sufism Ethics in Javanese Aristocracy: A Historical Perspective

Muhammad Iqbal Birsyadaa, aUniversitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Jalan PGRI I, Sonosewu No. 117, Yogyakarta, 55182, Indonesia, Email: aiqbal@upy.ac.id

Sufism, in the Javanese tradition, has been practiced since the beginning of the XV and XVI centuries and was carried out by preachers from abroad. This tradition became stronger after the Islamization process by the Wali Songo who synthesized and adapted it between the ideas of Islam and the local culture. The implication of this action was more on the emergence of the synthesis of mystical Islamic patterns of teaching rather than on the Syariah of Islam. Mystification was the form of objectificationthat was  carried out by the preachers so that they were able to articulate the values of internal Islam doctrines while considering the local wisdom as their external factors. Since then, the historical journey indicated that the objectification process and the internalization of the values of Sufism in this practice were  not always conducted by the preachers, in this case, the santri, who originated in the pesantren tradition. The priyayi or the Javanese aristocrats were not less creative in constructing the idea of Sufism with the local wisdom values. In the XIX century, Mangkunegara IV was a Javanese aristocrat who was successful in constructing Sufism within Javanese patterns of society. The results of Sufism could be seen from some of the pieces of literature written by Mangkunenegara IV. One of which  was Serat Wedatama. The Sufi spirit of Mangkunegara IV could be seen from the teaching of catur sembah, which was rich in Javanese ascetic values. Meanwhile, the form of Javanese puritanism could be seen from the teaching of tri prakara, which were wiryo, arto, and winasis. Pages 267 to 286




Factors Affecting Smartphone Demand in Indonesia

Amir Macmuda*, Yusuf Murtadlo Hidayatb, a,bFaculty of Economic and Business Education. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia Jl. Dr.Setiabudhi No. 229, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: a*amir@upi.edu,  byusuf.murtadlo@upi.edu

This study aims to analyze the factors that affect mobile phone demand in Indonesia. The variables that are expected to affect the demand for smartphones is the price of the smartphone, product features, brand name, and social influences. The study method used is an explanatory survey with data collecting techniques of interviews and questionnaires distributed to 200 respondents who have made a purchase of smartphone product in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The characteristics of respondents include gender, level of education, income level, and brand of smartphone used.  The collected data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. The results show that smartphone demand in Indonesia is 68.3 percent influenced by product features and social influences, while the remaining 31.7 percent is influenced by price and brand name. This finding implies that consumers in Indonesia who are choosing a smartphone place less consideration in price and brand,. This condition demonstrates implications for the smartphone manufacturers who should pay attention to the completeness of product features. Pages 287 to 299




Antecedents of Tourist Loyalty in Health and Wellness Tourism: The Impact of Travel Motives, Perceived Service Quality, and Satisfaction.

Warangkana Thawornwiriyatrakula , Supawat Meepromb*, aDepartment of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Business Administration, Khon Kaen University (Nong Khai Campus), Thailand, bDepartment of Hospitality and Event Management, Faculty of Business Administration and Accountancy, Khon Kaen University (Khon Kaen Campus), Thailand, Email: b*supame@kku.ac.th

This study attempts to contribute to theory and practice by examining the role of travel motive, perceived service quality, tourist satisfaction and revisit intention in the context of health and wellness tourism. The study relies on primary data collected from international tourists travelling for health and wellness reasons in Phuket, Thailand. Data was collected using convenience sampling and a self-administered approach. The findings indicated that the relationships of travel motive with perceived quality of service and satisfaction were positive and significant. Furthermore, the results revealed that perceived quality of service and satisfaction to tourist loyalty were also positive and significant. The additional analysis also provided for testing the mediating effect of perceived quality of service and satisfaction on the relationship between travel motive and revisit intention. Pages 300 to 315




The Moderating Role of Subsidy Removal on Factors Influencing SMEs Tax Compliance in Yemen

Mohammed Mahdi Abd Obaida, Idawati Ibrahimb, Noraza Mat Udinc, a,b,cTunku Puteri Intan Safinaz School of Accountancy, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, Email: amohammedmahdiuum@gmail.com,  bidawati@uum.edu.my,  cnora896@uum.edu.my

Taxes are very important sources of government revenue and have been described by authorities as a very reliable source of funding for economic and social development. Although the government of Yemen has made a lot of effort to generate adequate tax revenue, tax compliance remains significantly low among SMEs and this has a negative effect on government revenue. The role of political instability, zakat payment, and subsidy removal in tax compliance among SMEs has not be investigated. These issues are very important and could have a strong influence on tax compliance. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between political instability, zakat payment, and tax compliance cost with subsidy removal as a moderator of these relationships. The survey technique was utilized with questionnaires administered to 490 owners-managers of SMEs in the Yemeni manufacturing industry. Analysis was conducted on the data retrieved from respondents utilizing the SPSS and PLS software. Results from the analysis indicates that zakat payment and political instability have a significant positive relationship with the decision to comply or otherwise among SMEs. On the contrary, tax compliance cost has a negative influence on tax compliance. Furthermore, political instability positively and significantly influences tax compliance.  It was also found that subsidy removal moderates the influence of political instability on tax compliance behaviour among SMEs. The findings of this research have vital policy implications that the tax authority can use in maximizing tax revenue generation and encouraging tax compliance among SMEs in Yemen and other Gulf countries. Pages 316 to 338




Academic Procrastination, Self-Esteem, and Self-Efficacy in First-Term University Students in the City of Lima

Dennis Arias-Cháveza, Teresa Ramos-Quispeb, Klinge Orlando Villalba-Condoric, Julio E Postigo-Zumaránd, aUniversidad Continental, Arequipa, Perú, ORCID, bUniversidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Perú ORCID, cUniversidad Católica de Santa María, Perú, dUniversidad Continental, Arequipa, Perú, Email: adarias@continental.edu.pe,  btramosq@unsa.edu.pe,  ckvillalba@ucsm.edu.pe,  djpostigo@continental.edu.pe

The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between academic procrastination and self-esteem and self-efficacy in university students in metropolitan Lima, 2019. The population consisted of 5,800 students, from which a sample of 566 subjects was extracted (283 male, 283 female), aged between 16 and 19 years. The study subjects were selected from the first two terms of 5 universities (4 private and 1 public) in metropolitan Lima. The following instruments were used: The Academic Procrastination Scale (APS), the Specific Perceived Self-efficacy Scale of Academic Situations (SPSSAS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the same that evidenced having psychometric properties of reliability (the method of applying internal consistency) and construct validity (an exploratory factor analysis was performed). The results show that there is a relationship between self-esteem and academic procrastination as Spearman’s correlation is -.163, the effect size is 0.4037 and the statistical power is 1.00. While the ratio between procrastination and self-efficacy is -.220, the size of the effect is 0.4690, and the statistical power exceeds 0.80, obtaining the value of 1.00. It is concluded that in both cases there are very weak type correlations. However, the effect size is large and the statistical power is very high. Pages 339 to 357




The Characteristics of Academic Plagiarism in Four Universities in the City of Arequipa: A Comparative Study Conducted on Male and Female Students

Dennis Arias-Cháveza, Teresa Ramos-Quispeb, Klinge Orlando Villalba-Condoric, Julio E Postigo-Zumaránd, a,dUniversidad Continental, Arequipa, Perú, bUniversidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Perú, cUniversidad Católica de Santa María, Perú, Email: adarias@continental.edu.pe,  btramosq@unsa.edu.pe,  ckvillalba@ucsm.edu.pe,  djpostigo@continental.edu.pe

The objective of this study is to characterize academic plagiarism in male and female students from four universities in the city of Arequipa, Peru. The sample consisted of 1370 students, including 717 females (52.3%) and 653 males (47.7%). A  questionnaire was distributed to the students with closed questions that evaluate the behaviours and perceptions about academic plagiarism from a multidimensional point of view. A quantitative approach to cross-sectional descriptive design was proposed. The results indicate that, regarding behaviour towards academic plagiarism, there are similarities in the answers given by both females and males, who stated that “once” they had behaviours related to plagiarism in the university. Regarding the perception of this phenomenon in basic processes of citation and referencing of the sources used, there were some differences between the genders. The survey concludes that both female and male students show similar behaviours and perceptions regarding situations related to acts of academic plagiarism. Pages 358 to 373




Self-Efficacy and Academic Procrastination: A Study Conducted in University Students of Metropolitan Lima

Dennis Arias-Cháveza, Teresa Ramos-Quispeb, Klinge Orlando Villalba-Condoric, Luis Miguel Cangalaya-Sevillanod, aUniversidad Continental, Arequipa, Perú, bUniversidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Perú, cUniversidad Católica de Santa María, Perú, dUniversidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Perú, Email: adarias@continental.edu.pe,  btramosq@unsa.edu.pe,  ckvillalba@ucsm.edu.pe,

The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and academic procrastination in university students of Metropolitan Lima, in the year 2019. The sample consisted of 712 subjects, including 344 male and 368 female subjects between the ages of 16 and 21 years old selected undertaking their first two terms at 7 private and public universities in the city of Metropolitan Lima. The sample was evaluated with the Specific Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale of Academic Situations (EAPESA) and with the Academic Procrastination Scale (EPA). Both instruments evidenced having psychometric properties of reliability, according to the internal consistency method, and construct validity through exploratory factor analysis. The results show that there is a relationship between self-efficacy and academic procrastination since Spearman’s correlation is -.139 and the effect size is 0.373. The statistical power is 1.00, so it is concluded that the results can be generalized to the entire population of university students in the city of Lima. Pages 374 to 390




The Role of Perceived Value and Gratitude on Positive Electronic Word of Mouth Intention in the Context of Free Online Content

Peter D. Samadaraa, Jappy P. Fanggidaeb*, a,bBusiness Administration Department, State Polytechnic of Kupang, Kupang, Indonesia, Email: b*fjappy@yahoo.com

The present research aims to examine the connection between perceived value and positive e-WOM intention, the moderating role of business model knowledge, and the mediating role of gratitude in the relationship. The data was collected through self-administrated survey procedure and analysed with hierarchical regression analysis to assess relationships between the constructs. The study contributes to the limitation of literature regarding electronic word of mouth and its antecedents in the context of free online content. Pages 391 to 405




Correlation between Religiosity  and Student Achievement Motivation in Islamic Education Science Students

Mohammad Muchlis Solichina, Achmad Muhlisb, a,bInstitute Agama Islam Negeri Madura, Email: amuchlissolichin@iainmadura.ac.id,  bachmad.muhlis@iainmadura.ac.id

This paper aims to understand the correlational relationship between religiosity and the motivation to overcome. To achieve that goal, I use quantitative research using parametric statistical testing techniques in the form of associative hypotheses using Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient analysis. The population of this research is the students of the Islamic Religious Education Study Program, Faculty of Islamic Education, Madura State Islamic Institute, which consists of 215 people in six classes. Researchers took samples of each class, as many as 135 students based on gender, school origin, regional student origin, using proportional random sampling techniques. The results show that religiosity is positively and significantly related to student achievement motivation of 0,000, meaning that because the value is 0,000 <0.05, it can be said that there is a relationship between religiosity and achievement motivation of 0.572. So there is a positive influence between religiosity on achievement motivation of 0.572 or 57.2%. Pages 406 to 420




Implementation of Alter Ego Shareholders and Their Responsibilities According to the Piercing the Corporate Veil Doctrine in Indonesia

Sandy Nugrohoa*, Bismar Nasutionb, Zulkarnain Sitompulc, a,b,cUniversitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email:  a*sandy_nug@yahoo.com

The application of the piercing the corporate veil doctrine can be carried out in cases such as fraud, inadequate capital, failure to fulfil the formality of company establishment, and abuse of authority within the company as a result of the dominance of one or more shareholders (alter ego). The method used in this paper is a normative juridical approach by comparing the common law system with civil law, in addition this writing also approaches the legal synchronisation both vertically and horizontally to the responsibilities of shareholders in the company. Data was obtained through library research. The results found that regarding the principle of accountability of shareholders in the company a conflict of legal norms occurred, on the one hand, the legal norms regulated in Article 3 paragraph (1) of Law Number 40 Year 2007 concerning Limited Liability Companies stipulates that limited liability companies are only responsible for the limited capital included in the company, on the other hand, it requires shareholders not only to be responsible for the amount of shares owned, but they can be responsible for exceeding their shares as regulated in Article 3 paragraph (2). In addition to the conflicting legal norms, there is also a blurring of norms in the Limited Liability Company Law concerning alter ego criteria related to the pooling of shareholders and company profits, or there is no separation of wealth between shareholders and corporate entities. Furthermore, in the Law on Limited Liability Companies in Indonesia, there is also a legal vacuum to apply the piercing doctrine of the corporate veil to hold the shareholders accountable for which the consequences of such acts leads to acts against the law. Pages 421 to 429




Implementation Model of Tourism Village Policy to Enhance Community Participation at Meat Tourism Village Toba Samosir North Sumatra

Erika Revidaa, Hadriana Marhaeni Muntheb, a,bUniversitas Sumatra Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email:  aaerikarevida@yahoo.com,  bbhadrianamunthe@yahoo.com

The aim of the study was to analyse an implementation model of tourism village policy to enhance Community Participation at the Meat Tourism Village Toba Samosir, North Sumatra. The specific purposes of this study were to analyse the influence of the content of the policy and the environment policy of a tourism village on  community participation. The research methods of the study were quantitative and qualitative . The samples of the study were the community (head of family). The informants were the bureaucratic apparatus, tourists, tourism activists, community leaders at Meat Tourism Village Toba Samosir North Sumatra. Data collection was by documentation study, research instruments, observations, interviews, focus group discussions and triangulation. The data analysis used descriptive techniques and multiple linear regression analysis, data organisation, reduction, interpretation and finally conclusions of the study were made. The results showed that there was a positive and significant influence between the implementation content of tourism village policy and policy environment on the community participation at Meat Tourism Village Toba Samosir, North Sumatra. The implementation model of tourism village to enhance community participation was made up of content of policy, policy environment, sense of belonging, the willingness of policy implementors, and the commitment of policy implementors. Pages 430 to 444




Teaching Multiculturalism based on Islamic Historical Relics in Northern Java

R. Suharsoa*, Wasinob, Dewi Liesnoor Setyowatic, Cahyo Budi Utomod, a,b,c,dSocial Studies Doctoral Study Program, Universitas Negeri Semarang Taman Siswa Street, Semarang City, Central of Java, Indonesia, Email: a*harsohapsoro@mail.unnes.ac.id

This research aims to analyse the development of multiculturalism knowledge based on Islamic historical heritages in northern Java. The questions of this research are 1) what is the condition of Islamic historical heritages in Northern Java? and 2) how is   student's multiculturalism knowledge developed? This project was carried out using a grounded research design (Strauss & Corbin, 1997). This research involved 40 students  from social science education classes and was carried out  in junior high schools in northern Java. The research data collection was conducted through in-depth interviews and participant observation. The data obtained were analysed using the critical discourse analysis (CDA) approach. The important findings of this research are that: 1) Islamic historical heritages in northern Java have the potential of multiculturalism constructed by past events; 2) multicultural potential is a symbol of religious tolerance and the culture of first generation  Islamic propagators in Java; 3) the learning of social science originating from historical heritages is able to develop awareness, idealism, and multiculturalism knowledge of students. This research recommends that social science learning can accommodate the students to study surrounding historical heritage buildings  as the source of multiculturalism learning. This relates to the preservation of historical heritages, the transmission of values, and the regeneration of agents for tolerance in society. Pages 445 to 463




Nexus between Anthropogenic Activities and GHGs Emission in India: An Empirical Analysis

S K Mishraa*, M K Sarangib, P K Mishrac, a,bAssociate Professor in Economics Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Odisha, India-751030, cProfessor in Economics, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India-151001, Email: a*skmtite@gmail.com

The worst consequences of environmental degradation are realised  all across the globe and environmental sustainability is, thus, the call of the day. Consumption and production activities to fulfil human wants pollute all the means of sustainability through exhaustion and overexploitation of scarce natural resources. This empirical study tries to establish the nexus between anthropogenic activities and GHGs emissions, using ARDL based bound test for India over a period of 44 years spanning  1971 to 2014. The study reveals that fertility rate, population density, Economic Growth, and consumption of primary energy have a positive and statistically significant impact on the emission of GHGs both in the short and longrun. Pages 464 to 481




Students' Creative Thinking Ability and Thinking Schemata in Cool-Critical-Creative-Meaningful (3CM) Learning

Wahyudia, SB. Waluyab, Hardi Suyitnoc, Isnartod, aFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Indonesia, b,c,dMathematics Education, Postgraduate Program, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: ayudhi@staff.uksw.edu,  bs.b.waluya@mail.unnes.ac.id,  chardi.suyitno@mail.unnes.ac.id,  disnarto@mail.unnes.ac.id

To be creative is the highest competence in the newest Bloom’s taxonomy that must be achieved by everyone, including student teachers. This research aims to 1) describe the 3CM learning model  and ability  of creative thinking skills in solving mathematics problems, 2) describe the student teachers’ pattern and skill of creative thinking in solving mathematics problems, 3) find out the schemata pattern in creative thinking according to the level of creative thinking. This research uses mixed method and explanatory sequential design. The population is the student teachers for elementary school. The quality of learning is determined from expert validation, a practicality test and an effectivity test (paired sample T-test). Ability and creative thinking patterns was measured by triangulation method with test, observation and interview techniques. The result shows 1) the 3CM learning model is effective and gave student teachers the opportunity to think creatively in a systematic manner, 2) the skill of student teachers’ creative thinking is various according to the schemata structure that they possess, whether it was a formal, content,  or linguistic schemata, 3) the schemata structure of the student teachers is various, viewed from the level of creative thinking. Pages 482 to 498




Career Development Management of Higher Education Lecturers in Indonesia, a Case Study at STKIP Bina Bangsa Getsempena Banda Aceh

Suryadia, Isthifa Kemalb, Eddy Setyantoc, Reza Rachmadtullahd, aUniversitas Negeri Jakarta, bSTKIP Bina Bangsa Getsempena, cUniversitas Indraprasta PGRI, dUniversitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya, Email: asuryadi@unj.ac.id,  bisthifa@stkipgetsempena.ac.id,

The purpose of this study was to determine the management process of lecturer resources in Indonesia. This research is focused on the career development of university lecturers in Indonesia. Data were collected by interview, observation and documentation study, then analysed qualitatively. As for data analysis techniques, descriptive-inductive and reflective models are specifically used in this study. This research was conducted at STKIP BBG Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The results of this study are the management of career development of lecturers carried out in higher education. Management of career development of lecturers rests on the visions and missions of the institutions to become superior universities. Pages 499 to 515




Does Teacher Certification Promote Work Motivation and Teacher Performance? A Lesson from Indonesia

Bambang Suratmana*, Siti Sri Wulandarib, Jaka Nugrahac, Bagus Shandy Narmadityad, a,b,cFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia, dFaculty of Economics Business, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*bambangsuratman@unesa.ac.id

Over the past decade,  an increase in teacher performance covering various contexts may be noted. This study attempts to examine the role of teacher certification on teacher performance in Indonesia. In addition, this paper also provides work motivation and its impact on teacher performance. This study applied a quantitative research method using linear regression analysis. The research was conducted by observing the certified teachers  at vocational high schools in East Java of Indonesia. The sample of this research was approximately 297 certified teachers  at vocational high schools in East Java. In addition, the sample was determined using proportional random sampling. The data were gathered using questionnaires given to the respondents with five scales criteria. Furthermore, the data were analysed using linear regression analysis. The findings showed that teacher certification positively affects work motivation. Indeed, teacher certification also positively impacts  teacher performance. Pages 516 to 525




The Role of Entrepreneurship Development towards Socio-Economic Growth in Society: The Hungry Man Restaurant Case Study- WUSE II – Abuja, Nigeria

Abdoulrahman Aljounaidia, Siti Maisara Binti Mohammad Jafreb, Ayman H. M. Uzrailc, aHead of Management Sciences Department, Faculty of Finance and Administrative Sciences, bFaculty of Information Management, UITM Puncak Perdana, Selangor, Malaysia, cDirectorate of Education-Salfeet, Email:  aabdulrahman.ramez@mediu.edu.my,  bmaisara.jafre@mediu.edu.my,  caymanuzrail@gmail.com

Purpose – The aim of this research is to study and explore the entrepreneurship role in the development of the socio-economic growth of the society by using the hungry man restaurant, Abuja Nigeria as a case study. This research attempts to find out if the role of entrepreneurship in Nigeria is important, as well as to highlight the use of entrepreneurship in an economy, investigating government involvement in the country's entrepreneurship development. This study of the government's deliberate strategy or regulation, introduced and enforced at all levels in the federation, was designed to promote the development and growth of entrepreneurs in society. Design/methodology/approach – the study uses a compilation of primary and secondary analysis to obtain quantitative details. Taking on a statistical test performed through X,2 the hypothesis shows that perhaps the government's inconsistency in delivering significant support for areas of business has led to economic instability.  Findings – the research concluded that the best form of business which touches the average life of the poor in the society is entrepreneurship. That poverty will always exist is a fact that cannot be disputed even in advanced countries; the depth and magnitude of poverty could be appropriated but not totally eradicated. Through the appropriate mix of programs, some of which  have been executed  by the small scale enterprise, where poverty is conceived as a broad problem that’s due to lack of money or even lack of food security, additional structures, education services,  health care needs, technological development, provision of social amenities’ etc. should also be considered as ways in which poverty can be alleviated in the country. The government is also missing the boat when it does not focus mainly on the entrepreneurship promotion programs, the proceeds from which will not end up in the pockets of the technical bureau, but reach the average poor in order to  develop local investment motives within them. In an attempt to industrialise this country, the government  sources of financing small scale industries are saddled with problems,  yet progress can be achieved. Doing this, will mean our getting nearer to our goal of an industrialised nation. Originality/value – This in-depth study offers a solid foundation for establishing businesses by using entrepreneurship at the grass root level. Pages 526 to 540




The Development of EduwT@ps Application for Education Program Students

Norshima Azmia*, Nurulwahida Azidb, a,bUniversiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: a*shimazmi.uum@gmail.com

This study aims to develop the interactive Educational Workplace Thinking Styles and Problem Solving Stimulator (EduwT@ps). The proposed development will stimulate thinking and problem-solving skills among education students, enhancing graduate employability. It is based on the ADDIE model, using Adobe Flash CS6 and Flipbook Professional software, to stimulate thinking and problem-solving skills in accordance with Sternberg's 13 Mental Self-Government theory. Case-based learning simulates real-life workplaces (educational institutions), based on Clyde Freeman Herreid’s 11 rules. The ten created cases were divided into five categories of workplace problems. The 10 cases were evaluated, with seven information technology and academic experts. This study involved mixed method data collection. The quantitative data indicated that the average measure for Intra-class Correlation Coefficient was .875 with a 95% confidence interval from .603 to .991 (F(3, 81) = 8.559, p < .000). The qualitative data showed near-perfect agreement among the experts. In short, the development of this application can expose some education students to actual workplace situations, and simultaneously stimulate their thinking and problem-solving skills. Pages 541 to 557




Selective Exposure and Selective Perception Behavior on E-san Cultural Negotiation

Sirikarn Suvannapooa*, Asawin Nedpogaeob, aPh.D. Candidate, The Graduate School of Communication Arts and Management Innovation, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand, bMajor Thesis Advisor and Associate Professor, The Graduate School of Communication Arts and Management Innovation, National Institute of Development Administration, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: a*sirikarn@kku.ac.th

This research is aimed at studying the density of negotiation in E-san culture through the content of messages and investigating message receivers’ perceptions of E-san cultural negotiation by using a mixed method. This current study employed a qualitative approach using a textual and content analysis; also, questionnaires were used for the quantitative approach. The results show that the communication in cultural negotiation can be divided into  five levels. With regard to the impact factors on selective exposure behaviour on E-san cultural negotiation, most respondents expose themselves to the E-san media because they are fond of E-San culture. The impact factors on selective perception behaviour on E-san cultural negotiation indicated no mean difference in the perception of cultural negotiation among the different genders, occupations, ages, and incomes. There was a significant difference in the perception of cultural negotiation in terms of levels of education, native habitat, and experience/understanding about E-San culture. Pages 558 to 574




Solving the Travelling Problem of Thai Tourism, by Improved Ant Colony Optimization

Punyapas Chawaratthanarungsria, Sutep Tongngamb, a,bThe School of Applied Statistics (Computer Science and Information Systems), National Institute of Development Administration (NIDA), Bangkok Thailand, Email: apunyapas.ch@gmail.com,  bsutep@as.nida.ac.th

Most industries focus on how to profit from processing and transmitting, even in tourism. Technology has met travellers’ need to access information on problems regarding matters such as flights, routes, hotels, and transportation, by themselves. Computer science can help solve such problems, through Artificial Intelligence and animal simulations. This research applies Ant Colony Optimization to travelling problems. Brute Force computing was juxtaposed against the Ant Colony System. Some routes obtained from that System match the Brutes Force’s shortest distance, but some do not. Generating all possible Brute Force paths takes more time than Ant Colony System “algorithms”. The efficiency of the Brute Force algorithm is termed “Big O2” while the Ant Colony System is only “Big O”. Other conditions were added to that System, such as by changing vehicles at each tourist attraction, adding break points such as gas stations or restaurants, to complete planning. The Ant Colony System can be further expanded into one of tourist advice for tourist attractions’ recommended plans. Pages 575 to 589




Customer Profitability Analysis and Resource Consumption Accounting: A Holistic Approach

Adnan Abbas Alkhafajia, Enaam Ghadeer Almusawib and Sarah Isam Khbelaca,b,c Faculty of Administration and Economics, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.

Email: c* sarahkabeayla@gmail.com  

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of consumer productivity analysis (CPA) in Iraqi manufacturing companies, using Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA). A case study in Iraq's Babylon Tires Factory was performed. For the collection of data, surveys, direct observations and documents were used. The findings show that with RCA, some customer categories deemed unprofitable under traditional costing system were assessed as profitable. The case study also revealed the cost to factory products and customers of idle resources. Based on the findings, the factory management is better able to understand the productivity of different consumer segments and correct its strategies. In addition, RCA's unused production costs are considered to provide an incentive for factory management to better match the capacity provided in divisions. For manufacturing firms in general and in the case study in particular, there is limited research related to profitability analysis. This paper is therefore unique in the sense that it analyses the use of CPA RCA systems in Iraqi manufacturing firms. Pages 590 to 605



Improving Motivation, Interest and IPS Learning Results through the Think-Talk-Write Learning Method

Salamaha*, Retno Cahyaningtyas Sb, aUniversitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Jl. PGRI I Sonosewu No. 117, Bantul, Yogyakarta 55182, Indonesia, bSMP  Negeri 1, Pleret, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*busalamah@ymail.com

This study aims to determine the increase in motivation, interest and learning outcomes through the method of learning IPS Think-Talk-Write. This type of research is Classroom Action Research. The subjects of the study were the students of class VIII A at Secondary School 1 Pleret of Lesson Year 2016/2017 consisting of 32 students. Data collection of motivation and interest in learning with questionnaires and IPS learning outcomes with the test. The analytical technique used is descriptive qualitative.  The results showed that the learning method of Think Talk Write can improve: 1) student learning motivation, on precycle there are 8 students (25%) with high criteria, cycle I there are 17 students (53.12%) and cycle II there are 26 students (81.25%); 2) interest in learning, on precycle there are 10 students (31.25%) high criterion, cycle I there are 14 students (43.75%) and cycle II there are 29 students (90.625%) criteria high and very high; 3) The results of the study conclude, on precycle there are 18 students (56.25%) who complete learning (reaching KKM = 75), cycle I there are 22 students (68.75%) and cycle II there are 31 students (96.875%) students who complete learning. Pages 606 to 618

Kazakhstan: Finding the Fulcrum to Make Human Dignity a Social and Legal Value

Yermek Buribayeva*, Zhanna Khamzinab, Dinara Belkhozhayevac, Gulzhazira Meirbekovad, Gulim Kadirkulovae, a,b,c,dKazakh National Pedagogical University named after Abai, 050010 Almaty city, Dostyk av.13, Republic of Kazakhstan, eKainar Academy, 050010 Almaty city, Satpayev str.7a, Republic of Kazakhstan, Email: a*yermek-a@mail.rub292803@mail.rucdinar_15@list.rudmeirbekova67@mail.ruegulimochka@mail.ru

This research is an explorative survey of the value of human dignity, as the basis of a welfare state in Kazakhstan. It demonstrates how, under the pressure of mass protests of mothers with many children, it is agreed that the social policy of a country materially support families. The study provides evidence of how the mass rallies of mothers, together with the change of the thirty-year rule of the first president, has led to a formal reconsideration of assistance to low-income families in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The study also referred to universal and international Acts and Legislation that have approved the inclusion of human dignity, as a norm to create a social state. It was also found that despite amendments, the Kazakhstan constitution did not adequately address poverty among families, particularly those of children with disabilities. Further, this study demonstrates that in a modern state, social aid for parenthood and childhood is not an act of charity but a matter of human rights which the state must grant to its people. Pages 619 to 633

Constitutional Organisations for the Freedom of Scientific Research

Marwan Abdullah Abbooda, aUniversity of Kirkuk – College of Veterinary Medicine, Iraq, Email: aMarwan.lawyer36@yahoo.com

The academic research study represents an essential pillar in the life of nations and peoples. It is a major part of the university's job. It is one of the most important tasks of a faculty member. It is the basis of all planning, and the backbone of every development; the basis of sound development plans. Economic, political, military, social, cultural, and educational factors are the difference between developed and developing countries. Freedom of scientific research is related to the social and political environment, whether appropriate, encouraging, or otherwise. Identifying and explaining the obstacles facing this freedom clarifies the judicial guarantees that constitute the most important guarantee of this freedom. Pages 634 to 652
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