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An Employee Perspective of IT Innovation in the Banking Industry: Evidence from a Canadian Bank Branch

Nabil Messabia, DBA, CPA, CGAa, Ngo Ngue Marguerite, MBAb, Chokri Kooli, Phdc, aAssociate professor, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Gatineau, Canada, bDoctoral candidate, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Canada, cAssistant professor, Lusail University, Doha, Qatar, Email: anabil.messabia@uqo.ca, bnmaguy2004@yahoo.fr, cibm4chk@yahoo.fr     

The purpose of this paper is to understand the perceived impact of check imaging service as a technological innovation on bank employees. Following a substantive literature review, we conducted an empirical research aiming at understanding how bank employees perceive the adoption of such IT innovation by their bank. An inductive approach and qualitative methodology helped to understand employees' feelings and perceptions following the adoption of check imaging by their institution. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all three staff members of a Canadian banking agency taken as a unit of analysis in a unique case study approach. We used grounded theory as the qualitative data analysis method. Research findings show that technological and organisational innovation has improved the work systems. It has also fostered a close relationship between the client, the staff and the financial institution. From the employees’ standpoint, the new check processing technology allowed them to tighten their relationship with clients, to improve compliance with enacted regulations and to learn to better share their knowledge. Pages 1 to 17

 

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An Overview of Entrepreneurial Risk - A Bibliometric Analysis

Ali Murad Syed, Department of Economics and Finance, College of Business Administration, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain, amuradsyed@gamail.com

The entrepreneurship literature is giving more and more attention to risk aspects. However, in literature, only a fragmented comprehension is known about the contextual influence of risk aspects of entrepreneurship. In our article, we contribute by finding the relationship between Entrepreneurship and Risk by analysing the production and visualising the themes and evolution in this field. In our research approach bibliometric technique has been used to analyse 10 years of publications in Web of Science (WoS) database and present a comprehensive contextual picture of risks in entrepreneurial research. We analysed 1595 publications by identifying the most prominent journals, authors, articles, countries and collaboration among authors and countries. Also, a co-occurrence analysis among keywords, authors and the sources were done along with cluster analysis, and thematic analysis was also performed to find the evolutionary trends. Our analysis showed that risk taking is the evolving theme and its occurrence is increasing and becoming more prominent in the domain of entrepreneurship. Pages 18 to 37

 

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Intention to Adopt Mobile Applications Services: A Study Among Pakistani Academic Librarians

Mohamad Noorman Masreka, Abid Husseinb, aFaculty of Information Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, bLibrary Officer, Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad (ISSI) , Pakistan

Not much is really known to what extend academic librarians in Pakistan are interested in adopting and embracing mobile application for enhancing their services and work performance. In addition, little is also known about the factors that may shape or influence their behaviour with regards to mobile application services. Against this background, a study was undertaken with the aim of examining the behavioural intention of adopting mobile application services in the context of academic librarians in Pakistan. A research model was developed based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. Five constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, perceived credibility, facilitating conditions and social influence were hypothesised to have significant relationship with intention to adopt mobile applications. Using a survey research methodology, data was collected from 212 academic librarians in Pakistan. The results revealed that performance expectancy, effort expectancy and facilitating conditions were significant in determining behavioural intention. The findings have contributed significantly to the body of knowledge from several perspectives, namely theoretical, managerial and practical. Pages 38 to 54
 
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Exam Grades in Architecture Classes: A Comparative Assessment of Before and During COVID-19 Pandemic Modes of Teaching and Learning

Mohammed A M Alhefnawia, Umar Lawal Danob, Mohamad Jalal Istanboulia, Wadee Ahmed Ghanem Al-Gehlania, Hazem M. Nour Afifya, Gamal Abd Elghanycand Mohamed Saad Rahaala, aDepartment of Architecture, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia, cDepartment of Interior Architecture, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 2397, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia, Email: uldano@iau.edu.sa

Over the last couple of months, universities worldwide have unprecedentedly switched to online teaching due to the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has changed the teaching and learning methods of both faculties and students. Therefore, this study assesses the learning effectiveness of the two instructional modes using students’ performance records. Data on full-time undergraduate students of architecture was obtained and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Chi-square analysis test indicates no statistically significant positive relationship between the traditional and web-based modes of instruction with respect to learning effectiveness (χ2= 0.003, α = 0.05, p<α). The study concludes by recommending certain practices that will improve students’ participation and performance in the web-based classes during emergency periods, for example, the current period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Pages 54 to 68
 
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The Nexus between R&D, Innovation and Economic Growth Revisit: The Case of South Africa and Saudi Arabia

Yusuf Opeyemi Akinwalea, Jhalukpreya Babs Surujlalb, aCollege of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, bNorth West University, South Africa, Email: a yoakinwale@iau.edu.sa

It is evident in many countries that having abundant natural resources does not guarantee an increased economic growth. In order to diversify the economy, each one of South Africa and Saudi Arabia has developed Vision 2030 as related to their country. The aim of this paper is to study the role and impact of research and development (R&D) and innovation towards economic growth. Using ARDL and ECM for the period 2001-2018, the study finds that R&D and innovation have a long run association with economic growth in both countries, and a long run causality from R&D and innovation to economic growth is also established. Meanwhile in the short run, it is only R&D which has significant impact on economic growth in both countries. The study suggests that the policy makers should continue to advocate for more spending on research and innovative efforts as well as creating a strong collaboration among the stakeholders of national innovation systems as this would boost indigenous innovation capabilities which lead to economic growth. Pages 69 to 85
 
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Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) and Organizational Culture for Knowledge Sharing Strategy: Case Study of a Center for Continuing Education

Muhammad Mohiuddina, Md. Samim Al Azadb, Zhan Suc, aAssociate Professor, bPost-doctoral Fellow, cProfessor of International Management & Strategy, Director, Stephen A. Jarislowsky chair on International Business, a,b,cFaculty of Business Administration, Laval University, Quebec, Canada, Email: amuhammad.mohiuddin@fsa.ulaval.ca, bsamim.azad@northsouth.edu, czhan.su@fsa.ulaval.ca

The role of knowledge management is essential for any organization today. This study analyzes the knowledge value chain of a center for continuing education offering skill development related short courses and training for adult learners. Besides, this study analyzes how the Center can improve sustainability in terms of efficiency and capacity building by implementing effective knowledge sharing strategies utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) and the organizational cultures. The case study methodology was used to study the factors that influence knowledge sharing in an academic institute. Organizational factors that influence the knowledge management process in the organization are studied. Knowledge sharing depends on the type of knowledge, motivation, and opportunity to share. The results show that both knowledge management systems and a conducive organizational culture are needed to implement a knowledge-sharing strategy effectively. Thus, the study focuses on the emergent approach (focusing on interpersonal dynamics and the nature of their daily tasks) and engineering or management approach (focusing on the infrastructure of knowledge-sharing). This qualitative study shows how systematic and organized knowledge sharing can help an organization offers continuing education services effectively and survive in its competitive marketplace. This study analyzes the knowledge value chain of a center for continuing education. How can knowledge management strategies help it to improve organizational sustainability in terms of efficiency and capacity? Knowledge management systems (tools and infrastructure) and conducive organizational culture are needed. Systematic, organized knowledge management improves competitive survival. Pages 86 to 108
 
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The Local Wisdom of the  Kajang Community

Mithen Lullulangia, Onesimus Sampebuab, Armiwaty, Tawanic, Bakhrani Abdul Raufd a,b,c,dLecturer Civil Engineering Education Universitas Negeri Makassar.

mithen@unm.ac.ud, onesimus.sampebua@unm.ac.id,  armiwaty@unm.ac.id, bakhrani@unm.ac.id

This study aims to determine the local knowledge of communities to preserve the environment in Kajang South Sulawesi. This research utilised a qualitative research approach. Data collection was completed through the methods of interview, field observations, documentation, and library research, which compared what is obtained in the field with what was written by previous researchers. The variable of this study was the local wisdom of the indigenous peoples of Kajang. The data analysis involved a descriptive analysis of the results that were obtained from the interviews. The results highlighted several findings. Firstly, according to the local wisdom of the Kajang, they believe in Pasang as customary law that must be respected and upheld by the Kajang communities in relation to environmental protection, and in particular, with respect to forest resources. Secondly, the local wisdom of the Kajang community is known as Ambuang Balla, which is a form of community cooperation, if there are community members who want to build houses. Thirdly, the local wisdom of the Kajang community is Tallase kamase-mase, which is part of the Pasang that commands the Kajang people to live simply and modestly, and reject everything that has a technological smell. Finally, the local wisdom of the Kajang  ommunity is Magig Power, Anttunu Panroli, to test the honesty of the people suspected of stealing. Pages 109 to 119
 
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Risk Factors Associated with the Pre-Eclampsia Incidence on Pregnant Women at Local Hospital of Bengkulu

Ida Rahmawati1*, Mika Oktarina2, Choralina Eliagita3, Winda Dewanty Yulandasari4, 1Lecture in Nursing Science Study Program, STIKES Tri Mandiri Sakti Bengkulu, Indonesia, 2,3Lecture in midwifery study program applied undergraduate program, STIKES Tri Mandiri  Sakti Bengkulu, Indonesia, 4Student in midwifery study program applied undergraduate program, STIKES Tri Mandiri Sakti Bengkulu, Indonesia, Email: 1*idarahmawati1608@gmail.com

Preeclampsia is an obstetric emergency characterised by high blood pressure in pregnant women which has a risk of causing death. This research aimed to study the risk factors associated with the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women at the Local Hospital of Bengkulu. This study applied case control design. The population in this research were all multiparous pregnant women who were hospitalised in C1 room of RSUD Dr. M. Yunus of Bengkulu in 2018, which amounted to 484 pregnant women. Case sampling selection in this research was done by using 1:1 total sampling with systematic random sampling method. Data analysis was performed by using univariate and bivariate. Statistical test was conducted by calculating the Chi-Square (x2). While to determine the closeness of the relationship among the variables, the Contingency Coefficient (C) was used. The results of this research are : there was a relationship between maternal age and the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women; there was no relationship between history of previous preeclampsia with the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women; there was no relationship of multiple pregnancy with the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnant women. Preeclampsia can be influenced by several factors. The results showed the age factor can greatly influence the occurrence of preeclampsia. The importance of reproductive system education for mothers and adolescents aims to reduce the risk of death from pre-eclampsia. Therefore, it is expected to officers and health services to provide necessary information regarding this issue. Pages 120 to 134
 
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Developing a Green Brand Through Co-Creation Process of Krabi, Thailand

Siwarit Pongsakornrungsilpa, Theeranuch Pusaksrikitb, Pimlapas Pongsakornrungsilpc* a,cCenter of Excellent for Tourism Business Management and Creative Economy, School of Management, Walailak University, Thailand, bChulalongkorn Business School, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand,

Email: apsiwarit@wu.ac.th, btheeranuch@cbs.chula.ac.th, c*kpimlapa@wu.ac.th Corresponding Author: Asst.Prof.Pimlapas Pongsakornrungsilp, Ph.D.

This paper has shed light on how stakeholders participate in the branding process through the concept of co-creation, whereby a brand may be managed for sustainability. Data was collected by focus group interviews from tourism and environmental stakeholders, together with projective techniques from domestic and international tourists. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data. The results indicated that a brand culture of green tourism plays an important role in developing green behavior, whereby it requires the cooperation of, and co-creation by all stakeholders to develop a strong brand identity in a single message. The analysis provides a template for using destination branding to drive green tourism culture. This study did not investigate the success of the new brand identity in attracting tourists. Therefore, a longitudinal study should be conducted to follow up the brand development process, in order to demonstrate the success of the branding.  Pages 135 to 158
 
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COVID-19 and Social Change in Indonesia

Rilus A. Kinseng1, 1Department of Communication and Community Development, Faculty of Human Ecology; Head of Knowledge Production Division, CTSS, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia, Email: 1rilus@apps.ipb.ac.id

The pandemic Covid-19 has caused disruption and a crisis all over the world, including Indonesia. It is important to describe and analyse the identity and magnitude of social changes due to the pandemic Covid-19 in Indonesia more precisely. The objective of this paper is to describe social changes in Indonesia due to the spread of Covid-19. The information is derived from abundant information in mass media, as well as my personal networks and activities related to Covid-19. This paper shows that the Covid-19 outbreak caused a wide range of social changes in Indonesia’s society; from everyday social interactions to basic social institutions such as family, economy, education, health, religion and government. Pages 159 to 174
 
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The Impact of a Proposed Training Program to Develop Selected Physical Abilities among Kickboxing Players

Bassam A. Mismara*, O. M. Al-Omerb, aSchool of Physical Education, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; bMinistry of Education, Amman, Jordan, Email: a*b.mismar@ju.edu.jo

Identifying the impact of a proposed training program to develop selected physical abilities among kickboxing players. The study consisted of 20 (n=20) players who were chosen intentionally from Al-Burini Academy for Self-Defense in Jordan, the study sample was divided into two groups and each one had 10 players. The experimental group was introduced to the proposed training program developed by the researchers. The proposed training program exemplifies significant differences of impact in the post measurements at p-value of 0.05. The differences were measured for selected physical abilities (legs strength, explosive strength of the lower limbs, one repetition max of hamstring muscles) where the performance of the experimental group was better than the control group. Pages 175 to 195
 
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Harmonising Market Orientation and Brand Orientation in the Non-profit Context

Mohammad Ovaisa, Dr. Muhammad Noumanb, aMS-Management Sciences (Gold Medal), MBA, Lecturer in Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, KPK, Pakistan. bPhD, University of Southampton UK, MS and MBA, University of Texas at Arlington USA, Assistant Professor | Coordinator, MS Management Institute of Management Sciences 1-A, E/5, Phase 7, Hayatabad Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: aumerkhelovais@gmail.com, bmuhammad.nouman@imsciences.edu.pk

This paper aimed to investigate the performance implications of non-profit market orientation and brand orientation in a developing country’s context. The paper also aimed to determine the mediating effect of non-profit brand orientation and between non-profit market orientation and its performance. A composite questionnaire was designed through the adaptation of the already existing scales for the aforementioned three variables. The constructs were further subject to refinement following Confirmatory Factor Analysis through SPSS AMOS. Data was collected from the executive level managers from diverse non-profit organisations and was analysed to address the aforementioned objective. The findings suggest a significant impact of the non-profit market orientation and brand orientation on organisational performance. The findings also suggest the mediating effect of non-profit brand orientation between its market orientation and performance. The authors come up with several theoretical and managerial implications and suggest important future research directions. Pages 196 to 218
 
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Cultivating Multicultural Values in Learning History: A Unifier of the Nation’s Plurality

Slamet. Slameta*, Eko H. Widiastutib, Nuryanti. Nuryantic,  Kabri. Kabrid, Budi Utomoe,  Partono. Partonof, a.b.cIvet University, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. d.e.fSmaratungga Buddhist College, Boyolali, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Email: a*slamet.doktor@gmail.com;  bekoheriwidiastuti2@gmail.com; emeitasari233@gmail.com; dkmbrata@gmail.com; editthisampanno@gmail.com; fpsnadi@gmail.com

Indonesia is full of diversity, either ethnic, religious, culture, custom, racial, territorial, and so on. In having a common perception on Indonesian diversity as a nation, multicultural education has become a necessity. Incorporating multicultural education into the curriculum is very urgent, at least by incorporating it with other relevant subjects, such as Civics, History, and Religion. Multicultural education is a response to the growing diversity of school populations, as well as the demands of equal rights for every citizen. Another dimension, multicultural education is the development of curricula and educational activities to tap into the views, history, achievements and concerns of non-Europeans. Multicultural education encompasses all learners regardless of group, such as: gender, ethnic, racial, cultural, social, territorial, and religious strata, which has become a demand and necessity in building a new Indonesia. However, multicultural education requires an in-depth study of the concepts and praxis of its implementation, even to the present the concept of multicultural education has not been studied seriously in education. However, when judicially judged, Act no. 20/2003 on the National Education System has provided an opportunity to elaborate further on the concept of multicultural education, particularly in Article 4 paragraph (1) which regulates the implementation of education which takes into consideration the diverse cultural values ​​of society. Pages 219 to 232 
 
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Does Organisational Commitment Moderate the Relationship between Internal Marketing and Market Orientation of the Public Sector Universities in Pakistan? A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

Muhammad Ovaisa, Dr. Faqir Sajjadul Hassanb, Dr. Muhammad Noumanc, Dr. Siraj ud Dind, aLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, bPhD, Asst. Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, cPhD, University of Southampton UK, MS and MBA, University of Texas at Arlington USA, Assistant Professor | Coordinator, MS Management, Institute of Management Sciences, 1-A, E/5, Phase 7, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan, dHead of the Department/ Asst. Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak, Email: aovais.khan@kkkuk.edu.pk, bfaqirphd@yahoo.com, cmuhammad.nouman@imsiences.edu.pk, ddr.siraj@kkkuk.edu.pk

This paper builds on the notion that positive culture and behaviours, for example market orientation of internal marketing, are sensitive to positive attitudes like organisational commitment and non-profits’ contextual peculiarities. Thus, the paper aimed to validate the positive moderating effect of organisational commitment on the market orientation related implications of internal marketing in the non-profit context of public sector higher educational institutes. The paper utilised a composite questionnaire in a survey design, through the integration of market orientation scale by Kohli and Jaworski (1993), the internal marketing scale by Foreman and Money (1990) and the organisational commitment scale by Allen and Mayer (1990). The data collected was subject to Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (CFA) through SPSS AMOS for reliability, validity and hypotheses testing. The results of the CFA led to multiple items reduction in the aforementioned three scales, indicating the contextual sensitivity of the construct. The outcomes of the SEM on the refined scale supported the hypotheses that internal marketing has a significant impact on market orientation and that organisational commitment positively moderates the relationship. The findings may contribute towards the scholarly understanding of the three constructs and the way they can be harmonised in the academic context to yield performance implications. The research may guide managers in public sector higher educational institutes to synergies their internal marketing programs and human resource policies to create a positive market-oriented culture that may lead to better learning facilitation and human development. Pages 233 to 253  
 
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Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility Model: The Implementation on Domestic Forestry Company in Indonesia

Aisa Tri Agustini1*,  Ririn Irmadariyani2*, Yosefa Sayekti3, Indah Purnamawati4, Bunga Maharani5, Djoko Supatmoko6, Bayu Aprillianto7, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Jember, Email: 1aisa.agustini@unej.ac.id, 2irmadariyaniririn@gmail.com  

The purpose of this study is to analyse the strategic implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility. The research method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. The object of the research is the Domestic Forestry Company in Indonesia. The results shows that the implementation of strategic CSR in Domestic Forestry Company is higher than the non-strategic CSR. This indicates that the company's strategy to implement CSR is already done well, because the company has a strategy, and that the implementation of CSR does not only benefit stakeholders, but also provides value for the company. Pages 254 to 266
 
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Exploring the Social Psychology Responses among the Female Practice of Bodypump during the Coronavirus Epidemic

Ayed Zureigata , Osama Abdel Fattahb*,  Alaa Elayyanͤ , aFaculty of Physical Education, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, bThe Ministry of Education, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, ͨ       Les Mills bodypump certified instructor,  Amman, Jordan, Email: aA.Zureigat@ju.edu.jo, b*osamhsaf.2811@gmail.com,   ͨ alaaissa_84@hotmail.com             

Experts advise individuals to remain in self-isolation during the Corona pandemic,            where these restrictions can have short and long-term negative effects on individuals'    mental and physical health as the culture of society depends on social support and social cohesion and may be accompanied by stress disorders and negative effects on           the mental health of individuals. Accordingly, the study aimed to explore the social psychology responses among the female practice of bodypump during the coronavirus epidemic. To achieve this we used the descriptive approach on 57 untrained healthy females who regularly practice bodypump before and during the Corona pandemic (age, 28.4±2 years; height, 168± 3.2cm; body mass, 66.8± 3.8kg). Because of the home    quarantine an electronic questionnaire was built using Google forms, which consisted of 12 paragraphs to measure the social psychology effects among females that the bodypump             practitioner could achieve during the Corona pandemic by sending the link via      WhatsApp. To achieve the objectives of the study the researchers used mean, standard deviations and percentages by using SPSS version 24 with a confidence level of 95%      (p value= 0.05). The results of the study have shown that bodypump has contributed     positively to improving the level of satisfaction of life, communication with family and others with a very high average. It has also contributed to reducing the level of stress and            anxiety from rumours with a high average. Finally, the practice of bodypump among the  females has contributed positively in improving social psychology responses. Pages 267 to 276
 
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The Role of Intellectual Capital Strategies in Raising the Level of Organizational Performance: Field Research in the Directorate of Municipalities of Anbar

Khamees Naser Mohammeda, Ahmed Diaalddin Salahb, aAssistant professor, College of Administration and Economic, University of Anbar, bAssistant lecturer, College of Administration and Economic, University of Anbar, Email: adr.khamees_mohammed@uoanbar.edu.iq , ba.besiness@yahoo.com

This research has highlighted two main variables: intellectual capital strategies and organizational performance. The first is a modern tool that is very reliable in raising the levels of the future performance of the organizations, as it tried to provide an ideological and philosophical framework for the most prominent of the scientific writers and researchers in the literature of management and organization to the extent whether, sample of (125) individual were applied on them from different administrative levels in the Directorate of Municipalities of Anbar. The independent variable represents intellectual capital strategies through three areas (human capital strategy, structural capital strategy, and relative capital strategy), while the approved variable represents organizational performance through its four perspectives (Financial Perspective, customer Perspective, Internal processes Perspective, Environmental Perspective, and Learning, growth and creativity Perspective). Questionnaire used in research as a main tool for collecting data and information. It sought to test the main and sub-research hypotheses between the correlation variables and the effect to answer the questions of the problem and achieve the goals set. the data was processed using some statistical methods and tool appropriate to the nature of research. A positive relationships and effects were found of intellectual capital strategies in raising the level of organizational performance, which came in line with the hypotheses. Pages 277 to 301
 
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A Business Model Framework for  Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Entrepreneurship for Filipinos

Jocelyn S. Ojeda-Jintalan, St. Paul University Manila, Philippines, Email: jhojintalan@gmail.com

A business model framework generally describes the corporate organisation or management structure or may generally outline company policies. An organisation might develop a framework to achieve a particular goal, or an innovation framework may outline policies, procedures, and management changes the company will use to achieve innovation and growth. This study focused on the search for a business model framework suited for the proposed PhD in Entrepreneurship for Filipinos. Using a qualitative design, data was collected from documentary analysis of Commission on Higher Education (CHED) memorandum orders, documentary analysis of foreign literature and entrepreneurship programs of international schools;  textual analysis of top entrepreneurial gurus from TEDx events; interviews; and focus group discussions in academic sectors, business sectors and the government sector, all from Region V. Results show that a PhD in Entrepreneurship is guided by the new CHED Memorandum orders and the new directions of Philippine Education. Also, the global trends in entrepreneurial education are gearing towards experiential learning, technological innovation, and building innovative infrastructures. Moreover, there are various required competencies needed to become successful, the global business sector provides an entrepreneurial DNA model: builder, opportunist, specialist, and innovator. Lastly, a business model framework shall serve as a guide in the offering of a PhD in Entrepreneurship that will strengthen the knowledge and skills of Filipinos. Collaboration among the government, business, and academic sectors is needed to improve the entrepreneurial direction of Filipinos. Pages 302 to 324
 
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Challenges Faced by the Teachers and Students in Online Learning

Muhammad Hafeez1*, Fouzia Ajmal2, Qaiser Abbas Kazmi3

1*Research Scholar, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2Department of Education, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 3 Regional Director, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad,

Email: 1*mh9589041@gmail.com, 2fouzia.ajmal@iiu.edu.pk,  3rajanpur911@gmail.com

Most of the educational institutions (Universities, Schools and Colleges) in Pakistan are based on traditional method of learning and teaching. Although various institutions are now converting the learning methods from traditional to technology based online learning. At the end of 2019, the sudden outbreak of Pandemic disease Covid-19 has totally changed the learning and teaching system. Many educational institutions that were based on traditional methods of learning and teaching have to shift entirely on online learning and teachings. A survey-based research has been conducted to highlight the challenges faced by students and teachers during Covid-19 in learning and teachings at undergraduate and graduate levels. The results of the research indicated that the students and teachers faced a lot of problems during the online learning and teaching. The online learning system of Pakistan, problems during online learning and solutions to the online learning problems are also discussed. This research will give a direction for the solution of problems associated with online learning and teachings. Pages 325 to 346  
 
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Skill-based Competency of Teacher Educators in English Language: Professional and Pragmatic Diversity

Dr. Kamal Haidera, Dr. Muhammad Yousuf Sharjeelb, Dr. Ann Samsonc, Sonia Manzoord, Dr. Nazia Abdul Rehmane, Dr. Safia Niazif, aAssistant Professor/ Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology Karachi, bDepartment of Education-SZABIST-Karachi, c,dFederal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, e,fBenazir Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari Karachi Pakistan, Email: akamalhaider@fuuast.edu.pk, byousufsharjeel@hotmail.com, cDr.annsamson@fuuast.edu.pk, dSoniaayaz10@gmail.com, enzshakir@gmail.com, fdr.safianiazi@gmail.com

The significance of English language since the inception of Pakistan as a lingua franca, a medium to reach the scientific and technological asset of the developed nations has become quite distinct. Moreover, it is significant for correspondence and interaction within and outside the country. It is serving a vital purpose for higher studies and study abroad. Its importance in business communication, civil service and employment is inevitable. The aim of the study was to evaluate the competency of teacher educators and its impact on the communicative skills of trainee teachers. Survey method and sequential explanatory design was followed to integrate the mixed-method data collected through the administration of the questionnaire and interviews. The result depicted an uncertain ad incompetent professional skills of trainee teachers. These competencies encompassed skills in developing a lesson plan, constructing instructional learning objectives, adopting student-centered approaches and methods, using instructional technologies and managing classrooms of English language in formal situations.  The study concludes that English language must be taught in all the schools irrespective of private or public, rural or urban. It's teaching, however, needs intensive training and evaluation of the competencies of teacher educators who train the trainees (school teachers). Pages 347 to 365