Effect of Organic Fertiliser and Biofertiliser on Cadium Accumulation of the Fimbristylis Globulosa Plant

Y. Sunaryaa, Y. Yuliantob, a,bSiliwangi University, Siliwangi Street, Tasikmalaya 46115, Indonesia, Email: a*yayasunarya@unsil.ac.id

The objectives are to find out the effect of organic fertiliser and biofertiliser on cadmium accumulation of the Fimbristylis globulosa plant. The experiment was set up in a randomised block design which consisted of four treatments and six replications. 2 mg kg-1 CdCl2  was added to growth medium of soil, a mixture of soil-animal manure, and soil treated with biofertiliser, and a mixture of soil-animal manure treated with biofertiliser. Cadmium accumulation is calculated using the translocation factor (TF) and Bioconcentration factor (BCF). The results showed that Cd-content and Cd-accumulation of root and shoot on soil, and soil treated with biofertiliser were greater than those on a mixture of soil-animal manure and a mixture of soil-animal manure treated with biofertiliser. Based on the BCF-, and TF-value, the Fimbristylis globulosa plant plays a role as phyitostabilator (BCF>1, TF<1) and phytoextractor (BCF<1,TF>1).  Pages 1 to 5




Students’ Thinking Process When Experiencing Cognitive Conflict

E Pratiwia*, T Nusantarab, Susiswoc, M Muksard, a,b,c,dDepartment of Mathematics Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang No.5, Malang 65145, Indonesia, Email: a*enditiyas.pratiwi.1703119@students.um.ac.id

The aim of this study is to reveal the thinking process of elementary school students when experiencing cognitive conflict. This type of research is qualitative descriptive research and the data collection is from this research through test questions, direct observation and in-depth interviews on the subject of research. Problems given to students are non-routine questions in the form of open-ended questions that have more than one solution. The subjects of this study were two students who experienced cognitive conflicts, based on direct observation of the subjects who experienced curiosity, confusion, and thinking longer. The results showed that the thinking process that occurs when students experience cognitive conflict, are namely: (1) students can perform assimilation process to integrate the perception or new experiences into schemata, and (2) there are three stages of students’ process of the accommodation, that is: first the students experience a lack of mastery of the conception they have, then create a new conception that is easy to understand, and then the conception is used to solve the problem by providing a sensible answer. The conclusion in this research is that there are stages in the process of accommodation that do not happen, that is: students who do not start with a sense of dissatisfaction, in this case, the initial conception that has been owned by students by the information provided. Pages 6 to 16




 The Administrative Judge's Role in Filling the Legislative Gaps

Amer Zghair Mohaisena, Worood Lafta Muttairb, a,bCollege of Law, University of Misan, Email: aamerzghair@uomisan.edu.iqbWorood@uomisan.edu.iq

This study addresses the administrative judge's role in filling the legislative gaps. It discusses the judicial system of the administrative judge authority in establishing a new legal principle, as the real role of the administrative judge is the structural role, that invents and creates theories and legal solutions to administrative disputes and not the practical role of law provisions. The administrative judge is bound to adjudicate upon the dispute and pass a fair ruling, and the absence of legal provisions cannot be invoked in the application of justice; otherwise it will be considered a denial for justice. On the other hand, this has been linked to the effect of advantages taken from judicial rulings in the Latin system, including the Iraqi system, of which it is a part, but it ultimately remains non-binding to the Supreme Administrative Court itself and the lower courts. Pages 17 to 27




Measuring the Effect of Quarterly Financial Reports by Tele-communications Companies on the Size of Investment

Adheem Naeem Pachia, Ahmed Mahdi Hadib, Jasim Idan  Barrakc, a,bDepartment of Accounting , college of Administration & Economics , university of AL Qadisiyah , Iraq, cDepartment of Accounting, college of Administration & Economic , University of Kerbala , Iraq,

This research deals with the definition of measuring the impact of progress reports on the volume of investment in Iraqi telecommunications companies (Asiacell). The objective of the research is to demonstrate the role of progress reports in attracting investments, to identify the positive and negative effects of measurement and the impact of these reports on the volume of investment in the company. In theory, the concept and objectives of progress reports and the problems faced by companies in the preparation of these reports, were discussed, as well as the statement of the inputs for the preparation of progress reports, based on scientific sources and previous research. In order  to test the research hypothesis and discuss the progress reports for the years 2017 and 2018, a number of conclusions and recommendations have been reached to support the research hypothesis. Pages 28 to 40




Image Schemata in Allen Ginsberg's Poems: A Cognitive Stylistic Study

Dunya Muhammed Miqdad Ijama, Inas Haider Kazemb, a,bUniversity of Babylon, College of Education for Human Sciences, Department of English, Email: adunya.ijam@gmail.combhaiderinas94@gmail.com

This research aims to cognitive stylistically analyse the types of image schemata in one of American postmodern Beat poets, Allen Ginsberg’s three different poems; with themes of sadness, madness, and death. It aims at finding out the most frequent type of image schemata that is used by Ginsberg, therefore classifying the poetic devices that are used. The researchers follow Johnson (1987), Pena (1999), and Croft and Cruse (2004) as models for analysis. Pages 41 to 59




The Role of the Quantitative and Descriptive Approach in Optimising the Use of Production Elements to Support Financial Results

Ahmed Miri Ahmeda, Muiead . A . Al -fadelb, a,bTechnical College of Management /Kufa – Department , Al- Furat Al-wsat Technical university , 31003 Al- Kufa, Iraq,

The management of operations in the laboratory data of the study, requires research into the opportunities and possibilities necessary to calculate what is required of the production requirements within the production lines available in the work in question. Where the focus here is on the quantity of raw materials required and the amount of electrical energy needed to operate machines and equipment within production lines. The quantitative approach will be adapted as this method supports the decision makers in the senior management of the laboratory in order to improve the final financial results. The descriptive approach has been oriented towards providing the necessary data to rationalise decisions. Results have been reached at the end of the research concerning how to calculate the raw materials, labour and operating hours of machinery and equipment for a certain volume of production.  Pages 60 to 85




Wittgenstein's Notion of Language Games in Harold Pinter's ‘the Birthday Party’

Habbeeb Lateef Kadhim AL-Qassaba,

Email: ahabeebalshamary@gmail.com,

Language games are related to specific circumstances. According to this theory, an utterance is made under certain circumstances and follows a particular purpose. This study intends to approach Harold Pinter's The Birthday Party through Wittgenstein's theory of language games in order probe into the language of this drama. Since The Birthday Party belongs to the theatre of the absurd, the language serves a particular purpose. The framework that Wittgenstein developed fundamentally ruined the traditional picture of the language and transformed the way theorists analysed the language in the twentieth century. Through application of his theory, this research will uncover how language can be thought of as a social practice. Pages 86 to 94




Iraqi EFL University Students' Recognition and Production of Present Perfect Tense

Wi'am Majeed Mohammeda, aCollege of Agriculture Al-Qasim Green University, Email: aameeraljubawii@yahoo.com

This study investigates the problem of EFL learner’s acquisition of present perfect tense. Generally, present perfect tense refers to an action or state that either occurred at an indefinite time in the past or began in the past and continued to the present time. The general formula of this tense is (has/have + past participle). For its great importance in English grammar, this paper tends to raise the following questions: (1) do Iraqi EFL learners have a difficulty in recognising or producing present perfect tense? (2) do Iraqi EFL learners master the use of the present perfect tense during the four-college period? Due to the above-mentioned questions, the following aims are required: (1) investigating the difficulties that Iraqi EFL learners have in recognising and producing present perfect tense, (2) Conducting a performance test to Iraqi learners of EFL at the university level to check whether or not these learners face difficulties in recognising or producing this tense. To approve those aims, the following hypotheses are set: (1) Iraqi EFL learners face a difficulty in producing present perfect tense, (2) Mastery of the use of present perfect tense is not achieved by Iraqi learners over a four-year period of EFL learning at the university level. The following procedure is to analyse errors made by Iraqi EFL University students in recognition and production of present perfect tense at College of Education / University of Babylon. Pages 95 to 110




The Effect of Reforming the Banking System in Treating the Problem of Passive Savings in the Iraqi Economy for the Period 2003 – 2017

Mustafa Jawad Kadhum Al Bakria*, Hussein Dikan Darweesh AL-Dulaimib, a,bDepartment of Finance and Banking  , college of Administration & Economics, university of Babylon, Iraq, Email: a*mjk.albakri@gmail.com

The Iraqi economy suffers from deep structural imbalances in the banking system and is reflected in savings and investment, as it is characterised by insufficient local savings available and its inability to cover the volume of local investments required, which limits the real sustainable development of the national economy. This research analyses the reasons for the tendency of individuals to passively save and not to throw their excess funds over their needs in the economy by investing them through the banking system. Moreover, it analyses the gaps associated with the Iraqi banking system during the research period, namely the foreign trade gap, the monetary gap, the financial gap, the credit gap and the domestic resources gap. The aim of this research is to try to develop practical solutions to the problem of the high percentage of passive savings and thus deprive the Iraqi economy of large investment opportunities that could be invested to revitalise this economy through the conduct of those savings on the right path to investment, as the Iraqi economy desperately needs at this stage…. Pages 111 to 121




 Strategic Human Resource Management of Cross-Border Merger and Acquisition Activities: a Case Study in the United Kingdom and Iraqi Companie

Layth Zuhair Alsakafia, Rehab Hussein Jawadb, Zain Mohammed Saeed Al-Hamamic, aFaculty of Administration and Economics, University of Kufa, bCollage of Administration and Economics  Babylon University, cFaculty of physical planning, University of Kufa, Email: aLaithz.saeed@uokufa.edu.iqbRh.aa880@yahoo.comczain19832000@uokufa.edu.iq

This organisation based in Manchester is embarking on a merger and acquisition activity with a company in Iraq. This cross-border merger and acquisition activity has several implications on organisational and national cultures of both companies. This report finds that the merger activity between this company in Manchester and the one from Iraq is likely to face serious difficulties mainly as a result of the vast dissimilarities in national and organisational cultures of the two countries. Problems are likely to arise during the integration phase and problems linked with culture are frequently part of the integration process. On an individual level, managers and employees are likely to resist the impending change by antagonising each other as well as exhibiting resentment towards the acquired company’s managers thereby leading to an emphasis on personal security rather than on achieving organisational goals. In addition, owing to cultural shock which managers and employees of the Iraqi company may experience will result in hostility towards the acquiring Manchester company and a tendency to leave. In addition, at the organisational level, this culture shock may lead to a tendency to not share information or communicate with their respective managers from both sides resulting in intense conflict and hostility. Therefore, to manage these disruptions, changes and anxiety among employees and managers on both sides requires effective leadership, engagement and communication with all stakeholders is required. HR plays a fundamental role in managing these processes because for the organisation to succeed as one entity it may require a change in its vision, values, structures, strategy and company culture. All of these changes have significant implications for the behaviours and competencies needed in the new organisation and to encourage and support these behaviours or attitudes required, many of the HR policies and practices may have to be changed in order to align them to new organisational realities. Pages 122 to 138




Greek Socialist Labour Party from 1918-1924: A Historical Study

Wael Jabbar Joudaa*, Anass Hamza Mahdib, aCollege of  Education for Human Sciences,Dept.of History / Al-Muthanna University, bCollege of Basic Education,Dept.of History / University of Babylon, Email: a*Wailjabbar08@gmail.com

The current study deals with the first socialist party in Greece, called the Greek Socialist Labour Party (1918-1924). Before entering the study, an overview is given of the roots of socialist thought in Greece. The research deals with the circumstances of the founding of the party in 1918 and highlights the issues raised during the establishment, the relationship between the Communist Party and the Communist International during 1919-1920. The research has explained the Greek government's policy toward the party during 1919-1921, and it became clear that the government was strictly monitoring the activities of the party and narrowing it down with the aim of eliminating it politically. For its part, the party issued several statements in the form of complaints to the government on the annexes. The study focused on the party's position on the Greek military intervention in southern Russia in 1919-20, as well as in Asia Minor. The party used all its resources against these interventions, and succeeded in spreading leftist ideas among the ranks of the fighters so that these interventions failed miserably. In contrast, the government succeeded in arresting party leaders in 1922. The research continued the general policy of the Greek Socialist Labour Party and its internal problems between 1922 - 1924. The problem is the brotherly love on the ideological policy of the party at that stage, and ultimately the party of opportunism filters elements, and make its principles conform to the principles of Marxism-Leninism, and changed its name to the Communist Party of Greece. Pages 139 to 156




 Measuring the Quality of Service Production Using Goal Programming: a Case Study from a Specialised Centre for the Treatment of Cancerous Tumours/Al-Diwaniyah

Aseel Ali Mezhera, Raissan Abdulimam Zalanb, aUniversity of Al Qadisiyah, Iraq, College of Administration & Economics, Department of Businesses Administration, bUniversity of Basrah, Iraq, College of Administration & Economics, Department of Statistics, Email:  aAseel.Mezher@qu.edu.iq,  bressan.zalan@uobasrah.edu.iq

Health institutions, including specialised centres for the treatment of cancerous tumours, provide a case study of a health service of high quality beyond the expectations of the patient and achieve satisfaction. The current research aims to apply the objective programming model using the program Win-QSB version2 to measure the quality of health service production and to identify the reality of the status of this service in our health institutions. This may help them in developing appropriate solutions to overcome the problems that they may face in the performance of their work which may prevent the provision of service at the required level. Pages 157 to 182




Green Economy Challenges and Ways to Succeed: an Arab Countries Case Study

Mohammed Madlool Alia, Abduuljasem Abbas Alaallahb, Shawkat Kadum talibc, aDepartment of Finance and Banking, college of Administration & Economics, university of Babylon ,Iraq, bDepartment of Industrial Management, college of Administration & Economics , university of  Babylon , Iraq, cMinistry of Education- Directorate General of Najaf Education, Email: aMohamd.madlol@gmail.com,  bbus.abd.aljasim@uobabylon.edu.iq,  cdshwkatalqany@gmail.com

Several concurrent crises have either sprung up or accelerated during the last decade: crises in climate, biodiversity, fuel, food, water, and of late in the financial system and the economy as a whole. Accelerating climate-change emissions indicate a mounting threat of runaway climate change, with potentially disastrous human consequences. The fuel price shock of 2008, and a related flare up in food and commodity prices, both indicate structural weaknesses and risks which remain unresolved. Rising demand, forecast by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and others, suggests an ongoing dependence on oil and other fossil fuels and much higher energy prices as the world economy struggles to recover and grow. Mounting evidence also suggests that transitioning to a green economy has sound economic and social justification. There is a strong case emerging for a redoubling of efforts by both governments as well as the private sector to engage in such an economic transformation. For governments, this would include levelling the playing field for greener products by phasing out antiquated subsidies, reforming policies and providing new incentives, strengthening market infrastructure and market-based mechanisms, redirecting public investment, and greening public procurement. For the private sector, this would involve understanding and sizing the true opportunity represented by green economy transitions across a number of key sectors, and responding to policy reforms and price signals through higher levels of financing and investment. Pages 183 to 199




Tennessee Williams and the Representation of Animal Images

Muslim Mohda*, Lehmood Al-Mamourib, a,bAl-Mustaqbal University College Hilla ,Babylon , Iraq, Email: a*muslim3_2010@Yahoo.Com

Since Aristophanes, playwrights have cast animals in roles where they represent human behaviour. These playwrights have chosen one or more animals to pinpoint behavioural tendencies of their characters. Ben Jonson (Volpone), Anton Chekhov (The Seagull), Henrik Ibsen (The Wild Duck) and Eugene Ionesco (The Rhinoceros) are such playwrights who use animal imagery to depict, and comment on, human behaviour. This paper does not deal with animal imagery as it is generally understood in similes and metaphors; in dialogue and descriptions. Instead, this paper deals with animals and their images as metaphors of characters in respective plays. Tennessee Williams was one playwright who employed animals as motifs. He never tired of experimenting with the idea that animals, properly selected and harnessed, could best capture the mental state of his protagonists. This paper is concerned with the "why" and "how" of his powerful fascination. Pages 200 to 213




The Survival of Ethnic: A Study of the Non-Displacement of Javanese Trans-Migrants between Gam and TNI Conflicts in Aceh, Indonesia

Ibrahim Chalida, Musta'in Mashudb, Toetik Koesbardiatic, Jumadil Saputrad*, Muhammad Nazaruddine, Danialf, a,b,cFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Airlangga, 60115 Surabaya city, East Java, Indonesia, dSchool of Social and Economic Development, Universiti Malaysia Terenganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, eFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Malikussaleh, 24351 Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia, fInstitut Agama Islam Negeri Lhokseumawe, Lancang Garam, 24351 Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia, Email: aibrahim@yahoo.com,  bmustain.mashud@fisip.unair.ac.id,  ctokunair@gmail.com,  djumadil_saputra@umt.edu.my,  enazaruddin@unimal.ac.id,   fdanial@gmail.com

This article provides a case study of the survival and non-displacement of Javanese transmigrants during the conflict between the GAM and the TNI. Its purpose is to describe the survival strategies of Javanese transmigrants in the face of conflict. The conflict between GAM and the TNI resulted in the massacre, expulsion and forced relocation of Javanese transmigrants in the Aceh region. The strategy of surviving transmigrants was to build social strength through social solidarity and to build social cohesion through collective awareness and mutual understanding. The cooperative role of Diponegoro is referred to in this study. Pages 214 to 226




A Study of Investment Pattern through Economic Sectors- Based in Indonesia

Syaparuddina, Zulganib, Dearmi Artisc, Jumadil Saputrad, a,b,cDepartment of Development Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Jambi, Indonesia, dDepartment of Economics, Faculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: asyaparuddin@unja.ac.idbdearmiart@umt.edu.mycjumadilsaput@umt.edu.my

This study aims to analyse the pattern of investment in Indonesia based on economic sectors and the causal relationship between foreign and local investments. The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics through the Granger Causality Analytic. The result of this study indicated that foreign and domestic investment are relatively the same. These patterns showed that the increasing or the decreasing of foreign investment was followed by the increasing or the decreasing of domestic investment. Pages 227 to 240




The Sustainability of Solid Waste Management on Kapas Island, Terengganu, Malaysia

Siti Aisyaha, Jumadil Saputrab*, a,bFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia,        

Email:  aaisyah@umt.edy.mty, b*jumadilsaput@umt.edu.my

Solid waste management is a serious environmental issue for marine park islands, especially in Malaysia. The amount of waste generated by visitors is usually produced within a short period of time and adds to existing waste management problems. The purpose of this study is to identify the sustainability level of solid waste management on Kapas Island, Terengganu. Inefficient solid waste control not only triggers a reduction in tourism, but also provides a negative impact on environmental management. This qualitative study uses primary data collected via in-depth interviews with chalet operators and Marang district Council officials responsible for solid waste management on the island. The result of this study shows that an integrated recycling program and composting methods were seen to be more efficient in solid waste management on Kapas Island. Pages 241 to 249




Competence and Organisational Commitment: A Study of the Mediating Role of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour in the Indonesian Banking Industry

Sih Darmi Astutia, Kusni Ingsihb, a,bUniversitas Dian Nuswantoro, Semarang, Indonesia, Email: aastutiss@dsn.dinus.ac.id,   bkusni.ingish@dsn.dinus.ac.id

The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of competence on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) as mediated by organisational commitment. 115 employees of PT. Bank Mandiri (Persero) in the Kudus office branch - Indonesia are the respondents. Data analysis uses a multiple linear regression with SPSS version 25. The results of this study prove that competence affects organisational commitment and OCB. Furthermore, organisational commitment cannot mediate the relationship between competence and OCB. Pages 250 to 261




Determinant Factors of Police Performance

Kusni Ingsiha, Sih Darmi Astutib*, a,bBusiness and Economic Faculty, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Semarang, Indonesia, Email: akusniingsih@dsn.dinus.ac.id,  bastuti.sda@yahoo.com

The purpose of this study is to build a conceptual model for measuring inequality. The police, as one of the state apparatus, is currently facing increasingly difficult. Police management has faced particular problems such as a waning reputation, internal conflict and poor remuneration and reward schemes. This study is conducted in Semarang Polrestabes - Indonesia. 100 police officers comprise the sample by using a proportional random sampling technique. Data was collected by a survey method using a questionnaire and responses analysed using multiple linear regressions. The results of the study reveal that police performance increases quickly when reputation, monetary reward schemes and the management of risk mitigation factors are in place. Pages 262 to 273




 The Effect of Transformative Interactive Capability on Team Performance: An Empirical Investigation

Ika Nurul Qamaria, Mohsin R. Shaikhb, Udin Udinc, a,cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, bDefence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune, India, Email: aika.nrq@umy.ac.idcudin.udin@umy.ac.id

The phenomenon of mergers, acquisitions, global competition, and new technology is a driving force that demands rapid transformational change for organisations. Management, scholars and consultants have to strive to find the most effective approach to transforming organisations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of transformative interactive capability on team performance. The results of the study reveal that transformative interactive capability (i.e., sensemaking, building, transformative learning, and knowledge-creating) has a significantly positive effect on team performance. This study also evaluates the application of transformative interactive capability and highlights how its dimensions contribute to improving team performance. Pages 274 to 285



Criminal Liability Against Perpetrators of Economic Crimes

Ameel Jabbar Ashoura, aCollege of Law, University of Misan - Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq, Email: aameelashour@uomisan.edu.iq

The widespread prevalence of economic crimes and their dangers to the economy of states have had a significant impact on the need to expand the scope of criminal responsibility and assign it to this dangerous type of crime. Where the capitalism accompanying the reform process in developing countries, including Iraq, has moved towards its rapid quest for wealth creation and the emergence of some illegal means of gain and the emergence of parasitic strata and the disparity in the distribution of income and wealth. Further, the spread of various forms of economic crimes such as crimes of assault on public money, and crimes of tax evasion, customs, bribery, fraud, and commercial fraud, as well as more complex forms of economic crimes, led to the Iraqi criminal legislator to tighten penal sanctions on the perpetrators in the Iraqi Penal Code, Law No. 111 of 1969 amended. However, the negative manifestations of this crime continued largely practiced in sabotaging the national economy, making Iraq in the last underdeveloped countries. Pages 285 to 299

Legal Regulation of Investment Fund Parties

Majid Mijbas Hasana, aCollege of Law, University of Misan - Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq, Email: amajid_hassan@uomisan.edu.iq

Investment funds are one of the modern investment windows that provide people, who do not have the ability to manage their investments directly, the opportunity to participate in financial markets, whether global or local. The idea of investment funds is that a large number of investors pool their resources and have them managed by specialised financial institutions to achieve advantages. Investment funds are financial entities that accumulate the savings of those who wish to invest in securities in one container, and invest in buying and selling different securities. It is a legal system that creates a savings pot for a large number of investors to manage in the stock market through a specialised entity called the Investment Manager and through a diversified portfolio of securities to determine the best possible return on investment. The parties of the investment fund are the founder, investor and treasurer as well as the director of the investment fund. The subject of our research is about the regulation of the provisions of these parties. Pages 300 to 309

The impact of Government Spending on the Growth rate of the Iraqi Economy for the period 1990-2017

Mostafa Kamel Shakira, Ahmed Khalil Al-Husseinib, a,bDepartment of Finance and Banking  , college of Administration & Economics, university of Babylon ,Iraq,

This study aims to analyse and measure the impact of government spending on economic growth in Iraq. It will do this by measuring the impact of public expenditure on growth with regards to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during the period 1990-2017. The study used the Augmented Autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL). To prove the hypothesis, the study was divided into three chapters with a conclusions and recommendations provided. This study hypothesises that there is no significant effect of public spending on economic growth during the study period. The study presents and examines theoretical understandings and applications via quantitative analysis. The main findings of the study show that there is no coordination and coherence between public expenditure and economic growth in achieving the objectives set for economic policy in Iraq. The results indicated that there is a weak effect of government expenditure on GDP growth. Pages 310 to 331

The Impact of Terrorism on Indonesia’s Economic Stability

Muhammad Hattaa, Zulfanb, Teuku Yudi Afrizalc, Ramalinggam Rajamanickamd, Jumadil Saputrae,*, Zikrif a,b,cFaculty of Law, Universitas Malikussaleh, 24351 Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Indonesia, dFaculty of Law, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, e,fSchool of Social and Economic Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: amuhammad.hatta@unimal.ac.id,bzulfan@unimal.ac.id, camponyudiunmalik@yahoo.com,drama@ukm.edu.my, e,*jumadil.saputra@umt.edu.my, fzikri@umt.edu.my

Terrorism is classified as an extraordinary crime that could damage world peace, and disrupt humanity’s security and safety. Accordingly, this study investigates the impact of terrorism on economic stability in Indonesia. This qualitative study aims to describe, record, analyze and interpret a situation where almost all acts of terrorism can disrupt the stability of the economy in Indonesia. This study found that the explosions by terrorist groups made unstable capital markets and fluctuations in money markets, and that investors withdrew or disbursed their capital to other countries. Further, the explosions create negative sentiment for the Indonesian capital market and tourism industry. In response the Indonesian Government strives to increase international world confidence, by professional law enforcement and by giving the maximum punishment to terrorists. Pages 332 to 344

Active Physics Learning with Contextual Teaching Learning Methods

Sussia, Nurwulan Fitriyantib, Aan Komariahc, Dedy Achmad Kurniadyd, a,bTelkom University, c,dUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Email: asussiss@telkomuniversity.ac.id, bnurwulanf@telkomuniversity.ac.id, caan_komariah@upi.edu, ddedy_achmad@upi.edu

This research aims to clarify the problem of student inactivity when learning Physics. Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) methods are suggested. Students are given a scenario to actively learn, by connecting day-to-day activities on potential learning with previously owned knowledge. This class action research was conducted in two Cycles, each of which consists of two meetings. High and very high scores of class activeness were obtained using CTL; 42.2% in Cycle I at the first meeting and 67 % at the second meeting, and in Cycle II, 84.7%. Activeness increased 24.8% in Cycle I at the second meeting, compared to the first meeting, and by 22.3% in Cycle II compared to Cycle I at the second meeting. The conclusion is that the CTL method can increase student activity in learning Physics. Pages 345 to 356
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