Comparative Personality Education of Preschoolers, Adolescents and University Students Through Big Data and Network Analysis

Su-Jeong Jeonga, Jeong-Jin Younb, Byung-Man Kimc*, aResearch Professor, Creativity & Personality Laboratory, Tongmyong University, Pusan, 48570, Republic of Korea, bProfessor, Dept. of Early Childhood Education, Tongmyong University, Pusan, 48570, Republic of Korea, cProfessor, Dept. of Early childhood education, Kyungnam University, Changwon, 51767, Republic of Korea, Email: ajsjs@tu.ac.kr,  bjjy@tu.ac.kr,  cbmkim@kyungnam.ac.kr

The purpose of this study is to suggest the direction that should be pursued after exploring the status of personality education for preschoolers, adolescents and college students by analysing big data using social network analysis. Data were gathered using the key words ‘preschoolers personality‘, ‘adolescents personality’ and ‘personality of college students‘, and the social network analysis was conducted using refined data. The research findings reveal that education that utilises media for personality education targeting preschoolers is necessary for student development and it is more crucial to give personality education to preschoolers at home. This is due to the fact that parents and grandparents greatly influence the development of preschoolers’ personalities at home. As for the adolescent personality, the research findings indicate that schools play more important roles in humanistic education. For this reason, schools should organise effective lectures and special lectures for personality education and provide opportunities for all students to perceive the importance of humanism. In terms of the college student group, the study has found that learners need to consolidate their personality through mentoring programs with professors, seniors and peers or through social activities. The results of the study suggest that the personality education approach would produce highly qualified and well-rounded members of society in accordance with emphasising the importance of the employee’s personality in the job market. Furthermore, people who have developed personality through personality education are a vital resource in this modern information-oriented society. Pages 1 to 16




Developing an Effective English Writing Assistant Based on the AWE System

Jae-il Yia, aCollege of General Education, Semyung University, Jecheon-si, 27136 Korea, Email: anayltd@semyung.ac.kr

Conveying thoughts to other people as clearly and concisely as possible is a priority in writing, especially when the writer is an L2 learner. This paper proposes a system that utilizes the AWE process to enhance the clarity of a text written by a non-native English speaker. The system is designed to analyse English sentences, deconstruct them into essential and optional elements, and then give the user the choice to modify or delete selected elements. The system proposed in this study will comparatively analyse the user’s vocabulary and sentence structure, and present them with relatively universal synonyms and an improved sentence structure to ultimately create a sentence that clearly conveys its meaning. The proposed system distinguishes sentence elements, subjects, verbs, objects, complements, and adjuncts by deconstructing the sentence into units. Among these sentence elements, adjuncts are considered to be optional elements and the remaining elements are considered to be essential to completing a grammatically appropriate sentence. However, each essential element may contain various additional words and adjuncts that make the sentence fancy or give the sentence various meanings. These additional words often complicate the sentence structure and interfere with L2 learners’ mutual communication. Through further research and development, these additional words and adjuncts can be introduced into the system to enhance the structure of a given sentence according to the user’s English level. In modern societies, English is a global language used for communication by people of different nationalities. In many cases, complicated sentence structure plays a crucial role in misunderstanding the English language. Therefore, the development of software that simplifies complicated sentence structures and makes clear communication possible will further improve the status of English as a global language. Pages 17 to 26




 Quantifying the Effects of Programming Education on Students’ Knowledge Representation and Perception in Computational Thinking

Youngseok Leea, Jungwon Chob*, aProfessor, KNU College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Kangnam University, 40 Gangnam-ro Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 16979, South Korea, bProfessor, Department of Computer Education, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju-si, Jeju-do, 63243, South Korea, Email: ayslee38@kangnam.ac.kr,  b*jwcho@jejunu.ac.kr

Students should be able to express their knowledge in a manner that computers can understand. We aim to improve students' computational thinking (CT) and to express knowledge representation through programming education. We have developed a tool to measure students' CT. Tests were conducted using pattern analysis, conditional comparison, abstraction, automation, and algorithm design. Through Python programming education, we taught students’ the knowledge expression needed to solve various problems, and then conducted a post-test. We analysed the correlations between the academic performance of students and their computer-related knowledge and expression skills. Even though students were unfamiliar with computer programming terminology and concepts, programming and computing education was administered based on problems that could be solved using elementary mathematics. There was no significant difference between the results of the initial students’ assessments and the results after the lecture. However, the correlation between the students’ assessments and actual academic performance was high. These studies provide a pilot model of how tools can be used to express and measure students’ knowledge of CT. Based on these results, students can learn a variety of techniques to express their knowledge and continue to improve upon such. Pages 27 to 38




The Relationship between the Body Circumference and Health Status of Elderly Women: The Usefulness of Calf Circumference Measurement

Chulhyeong Parka, aAcademic research professor, Educational Science Research Institute, Jeju National University, 102, Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 63243, Korea, Email: apch0629@jejunu.ac.kr

As people age, physical and physiological changes occur, including an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures, and decreased muscle tone. These symptoms can be confirmed by regular check-ups, however, the physical examination method is considered to be a more economic and effective way to assess these symptoms. The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between body circumference, physical fitness, lung capacity, and sarcopenia risk factors with the predictors of elderly women’s health status. Initially, 143 women (over 65 years) enrolled in and completed this study; however, the final study group consisted of only 131 participants, as 12 participants withdrew. We used the G-Power 3.1 program for statistical analysis. The effect size, significance level, and power were set at 0.3, 0.05, and 0.90, respectively. Firstly, CC showed the highest positive correlation with muscle mass, SMM, and lean body mass, and the least positive correlation with the obesity index. Secondly, CC had a positive correlation with grip strength and dynamic balance. Thirdly, CC had a negative correlation with SBP and a static correlation with ASM, FEV,1 and PEF. Fourthly, the decrease in SLM and SMM was 6 times higher in the case of sarcopenia risk, and the risk of sarcopenia was over 15.54 times higher for those over 80 years of age.  Based on the above results, our conclusion is that CC has the potential to predict physical health and exercise function. This measurement method is simple, inexpensive, and advantageous as a measurement tool. The application of various simple measurement tools and the identification of predictors of different diseases (including sarcopenia risk factors) needs to be developed; this seems to be an area for further research in the future. Pages 39 to 49




The Spread and the Future of Preprint Servers that Support the Quick Sharing of Research Results

Mi-Hwan Hyuna, Tae-Sul Seob*, aSenior researcher, Korea Institute of Science & Technology Information, Yuseong-gu, Korea, 34141, South Korea, bDirector, Korea Institute of Science & Technology Information, Yuseong-gu, Korea, 34141, South Korea, Email: amhhyun@kisti.re.krb*tsseo@kisti.re.kr

In conventional academic communication environments, Preprint servers have emerged as a solution to speedingf up the publishing process. This study investigates current Preprint servers and their outlook through an analysis of overseas Preprint server cases. This study classified the publication process in a traditional academic publishing environment into six stages. In the academic publishing stage, the Preprint and Postprint versions of papers were self-archived. We examined and defined the concept of Preprint servers. This study also performed a Preprint server status and case analysis. The proliferation of open science, which shares the entire research process and results, is affecting academic publishing. As of May 2019, arXiv – the first preprint server, launched in 1991 – has over 1.5 million papers. Additionally, a total of 2.2 million papers are being serviced by 29 Preprint servers worldwide. Under the leadership of COS (Centre for Open Science) – an open science organization – various Preprint servers are being created according to different countries, languages, and academic fields. Researchers are increasingly depositing their papers at Preprint servers so that their research can be immediately published. Preprint servers are attracting attention as new alternatives to traditional academic publishing. The results of this study can be used by information service providers to formulate service strategies for researchers to share and spread their findings. This study additionally provides information for developing business strategies to academic publishers and database builders. Pages 50 to 59




Contextualizing Human Skills Education for Legacy Countries: The Educators’ Perspective

Renante A. Egcasa, aVice President for Academic Affairs Northern Negros State College of Science and Technology, Sagay City, Philippines, Email: araeegcas@gmail.com

This paper explores the focus and management of education contextualized for a legacy-archetyped country in the condition of industry 4.0. This paper also offers a doable framework for a contextualized human skills education (CHSE). This research is exploratory and uses secondary research, open-ended surveys and interviews, and round table and focused group discussions with participating education managers, technology managers, and technical and engineering professors from private and government higher education institutions in the Philippines. The majority of the participants agreed that for a legacy country, like the Philippines, where human capital is an important production driver, education must focus on human skills or soft skills. The participants maintained that critical thinking, complex problem solving, creativity and cognitive flexibility are the topmost important skills needed to thrive in the fourth industrial revolution. People-oriented skills like coordinating with others, judgment and decision making, service orientation, and negotiation are also recognized as vital technologies directly affecting human beings and the environment. There is a dearth of studies on education and educational management contextualized to a country archetype. Thus, this study is novel, relevant, and contributes to advancing knowledge in this particular field. Pages 60 to 75




The Impact of Benefits and Risks of Social Media on Adolescents

Apridara, Khalsiahb, Anwar Putehc, Rita Mutiad, Teuku Azharie, aLecturer at the Faculty of Economics and Business of University of Malikussaleh, bEnglish Lecturer, University of Malikussaleh, cStudent of Faculty of Business, Economic and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Trengganu, dLecturer in Accounting Department of University of Malikussaleh, eEnglish Lecturer at Faculty of Chemical Engineering,  University of Malikussaleh, Email: bikal.ikal13@gmail.com,  canwarputeh@unimal.ac.id,  etazhari@unimal.ac.id

This research aims to deduce the benefits and risks of social media on adolescents. Internet access encourages adolescents to socialize and communicate; internet access additionally allows adolescents to obtain data and resources from library research, journals, articles, and online newspapers. This study  deduced that adolescents primarily use social media to easily access data – rather than going to the library – and to communicate with one another. Pages 76 to 80




The Performance of the Marsiurupan Tradition in the Angkola Community’s Wedding Ceremonies

Habib Rahmansyaha, Robert Sibaranib, Ikhwanuddin Nasutionc, Syahron Lubisd, aDoctoral Student of Faculty of Science, University of Sumatera Utara, aLecturer of Institut Pandidikan Tapanuli Selatan, b,c,dFaculty of Cultural Science, Universitas Sumatera Utara

This study describes the performance of text, co-texts and context in the Angkola people’s traditional wedding ceremonies. The marsiurupan tradition is an oral tradition carried out by the Angkola community. It consists of joyful events (siriaon) and also sorrowful events (siluluton). Marsiurupan in siriaon events, such as the Angkola community’s wedding ceremonies, starts from marpege-pege, pajongjong los, markuras, mamasu dahanon, sibodak mangkubak, mardangdang, manggule and manungkus indahan. This research method is descriptive and qualitative. It seeks to obtain information needed from informants using observations and in-depth interview techniques. The results showed that the forms of marsiurupan’s traditional performance are marpege-pege, pajongjong los, markuras, mamasu dahanon, mangkubak sibodak, mardangdang, manggule and manungkus indahan. In marsiurupan, text in the form of a hobar (namely marpege-pege), consists of macro structures (themes), superstructures, and microstructures. Then a co-text consists of paralinguistic and material elements. Furthermore, the context of the marsiurupan tradition is social context, situational context, cultural context and ideological context. Pages 81 to 91




Optimization of Special Autonomy Funds Allocation to Alleviate Poverty in Aceh (A Case Study in Districts/Cities)

Husni Jalil,a Teuku Ahmad Yani,b Andri Kurniawan,c Professor at Faculty of Law, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh Indonesia,a Lecturer at Faculty of Law, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh Indonesia,b,c Email: husnijalil@unsyiah.ac.id,a teuku_yani@unsyiah.ac.id,b andri@unsyiah.ac.idc

Aceh Province is a region with special autonomy. In addition to having income sourced from the fiscal balance fund from the central government, it is also granted a Special Autonomy Fund. The fund is not only intended to carry out provincial government affairs but also district/city affairs. One aspect of the use of Special Autonomy Funds, as mandated by law, is to reduce poverty. However, the Special Autonomy Fund has been granted for 12 years and the poverty rate in Aceh is still high above the national average, even if identified as misdirected. Thus, this study aims to find the reasons why Special Autonomy Funds are not significantly reducing poverty in Aceh. It will also investigate a model to overcome the problem. This is a legal study because the legal aspect, namely the Aceh Qanun as a legal umbrella term, is the basis of the use of Special Autonomy Funds. The results showed that Special Autonomy Funds are misused, misdirected, and mostly dominated by province. Moreover, the use of the fund is heavily influenced by political interests. This is proven by the inconsistency of the Aceh Qanun (which regulates Special Autonomy Funds), and disagreement over the master plans for the use of Special Autonomy Funds as a reference in planning the use of the funds. It is recommended to authorities to include districts/cities as autonomous regions so that they can carry out their government affairs. In particular, these affairs concern poverty alleviation funded by sources from Special Autonomy Funds. Pages 93 to 108




Bali’s Cultural Arts and the Contest of Identity During the Tourism Era of Bali

I Gusti Ngurah Seramasara,a* Ida Ayu Trisnawati,b Department of Perforing Art, Institut Seni Indonesia (ISI) Denpasar, Indonesia,a,b Email: aseramasara@gmail.coma*

Bali is quite well known by the outside world for its cultural arts. This has caused Bali to be developed as a tourist destination. The development of Bali as a tourist destination has been carried out by the Dutch colonial government since the beginning of the 20th century. Based on presidential instruction, Bali was made a pilot for tourist destination projects because the potential of Balinese cultural arts has been widely promoted abroad. The development of Bali as a tourist area has led to a cultural identity contest between the interests of the state and the interests of Bali. The state needs foreign exchange revenues, while the regional government wants to maintain a Balinese cultural identity as part of religious activities. Thus, this paper aims to examine performing arts a part of Balinese arts and cultural heritage, amidst the contest of identity. The focus of the study in this paper is: How is the development of traditional Balinese performing arts a contest, and how do Balinese local governments maintain an artistic and cultural identity? To study the issues above, qualitative research methods are used in analysis of the theory of hegemony. The results of this study show that traditional Balinese performing arts experience secularisation, and the concept of cultural tourism is changing into a tourism industry. Pages 109 to 120




 The Dance of ‘Baris Bebek Bingar Bengkala’: Art for the Disabled

Ida Ayu Trisnawati,a* I Gusti Ngurah Seramasara,b Department of Perforing Art, Institut Seni Indonesia (ISI) Denpasar, Indonesia,a,b Email: dayutrisna@gmail.coma*

Art, as an expression of the soul, exists in every human being, both those who are perfect and those who experienced various limitations (disabled). Therefore, it needs to be developed and facilitated, so that it can continue to express the artistic talent that is in itself. The enthusiasm in physical limitations have been inspired to make this happen in a new dance movement that is the ‘Baris Bebek Bingar Bengkala’ dance. The dance art, hereinafter called ‘Bebila’, means the spirit of heroism of warriors who are so heroic they surpass their physical limitations. The ‘Bebila’ dance illustrates the joy and excitement in carrying out its sacred obligations under one of its leadership commands. The dance of ‘Bebila’ is a special dance. It is created for the disabled (deaf-mute) in Bengkala Village. This dance is the result of a combination of line dance moves, brawls, duck herders, and expressions of public excitement in art. Pages 121 to 128




The Registration of Marriages and Urgency after the Tsunami in Aceh

Jamaluddin,a* Ramziati,b Faisal,c Jumadiah,d Faculty of Law at Malikussaleh University of Aceh – Indonesia Lhokseumawe,a,b,c,d Email: jamaluddin@unimal.ac.ida*

Marriage is a legal event that gives rights and obligations to a couple. It must be registered legally following the provisions of the law. A marriage is valid if it is done according to Article 2 of Law Number 1 of 1974 about Marriage. The objective of this study is to analyse the recordings of post-tsunami marriages in Aceh. There are still many marriages are not recorded in the community after the Tsunami disaster. This is qualitative research that used a socio-legal approach. The specific research locations are Lhokseumawe, North Aceh, Middle Aceh, Bener Meriah, and Meulaboh. It was found that the registration of marriage as an administrative requirement (to obtain legal recognition and citizens' rights protection) has not been understood clearly by Acehnese people. The research produced a model to strengthen the roles and responsibilities of a Marriage Registration Assistant. This was done by means of a marriage registration assistant collaborating with village officials (RT). The unregistered marriages of residents was aggressively recorded and reported to the local KUA (the Office of Religious Affairs), in order to process them and get a marriage book. Pages 129 to 137




 A Model of the Remuneration Pattern of Lecturers’ Performances in Budget Evaluation Management at the University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa

Suherman,a* Sholeh Hidayat,b Kurnia Nugraha,c Oding Supriadi,d Suparno,e Post Graduate, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Serang, Indonesia,a,b,e Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Serang, Indonesia,c Non formal education, University of Singaperbangsa, Karawang, Indonesia,d Email: suherman@untirta.ac.ida*

The remuneration pattern of budget management emphasises the concept of value for money and supervision of output performances. The purpose is to know lecturers’ performances at the University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa. The research design was implemented to achieve the objective. Performance evaluation is evaluated by analysing work performance, attendance, learning activities, research and social contribution. The researchers found that 97.98% of lecturers with additional duty had satisfactory performances according to the results of evaluation. Meanwhile, 57.49% of lecturers without additional duty were found to have satisfactory performances, while 21.46% of them were found to have very good performances. Others had good, moderate, and appropriate obligations. This research has the calculation of a performance-based budget. It is established by brainstorming lecturer activities and elaborating on the semester credit system. In dealing with the performance results, budget management is measurable, effective, and efficient. Pages 138 to 148




The State’s Sovereign Rights to Protect Biodiversity in Indonesia for the Sake of the Indonesian People’s Survival

Yulia,a* Nuribadah,b Sofyan Jafar,c Fauzah Nur Aksa,d  Herinawati,e Lecturer in the Faculty of Law, Malikussaleh University,a,b,c,d,e Email: yulia@unimal.ac.ida*

The state has the country's sovereign right to protect biodiversity. This sovereign right gives the state authority to regulate the use of biodiversity within its territory. The CBD and Nagoya Indonesia Protocol have a very large biodiversity. Biodiversity needs to be protected for the survival of human life. Therefore, this article will examine the state's sovereign rights to protect biodiversity in Indonesia. This study is a doctrinal study that uses literature study data. The results of the study found that in the constitution, Indonesia has a strong foundation to protect biodiversity for the survival of the people. Article 33 emphasises the state's right to control biodiversity, including the right to create laws and regulations that protect biodiversity. Pages 149 to 158




The Effect of Islamic Work Ethics and Organisational Cultural Motivation on OCB and Employee Performance at Bank Aceh Syariah

Yuliusdharma,a* Amiur Nuruddin,b Arfan Ikhsan,c Doctoral Candidate in Islamic Economics at UIN Sumatera Utara, North Sumatra, Indonesia,a Professor of Islamic Economics, Faculty of Islamic Economic and Business, UIN Sumatera Utara, North Sumatera, Indonesia,b Lecturer of Economic Faculty in Universitas Negeri Medan,c Email: yuliusdharma@unimalac.ida*

The purpose of this study was to see how much Islamic work ethics and motivation effected Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and employee performance at Bank Aceh Syariah. The population in this study was located in all sharia banking branch offices in Aceh province. There are 14 branches in 27 locations. The study used primary data obtained through interviews and questionnaires. A stratified proposition technique (namely random sampling), Structural Equation Model (SEM) methods and intervening variables were used. The results showed that commitment and loyalty greatly affect the value of employees’ work culture at Sharia Bank. Islamic work ethics created in the form of Siddiq, Amanah, Tabligh and Fatanah are the main fundamental principles. Work ethic becomes a mirror of an employee's performance and shows a positive and significant influence on organisational culture. This can create an increase in the cultural performance of a good organisation. Pages 159 to 171




Translation Strategies Used in Indonesian Translation of Acehnese Poem “Munajat Perempuan Sufi Aceh Pocut Di Beutong

Nurul Fadhillaha*, M. Husnan Lubisb, Tengku Silvana Sinarc, Eddy Setiad

aStudent of Linguistics Doctoral Program, Faculty of Cultural Science, Universitas Sumatera Utara. aLecturer of Teacher Training and Education Faculty, IAIN Lhokseumawe. b,c,dFaculty of Cultural Science, Universitas Sumatera Utara

Corresponding author: lu2fadilah@gmail.com

The practice of translation is important because it becomes as medium of intercultural communication in various scientific fields. This study examines the results of the translation of a script in Jawi titled “Munajat Perempuan Sufi Pocut di Beutong (MPB), in the form of Acehnese poem as source language (SL) into Indonesian as target language (TL). The structure and cultural differences between SL and TL caused some shift in meaning of MPB translation result. The shift in meaning occurred in the translation is caused by certain strategies applied by the translator in translating MPB. This study aims to analyze the propensity of translation strategies applied to the script and the reasons why translator chose to applied those certain strategies. The theory used to answer the problem in this study is translation strategy by Nida & Taber (1969), namely the Formal and Dynamic strategies; translation strategy by Newmark (1988), namely the Semantic and Communicative strategies, and the context of situation theory by Firth & Malinowski (2000). The method used in this study is the method of documentation (library research), using descriptive and qualitative approaches. The result of the study show that: the translation strategies that tend to be used by translator are the Formal and Semantic strategies, because the translation in TL maintains the structure of SL which is poetic in the form of poem, but the meaning is still equivalence based on the context of the situation as understood in TL. Yet, some lines of poem with cultural words which used both strategies could not refer the same meaning in SL, so different strategies are used, namely Dynamic and Communicative strategies, in order to provide a better understanding to the reader. Pages 172 to 182




Assessing the Relationship between Corporate Reputation, Customer Satisfaction, Behavioural Intentions and Customer Loyalty

Ririn Andrianaa, Saparsob, Tomi Fitrioc, Emmywatid, Badaruddine, a,dSTIE Mahardika Surabaya, Indonesia, bKrida Wacana Christian University, cSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indragiri, eSTIE Nobel Indonesia, Email: aririn.andriana@yahoo.com,  bsaparso@ukrida.ac.id,  ebadar@stienobel-indonesia.ac.id

Corporate reputation is an intangible asset of organisations that could help to sustain a competitive advantage for a long period; however, ineffective development of corporate reputation by organisations could reduce the competitive advantage in the global market. To address this issue, this study aims to examine the effect of corporate reputation on customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and behavioural intention in the restaurant industry of Indonesia. Using a cross-sectional research design, 600 questionnaires were distributed among managers in the restaurant industry of Indonesia. A convenient sampling technique was used, which yielded a 58.33% response rate. The Structural Equation Modelling technique was used to analyse the data. The findings have shown a positive and significant association between corporate reputation, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and behavioural intention. This study contributed to the extant literature and also provided valuable insights upon which organisations may capitalize to improve corporate reputation and sustain a competitive advantage. Pages 183 to 199




The Impact of Green Supply Chain Management Practices on Corporate Sustainability Performance: Empirical Evidence from the Food Industry of Indonesia

Ratih Pratiwia, Widodob, aManagement Doctoral Program (PDIM), Unissula, Semarang, Indonesia; Universitas Wahid Hasyim Semarang, Indonesia, bUniversitas Islam Sultan Agung Semarang, Email: arara@unwahas.ac.id,  bwidodo3@yahoo.com

Green supply chain management (GSCM) is an important resource for organisations that provides assistance with maintaining sustainable performance. Although, the ineffective development of GSCM in organisation can negatively impact its sustainable performance. To address this issue, this study aims to investigate the effect of GSCM practices on corporate sustainable performance. Using a cross-sectional research design, data were collected from the 609 managers of the food industry by using the convenient sampling technique, which yielded a 65.68% response rate. Further, the data were analysed using the PLS-SEM. The findings have shown that the environmental education system and green information system have an insignificant association with sustainable performance, while the other six components have a significant association with sustainable performance. The current study contributed to the extant literature by recommending that GSCM be an important predictor for maintaining the sustainable performance of an organisation. The study also contains implications for supply chain managers, especially in the food manufacturing industries. Pages 200 to 219



Language Mastery Inventory as a Basis for Instructional Design and Remediation

Renante A. Egcasa, Genebelle E. Oniegob, aNorthern Negros State College of Science and Technology, Negros Occidental, Philippines, bDepartment of Education, Cadiz City Division, Negros Occidental, Philippines, Email: araeegcas@gmail.com,  bgenebelle.oniego@deped.gov.ph

English is the language of globalization. It is a  potent tool for operating in most fields, countries and populations. Countries in different regions of the globe have varying claims in terms of the level of English proficiency and  strategies in achieving such a level. Hence, this study aims to determine the most and  least mastered areas in English grammar of Grade VI pupils as a reference for enhancing language instruction and designing modules and other support instructional materials for improved outcomes. The research respondents were 348 Grade VI pupils of DepEd Division of Cadiz City, Negros Occidental, Philippines. This is a descriptive research which uses a researcher-made test instrument to determine the respondents’ test performance and mastery level in English grammar. The researcher utilized the test score mean  to describe the performance and mastery level of the respondents. The results revealed that respondents have low to average test performance in all 7 areas of grammar tested including modal, verb, pronoun, preposition, noun, adjective and adverb. It eventually showed that these areas were less mastered. The findings further revealed that there was a significant difference in the level of performance and mastery in grammar between  male and female respondents. Henceforth, it may be recommended that English teachers  strengthen the teaching of grammar in elementary schools. They may focus more on the least mastered areas or where pupils find difficulties. The developed modules may be used as supplementary materials for remedial teaching-learning activities. Pages 220 to 233


The Effect of Product Quality, Brand Image, Price, and Advertising on Purchase Decision and its Impact on  Customer Loyalty of Morinaga Milk in Aceh

Adnana*, Mukhlis Yunusb, Muhammad Adamc, Hafasnuddind, aPh.D Student at Management Science of Syiah Kuala University, Aceh Indonesia. Lecturer of Malikussaleh University, b,c,dLecturer at Doctoral Program in Management Science Syiah Kuala University, Email: a*adnanberdan@yahoo.co.id

The lack of studies  regarding  purchase decisions about  customer loyalty is the reason for the emergence of new concepts about the influence of product quality, brand image, price and advertising on purchase decisions that have implications for the loyalty of Morinaga milk customers in Aceh. This study uses quantitative analysis where the data analysis technique is the structural equation model, SEM Amos, and uses forty references related to product quality, brand image, price, advertising, decision making, and customer loyalty. It  includes  250 respondents as the study samples. The results of the study reveal that product quality, brand image, price, and perceived advertisement have a significant effect on the purchase decision of customers and have an effect on customer loyalty. These results provide support for the concept of the relationship between decision making and customer loyalty and empirical evidence on the mediating effects of decision making on the relationship between marketing mix elements and customer loyalty. Pages 234 to 249


Behaviour and Mentality of Inong Balee in the Military Operations Area (Dom) 1989-1998

Bachtiar Akoba*, Reni Nuryantib, a,bDepartment of History, Samudra University Aceh Indonesai, Email: a*bachtiarakob@unsam.ac.id

This research  aims to explain  Inong Balee’s behaviour during  the Military Operations Area (DOM)’s enactment in Aceh in 1989-1998. Psychosocial and anthropological approaches are used to explain aspects of behaviour and mentality  combined with historical methods including heuristic, source criticism, interpretation, and drawing conclusions. Based on research,   Inong Balee’s decision to join the Free Aceh Movement (GAM) was influenced by the psychology individuals relate to  as experiences of violence and the encouragement of GAM troops. Military training, ideological education, as well as historical narratives of Aceh's glory provided to Inong Balee legitimized options for helping GAM. The mindset from ideology into action reflects  Inong Balee's mentality. Pages 250 to 258

Trenggalek Typical Food Diversification Strategies for Increasing Competitiveness in the SDGS Era by Using a Business Model Canvas

Dyah Sawitria*, Endang Suswatib, a,bDepartment of Management, Universitas Gajayana, Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*dyahsawitri19@yahoo.com

While facing  product competition occurs in today’s  market , one should continue to innovate  . The selected strategy is  diversification and product innovation. Determining product diversification and innovation,  appropriate management strategies, business models and analyses were needed. There were many strategies explained in a business model because they related to numerous aspects of  business. The business model includes managing the purpose of relationship with suppliers, distributors or customers directly. The Business Model Canvas is a business strategy management system that allows us to describe, design and then narrow down several aspects of business  into a single business strategy. This research is a descriptive study using a qualitative approach about   the fields  of micro, small and medium enterprises (UMKM), processed foods typically of Trenggalek. The results show that the small and medium business participants  have actually  implemented Canvas Business Model and Product Diversification  ,  usubg strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) as an analysis tool and also indirectly. Another finding is that business operators found it  difficult to reach international markets (exports) due to issues of documents, legality, licensing and access. From the findings, the researchers modified and created a suitable canvas business model to fit  the behaviour of UMKM in Trenggalek by referring to and combining  several successful UMKM in Trenggalek. The researcher compiled a module on how to reach the international market in the era of SDGs. Pages 259 to 272

The Utopia of Islamization: Between Distant Ideas and Inept Theories

Azizan Bin Had,a Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Labuan International Campus,a Independent Researcher Labuan, Malaysia,b Email: azizan@ums.edu.mya

The past thirty years have seen a swift advance in the idea of Islamization of Knowledge (IoK) in Malaysia. The term ‘Islamization’ (meaning the reform of knowledge in Islam), has been used by Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas and Ismail Al-Faruqi, especially in the late 1970’s. They explicate the process of Islamizing and the reformation of academia in the Muslim World, in the aftermath of the ‘malaise’ of the ʿummah.  The aim of the research is to provide a critical review of IoK within the Muslim world by looking at the ideas of Muslim scholar Osman Bakar’s view of IoK and critically examining it using a grounded theory called Sociology of Knowledge (SoK). This theory was articulated by scholars such as Karl Mannheim and later expanded by Peter Berger, Michel Foucault, Syed Hussein Alatas and Syed Farid Alatas. The focus of the paper is the conception of ‘utopia’, which will be used to analyse the style of thought of a Muslim scholar. Pages 273 to 289

Effective Leadership and Self-Motivation towards Professional Teachers: a Study of Private Vocational Teachers in Serang District

Syadeli Hanafia*, Ediwarmanb, aNon formal education, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Serang City, Indonesia, bDepartment of Indoensia Language, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Serang City, Banten, Indonesia, Email: a*syadeli@untirta.ac.id

Qualified teachers’ performance is needed by school organisations in order to improve school quality. There are several factors that influence teachers’ performance, including the leadership of school principals and work motivation. This research aims to find out the effect of (1) school principal's leadership, (2) work motivation, and (3) school principal's leadership and work motivation together on teachers’ performance. The research methodology used is an explanatory research method with a quantitative research approach. The population of this study was 176 private vocational high school teachers in Cikupa District, Tangerang Regency, and Banten Province. The samples were taken by proportional stratified random sampling technique of 121 teachers and data collection techniques using a questionnaire. The instruments were arranged based on a Likert scale. The results of the study concluded that firstly, leadership principals affect the performance of teachers by 70.7%; secondly, work motivation affects the performance of teachers by 67.8%; and thirdly, the leadership of principals and work motivation together affect the performance of teachers by 71%. Pages 290 to 304

Swot Analysis of Islamic Education Facing the Era of Globalization

Zulfikar Ali Buto,a* Hafifuddinb a,bIain Lhokseumawe,

*Corresponding Author: Zaule_lsm@yahoo.com, zulfikar@iainlhokseumawe@ac.id

The development of Islamic education in the era of globalization continues to decline in various fields. This decline comes from internal and external Islamic education itself. This problem is defined as a setback that requires a solution, so that this decline does not become a chronic disease. Chronic illness created by previous people should not be felt by the next generation. Using the SWOT analysis method, this paper attempts to provide an overview, for the development of Islamic education. With this, there is hope to provide a way out and to provide strategic steps for planning further development of Islamic education in the future. Pages 305 to 312