The Effect of International Marketing and Marketing Communication on Marketing Performance at Yogyakarta’s SMEs

Lusia Tria Hatmanti Hutamia, Ignatius Soni Kurniawanb*, a,bUniversitas Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa, Indonesia, Email: b*soni_kurniawan@ustjogja.ac.id

This study discusses the effect of international marketing and marketing communication on marketing performance and marketing communication toward international marketing existed in SMEs at Yogyakarta. The research used path analysis with convenience sampling as a sampling method. However, marketing communication is rejected by affected international marketing. Marketing communication has a greater impact than international marketing toward marketing performance. The results indicate that the manager of the SMEs should take care of how marketing tools are held in the business. It must carry good communication tools and an international marketing point of view. Suggestions for future research should improve the quality of the exported products with consideration for the green industry. Pages 1 to 12




Recovery of Women’s Trauma Through Islamic Spiritual Approaches in Pattani

Kusmawati Hatta1  Iskandar21Faculty of Da'wah and Communication State Islamic University of Ar-Raniry, 2Faculty of Ushuluddin Adab and Dakwah, Department of Islamic Counseling and Guidance-State Institute of Islamic Studies  (IAIN) Malikussaleh Lhokseumawe, Indonesia. Email : 1kusmawati.hatta@yahoo.com, 2isibrham@gmail.com

This research responds to the phenomenon of women's trauma that occurred in Pattani, ​​a conflict area that has not yet been completed. The reason this topic is considered relevant is because the Koran is the only spiritual reference that is still authentic to this day and most victims are Muslims. The author uses a mixed method. Qualitative data from a number of victims is selected by purposive sampling and quantitative data to determine the accuracy of handling trauma. The three main findings are the absence of academics in trauma recovery, the absence of ulama, and the absence of Islamic spiritual support based on science. This study concludes that using Islamic spirituality supported by science to recover women’s trauma in Pattani is a new approach. The results can be applied to women who have experienced trauma in conflict areas. Using spirituality in handling trauma is an easy and inexpensive way. Pages 13 to 26




The Intervening Coherence of Quality Management and Empowerment on the Relationship between Leader Behaviour and Job Satisfaction among University Lecturers

Muhammad Naveed Jabbara, Fauzi Hussinb, Mamoona Nazlic, Email: amuhammad_naveed_j@ahgs.uum.edu.my,  bfauzi@uum.edu.my,  cmoong418@gmail.com,

This article determines the indicators perceived by university lecturers in Pakistan towards job satisfaction. Previous studies suggested that variables such as leader behaviour, quality management and empowerment have a significant influence on job satisfaction. Despite its importance, this idea has been insufficiently considered at a university level in Pakistan. A cross sectional research design was used for this study. The population was the public university lecturers in Pakistan. 461 lecturers were selected from six sample universities through a stratified random sampling technique by using the survey method. This is a quantitative study that uses a questionnaire that has four sections. Smart PLS-SEM-3.2.8 was computed to analyse the hypothesis of the study. Findings of this study revealed that variables such as service quality, management, and empowerment, have strong and positive influence on the job satisfaction of lecturers. Furthermore, service quality, management, and empowerment have positive mediating effects on the significance relationship between leader behaviour and job satisfaction among university lecturers. Pages 27 to 48




The Potential of Utilizing Solar Power Plants in the City of Gorontalo in Supporting a Green City

Stephan Adrianysah Hulukatia*, Qomariyatus Sholihahb, Marjonoc, aDoctoral Program of Environmental Sciences, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia, bIndustrial Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas of Brawijaya, Indonesia, cDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Brawijaya, Indonesia, Email: a*Stephanhulukati17@gmail.com

Gorontalo Province is developing and utilizing new and renewable energy to support a green city due to the increasing demand for electricity, which exceeds the available supply of existing electric energy. Power outages still occur frequently and are a sign that the existing electricity supply, which is interconnected with the Minahasa system and the existing Gorontalo system, is no longer able to meet the electricity needs of the community and the industry. This demand will only continue to increase, which calls for greater development in the field of renewable energy. Therefore, in the development of new renewable energy, an analysis of electricity, in terms of the economy and the environment is necessary as the dynamics of the development process will have an impact on society, both positive and negative. Based on this background, this study will examine how the construction of an electric power plant utilizing new renewable energy will impact the people in Gorontalo Province. From monitoring of Thursday, September 26, 2019, we obtained data on the ultraviolet index, 3.5 (moderate), and wind speed: moderate breeze, southeast: 4-11 km / h, moderate wind, southeast: 18-25 km / h and moderate wind, south-east: 18-25 km / h. Based on predicted irradiation, the sun in Gorontalo City will intensify until 2022 with UV values: 51.1%. Pages 49 to 58




Factors that Impact the Development of Early Childhood’s Communication Competence

Fauzia, aFaculty of Tarbiya and Teacher Training, State Islamic Institute of Purwokerto, Indonesia, Email: afauzi@iainpurwokerto.ac.id

This research aims to obtain empirical information about the influence of vocabulary mastery, sentence mastery, and social intelligence on early childhood communication skills; and to know the variables with the greatest impact on early childhood communication skills. This research uses a quantitative approach, a causal associative type with path analysis techniques. The research was conducted on the children of Raudlatul Athfal (Islamic education institute for early childhood) class B in Banyumas Regency, Central Java Province. Multistage sampling technique obtained 179 children for the research sample. The technique of collecting data used an oral test technique. The collected data was analysed by descriptive analysis technique and inferential analysis technique by using path analysis technique. The empirical findings of this study indicate that (1) vocabulary mastery, sentence mastery, and social intelligence have a direct positive effect on the communication ability of the children of age; (2) Social intelligence has the greatest influence on the ability of communicating in early childhood when compared to the influence of vocabulary mastery and mastery of sentence. This suggests that it will improve the communication ability of early childhood and can be done by trying to improve the three variables. The development of social intelligence can become the basis for the development of early childhood communication skills. Pages 59 to 71




A Study on the Impact of Cultural Tourism on Indonesian Society

Surantoa, Apritasari Dwi Jayantib, Lia Setyawatic, Surya Jatmikad, a,b,c,dFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Central Java, Indonesia, Email: asur122@ums.ac.id,  bpritadjg2@gmail.com,  cliasetya310@gmail.com,  dsj795@ums.ac.id

This research aims at determining the economic, social, and cultural impacts of cultural tourism on society in the surrounding area of temple tourism sites in Indonesia. This is qualitative research using ethnography research design. The subjects of the research are the head of the Tourism Office, the caretaker of cultural tourism, traders, and the local residents around the cultural tourism site of Sukuh Temple. Data was collected through interviews, observation, and documentation. To ensure the data trustworthiness, source triangulation was applied.  The data was analysed qualitatively through several steps: data reduction, data analysis, and conclusions. The findings of the study revealed that people living around the Sukuh Temple were impacted economically, socially, and culturally. The economic impact involved new business opportunities, the development of new livelihood systems, and the alleviation of the unemployment rate. The social impacts contain changes in the society's mindset, knowledge, and increased tolerance amongst religious groups. The cultural impact can be seen in the increase in people's awareness to cooperate in preserving local culture and historical heritage. This research recommends several points to increase the economic, social and cultural impacts on society, such as improving tourism facilities, maximizing promotion, organizing a cultural festival, and carrying out creative and innovative competitions. Pages 72 to 86




Analysis of Social Networks Utilization in Student Learning Patterns

Surantoa, Muhammad Fahmi Johan Syahb, Diah Nur Kristianac, Rinika Windra Puspitad, a,b,c,dFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Central Java, Indonesia, Email: asur122@ums.ac.id,  bmfj120@ums.ac.id,  cdiahnur904@gmail.com,  drinikawiwin6@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to determine the use of social networking in student learning patterns. The type of research is descriptive qualitative research with ethnographic design. Data collection is performed through interviews and observation techniques. Interviews were conducted openly with four university students and two lecturers at the Accounting Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta with interview sampling and snowball sampling techniques. Data analysis is performed through data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusions or verification. The results of this study state that the use of social networking media by Accounting Education students has the effect of increasing students’ learning independence and increasing the effectiveness of classroom learning. The use of social networking allows students to study and discuss more effectively and efficiently from long distances, and allows them to share knowledge, send files to each other easier and quicker, and establish effective communication. However, there are negative effects such as the misuse of social networks outside of learning needs, which disrupts concentration in learning, reduces social life activities in the community, increases plagiarism, and increases student dependence on the function of social networking applications. Pages 87 to 99




Development of Life Skills in the Fishermen Community of Indonesia

Titik Asmawatia, Tri Yulianib, Suyatminic, a,b,cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Central Java, Indonesia, Email: ata137@ums.ac.id,  btriyuliani339@gmail.com,  csuy76@ums.ac.id

This research aims to describe life skills developed by mentor fishermen for their community, the factors obstructing empowerment, and the productivity level after empowerment implementation. This research uses a qualitative method with ethnographic approach. Data of this research, which is sourced from fostered fishermen members and mentors of Wanita Tangguh group and Kelompok Usaha Bersama Tirto Makmur, is collected from interviews and observations. The data is analysed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing verification. Credibility tests, such as source triangulation, method and period of data collection, are used for data validation. The following comprises the results: (1) Boat and net making skills for ‘catching’ fishers, training for processing fish into food products for both ‘catching’ fishers and processors, training for operating the aided fish processing machine, environment-friendly fishing and disaster management coaching; (2) Factors obstructing the empowerment of the fishermen community includes their inability to comprehend training materials—materials from mentors are considered too general and already understood which resulted in disinterest—the absence of learning facilities and properties, and a mismatch between training materials and fishermen’s needs; (3) Level of productivity in fish processing increases by 100% after the life skill training program. This productivity increase is affected by fishermen’s participation, motivation, and willingness to undertake fish processing, of which they did not do. It shows that skills and education obtained from life skill training program help to empower the fishermen community. Pages 100 to 111




The Mastery of Upper-Class Teachers in Multimodal Text-Based Learning at Primary Schools

Ratnasari Diah Utamia, Wigung Bayu Saputrob, Nur Amaliac, Harun Joko Prayitnod, a,b,c,dPrimary School Teacher Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Central Java, Indonesia, Email: ardu150@ums.ac.id,  bbayuwigung@gmail.com,  cnur.amalia@ums.ac.id,  dharun.prayitno@ums.ac.id

This research aims to identify the understanding and skill of upper-class teachers in using multimodal text-based learning, the benefit of multimodal text-based learning, the problem in applying multimodal text-based learning, and the solution to overcome the problem in applying multimodal text-based learning. This research used qualitative research with a descriptive research design. The information sources were gathered from the principal and upper-class teacher at SD Muhammadiyah 8 Jagalan with A accreditation and SD Negeri Kendalrejo with B accreditation. The data collecting techniques used were observation, interview, documentation, and questionnaire. The data was analysed through data reduction, data serving, and drawing conclusions. The techniques of the data validity tests used were technique and source triangulation. The research result shows that 1) The understanding of upper-class teachers in applying multimodal text-based learning is good, with a percentage score of 76.6%. 2) The skill of teachers in using multimodal text is good enough with a percentage score of 60.2%. 3) The benefits gotten by teachers in applying multimodal text-based learning include improving their understanding and skill about the multimodal text, gaining a more efficient learning process, and increasing students’ activity and reading motivation. 4) The problems in applying multimodal text-based learning are the teachers’ skill in technology is unequal, and teachers teach in the conventional learning process. 5) The solutions to overcome the problem in multimodal text-based learning are by conducting an evaluation in the previous learning activity, looking for learning model reference based on the material taught, asking for help, and searching information from another teacher who has better technology literacy. Pages 112 to 124




Critical Reading Skills Through Multimodal Text to Upper-Class Students in Elementary School

*Ratnasari Diah Utamia, Nur Amaliab, Harun Joko Prayitnoc, Dyna Qurotul’ Aind,   a,b,c,dFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Central Java, Indonesia,

 Email: bnur.amalia@ums.ac.id, charun.prayitno@ums.ac.id, ddynaqurotulain@gmail.com

a* Corresponding author:

Critical reading is currently a hot topic of discussion in the world of education, especially in elementary schools as research material. Critical reading skills in primary schools are currently low. The purpose of this study is to describe the ability of students regarding critical reading through multimodal text and to explain the impact of critical reading on upper-class students through the multimodal text. This research was descriptive qualitative. The research locations were SD Muhammadiyah 10 Tipes and SD N Serengan 1. The respondents of this study comprised of the principal, teachers, and upper-class students. Data collection techniques used passive direct observation, interviews, questionnaires, and documentation. The data analysis techniques used were data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion drawing. Data validity was done with source triangulation and technique triangulation. There were two research results: 1) The ability of upper-class students to read critically through multimodal text. The results of critical reading skills of upper-class students through multimodal texts were good enough, with the percentage scores of 24.73%, and 55.78%. From the results of these percentages, it could be seen that students did not fully understand multimodal texts, and students still needed regular guidance from the teacher in understanding the multimodal text. 2) The obstacles of learning how to read critically in upper-class students were that there were still some students who did not understand critical reading and multimodal texts. Students had difficulty accepting the purpose of the media presented, and the lack of facilities and infrastructure to support learning activities through multimodal text was also a problem.Pages 125 to 137




The Perception of the Implementation of Seven Habits in Elementary School by Teachers, Students, and Parents

Muhamad Taufik Hidayata, Mellinia Hidayatul Ilmiyahb, Anita Pahlawanc, a,b,cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Central Java, Indonesia, Email: amt.hidayat@ums.ac.id,  bmelliniahi0402@gmail.com,  cpahlawananita@gmail.com

Seven habits are the effective practices of being proactive, beginning with the end in mind, putting the first thing first, thinking win or win, understanding to be understood, synergizing, and sharpening the saw. The seven habits describe the internalization of true principles and are considered to be the foundation of happiness and success. The objective of this research is to understand the perception of teachers, students, and parents on the implementation of Seven Habits in elementary school. This is qualitative research using the case study as its design. Data was collected through interviews and observations. Several informants were involved in this research. They were a headmaster, four teachers, two parents, and two students of MIM PK Kartasura, Surakarta, Indonesia. The findings of the research revealed that seven habits can be implemented in any aspect of life, including education. Among the seven habits, putting the first thing first was the easiest to be implemented, while understanding to be understood was the hardest one. In order implement these habits effectively, cooperation with other parties, at school or at home, is needed., as well as greater teacher involvement in reminding students of them. The implementation of the seven habits at MIM PK Kartasura was not effective due to its low consistency. Pages 138 to 150




The Effectiveness of Flashcard Augmented Reality Media and Game Chick Learn on the Ability to Memorize Vocabulary in English Primary School Students

Muhamad Taufik Hidayata, Arlien Karlina Yuliantib, a,bFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Central Java, Indonesia, Email: amt.hidayat@ums.ac.id,  ba510150002@student.ums.ac.id

This study consists of comparative research with a Quasi Experimental Design approach, which is the type of research that does not allow one to fully control and manipulate all variables that are relevant to the type of Non-equivalent Control Group Design. This study aims to find which is more effective between the use of GCL and FAR media on the ability to memorize English vocabulary. Research was conducted at the Islamic Elementary (Madrasah Ibtidaiyah/MI) Muhammadiyah Gonilan, and the research subjects were 53 students in the second grade. Students were divided into class A as Experimental Class 1, which was subjected to GCL media treatment, and class B as Experimental Class 2, which was subjected to FAR media treatment. The results show that the FAR media was more effective than the GCL media. Pages 151 to 168




Maths Village as a Community-Based Education for Primary School Students in Bandardawung Village, Karanganyar, Indonesia

Minsiha, Farida Kurniawatib, Imam Mujahidc, a,bFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Surakarta 57102, Indonesia, cInstitut Agama Islam Negeri Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: amin139@ums.ac.id,  bmcaztttt@gmail.com,  cimammujahidsolo@gmail.com

This study aims to describe the role of the community in the maths village towards providing a community-based education for primary school students in the Bandardawung Village. This type of research was descriptive qualitative research. The data collection methods used were observation, interview, and documentation. The data collection was taken directly from the field. The results of this study indicate that the participation of the community in the Bandardawung Maths Village is following the concept of community-based education from the community, by the community, and for the community. Meanwhile, the role of the community has been identified, starting from the planning, implementation, and evaluation of the community-based education program in the Maths Village of Bandardawung. Pages 169 to 183




Structural and Functional Model of Formation of an Inclusive Education Management System: World Experience

Iryna Markinaa*, Lilia Nichugovskayab, Nataliya Karapuzovac, Genrikh Kazariand, Alla Dedukhnoe, a,ePoltava State Agrarian Academy, Poltava, Ukraine, bОles Honchar Dnipro national university, Dnipro, Ukraine, cPoltava National Pedagogical University named after V.G. Korolenka, Poltava, Ukraine, dState Institution of Higher Education - University of educational management, Kyiv, Ukraine, Email: a*irynamarkina@yahoo.com

The need to improve the management of the modern education system, in accordance with the principles of humanisation and individualisation, implies the development of theoretical models that fully reflect the content and nature of assistance to students with special needs in a specific educational complex. The importance of this task is currently explained by the trend towards an increasing number of students.  For the purpose of objectivity of the study, the countries that use different systems and models of inclusive education management were selected as follows. On the basis of geographical location due to socio-cultural, economic and political peculiarities, they were divided into the countries of the “north” (USA, Canada, European countries and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the “south” (Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, East Asia/Pacific, South Asia). On the basis of generalisation of the advantages and disadvantages of existing world models of inclusive education management. Taking into account the experience of the countries considered, it is advisable to develop a structural and functional model of formation of an inclusive education management system. It should be substantiated by the new conditions for organising education, and the requirements of society that are necessary for developing strategies of experimental studies organisation, aimed at further deepening the concept of inclusive education as considered in the field of general and vocational education. The components of the structural and functional model of formation of an inclusive education management system are characterised, and the results of realisation of this model are determined, among them as follows: improving the quality of activity of all inclusive educational institutions; a qualitative change in the personality of students with special needs, the teaching staff, administration, society; timely identification of problems in the system of providing a new quality of education and inclusive education in particular; formation of “quality culture” in education institutions; and development and provision of new types of good educational services. Pages 184 to 199




The Formation of the Adaptive Model of Educational Management in the Sphere of Higher Education

Iryna Markinaa*, Nina Zhuravskab, Serhii Yashchukc, Tetiana Opaliukd, Nataliya Karapuzovae, aPoltava State Agrarian Academy, Poltava, Ukraine, b,cNational University of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyiv, Ukraine, dKamyanets-Podilsky Ivan Ohienko National University, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine, ePoltava National Pedagogical University named after V.G. Korolenka, Poltava, Ukraine, Email: a*iriska7@ukr.net

The system of education is an important indicator of the development of society. The need in preparing a skilled workforce under the conditions of the scientific and technological revolution makes it necessary to extend the field of education, and in particular, the higher education system. The article analyses the models of modern universities and specifies the features of the educational management system. The consideration of the basic models of education throughout the world made it possible to highlight the most common advantages and disadvantages of each model. Aiding in the development of universal recommendations for the modelling of the higher education system, it predicts the new architectonics of the model of the higher education system for the near future. The results of this study have led to the formation of an adaptive model of management of the educational processes in the realm of higher education. In meeting the modern requirements of the consumers of educational services and developing the socio-economic environment, it can be implemented all around the world. Pages 200 to 217




The Factors of Cyberbullying among the Basic Stage Students in the City of Al-Ain: A study on a Sample of Parents in The City of Al-Ain

Mastur H. Rehima*, Khawlah M. Al-Tkhaynehb, Wafa K. Al-Shamsc, a,b,cAl Ain University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, Email: a*mastur.rehim@aau.ac.ae

This study aimed at identifying the factors of cyberbullying among the basic stage students in the City of Al-Ain from the perspective of their parents. The study used the descriptive analytical approach in order to achieve the study objectives. The study sample consisted of 129 parents of the basic stage students who were chosen in the random way of sampling. The researcher used the electronic questionnaire as a tool for collecting data from the sample individuals, which consisted of two parts; the first part included the demographic data, and the second part consisted of 17 questions about the subject matter. The results revealed that the main reasons leading to cyberbullying are: lack of parental control; the negative impact of media on children; the low level of commitment to manners and values in our society; the prevalence of violence; and the cyberbullying, where the bully could be a victim of another bully. The results also emphasised that cyberbullying could be the reason for many psychological problems, such as depression, stress and anxiety as well as social problems, such as alienation and lack of social relationships, and in addition to academic problems, such as low academic achievement among students. Based on the results, the authors recommend: to enhance the role of the family and school in instilling good manners in our children; to insert different activities in the school curriculum to distract their attention from the bad content of the social communication methods; to invest the children’s free time in developing their talent, practicing sports and different activities; and to keep them as far as possible from the virtual world. Pages 218 to 233




Children’s Good Character Development with Traditional Literature for Conveying Moral Values

Muhammad Arfan Mu’ammara, Sujinahb, Ali Nuke Affandyc, aDepartment of Islamic Education, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya, East Java 60113, Indonesia, b,cDepartment of Indonesian Language and Literature, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya, East Java 60113, Indonesia, Email: aarfanmuammar@fai.um-surabaya.ac.id,  bsujinah@pps.um-surabaya.ac.id,  calinukeaffandy@yahoo.com

This article presents the role of traditional literary works in shaping children's moral values, as an effort to form children’s good character. This study is a library research combined with descriptive-qualitative analysis techniques. The data collection techniques used include documentation and reference digging to explore the moral values contained in traditional literary, in order to form a child’s good character. It was found that literary works are transmitted through oral traditions in Indonesia, and parents deliver the literary work to their children while they are sleeping or preparing for bed. The school teaches literature as a form of local wisdom that must be taught by the teacher. The intensity of the delivery of literary works, both at home and at school, makes it quite a significant influence on the formation of children’s moral values. Each region has its own local wisdom. This local wisdom serves in a literary work in the form of myths, legends, animal stories, fairy tales, puppet stories and folk songs. Traditional literature is not only delivered orally, but parents and teachers also provide conclusions or draw the red thread of each story, informing the children that this story teaches lessons which are to be emulated. Myths, legends, stories of animals, fairy tales, puppet stories and folk songs are often not explored in their moral wisdom or moral values, even though there are valuable moral values to be found. This article presents how moral values contained in traditional literature can shape children’s good characters. Pages 234 to 246




A Phono-Discourse Analysis of Tongue Slips in Political Speech

Qassim Abbas Dhayef Al-Tufailia, Hawraa Jabbar Rahib*, Department of English, College of Education for Human Sciences, University of Babylon, Iraq, Email: b*hawraa.jabar@gmail.com

The present study is concerned with the phono-discourse analysis of tongue slips in American political speech. The phenomenon of tongue slips has been specifically selected because it has not been given its adequate attention by researchers, precisely from a phono-discourse analysis point of view, as far as the researcher could investigate. The study, therefore, aims to show the effect of the phonological rules of the English language on the tongue slips in the American political discourse. It seeks to pinpoint the most dominant types of tongue slips committed by American politicians, finding out whether tongue slips can reveal the repressed thoughts and motives in the politicians' unconsciousness to serve certain ideologies in their political speeches; exploring the effect of tongue slips on the political discourse delivered by American politicians; and developing a phono-discourse analysis model for analysing tongue slips in political speeches. In accordance with its aims, the study hypothesises that tongue slips follow the phonological rules of the English language in the American political discourse; the most dominant type of tongue slips committed by American politicians is substitution; tongue slips reveal the repressed thoughts and motives in the politicians' unconsciousness to serve certain ideologies in their political speeches; and tongue slips affect the political discourse delivered by the American politician. The present study has arrived at a variety of conclusions, including the most central of which is that tongue slips follow the phonological rules of the English language in the American political discourse. Furthermore, that American politicians may not be talented orators who can avoid tongue slips because they come naturally and subconsciously, and they have political outcomes on the personal level and the governmental or political party level. As such, the developed phono-discourse model of political tongue slips has proven its workability and comprehensiveness as a successful instrument used to examine tongue slips in American political discourse. Pages 247 to 264




Laughing and Crying in the Bible and Quran

Riyadh Tariq Kadhim Al-Ameedia, Idrees Tareq Husseinb, Hawraa Jabbar Rahic*, a,b,cCollege of Education for Human Sciences, University of Babylon, Iraq, Email: c*hawraa.jabar@gmail.com

This study is concerned with laughing and crying in the Holy Bible and the Glorious Quran. It aims to examine the meanings of laughing and crying in religious texts and to show the similarities and differences of these meanings in the two texts. This study, then, reveals that both biblical and quranic texts make extensive use of words to express laughing and crying. In the Holy Bible, laughing implies worldly life, madness, foolishness, enjoyment, and birth. However, in the Glorious Quran, it indicates victory, pleasure and joy, warning, wonder, tolerance, deriding, questioning or rebuke, and the capability of Allah. Crying, on the other hand, entails purification, piety, supplication, and praying in the Holy Bible, and bounty, faith and perceiving realities, sign of wisdom, deep grief, and sometimes deceit in the Glorious Quran. Pages 265 to 275




A Cixousian Reading of Adrienne Rich’s ‘Diving into the Wreck’, ‘The Floating Poem’, and ‘I Dreamed the Death of Orpheus’

Thulfiqar Abdulameer Sulaiman Alhmdnia, Hayder M.Saadan M.Ridha Al-hasanib, a,bDepartment of English, Ministry of Education, Open Educational College, Najaf Governorate, Iraq, Email: aZulfiqar.87master@gmai.com,  bhaideralhassani1983@gmail.com

As a feminist poet, Adrienne Rich has constantly scrutinised the female subject in her poetry, examining both her emotional turbulence and physical yearnings. As a lesbian, her exploration of the feminine world has included and often concentrated on the experience of homosexuality between females, becoming the voice of the peripheral lesbian community in the last decades of the twentieth century. Such characteristics had led to the creation of a specific domain in her poetry, whose full dimensions are only graspable by taking into account the feminist-gender theory of the famous French thinker, Helene Cixous. Some of the main tenets of Cixous’ theory, such as the rejection of gender-based dichotomisation, the resistance against subjugation by the ‘phallocratic system’ and écriture feminine, are well reflected in the poetic universe of Rich. This article aims to expose the relevance of Rich’s poetry to Cixous’ theory, by examining Rich’s ‘Diving into the Wreck’, ‘The Floating Poem’, and ‘I Dreamed the Death of Orpheus’, in the light of Cixous’ theory. Pages 276 to 282




The Relationship between Wilayah and Al-Ghadeer: An Inferential Study

Siham Ali Husain Al-Nasiria, aFaculty of Jurisprudence, University of Kufa,, Iraq, Email: asihama.alnasiri@uokufa.edu.iq

There is no doubt that the Islamic faith is a global religion, and its sharia law is the concluding law of all the Sharia laws. The affairs of the Islamic nation were the sole concern of the Prophet (peace be upon him) throughout his lifetime, and he had to assign the position of leadership after him to the best and most perfected member among the nation. The Wilayah (Guardianship), in line with the divine mandate, can only be shouldered by the rare individual of humanity prepared for the task by Allah Almighty, and hence, the event of the Ghadir assumed a great status in the Islamic thought, and in the area of argumentation. Since the Hadeeth of Ghadir is the single most significant evidence and the strongest support of the Mandate of the Commander of the Faithful Ali Ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him), the Hadith is used as the subject of this research paper.
 Pages 283 to 304




The Effects of e-Learning on the Achievement of the First Intermediate Class in the Subject of Arabic Language and Enhancing Their Logical Thinking

Thuraya Ahmed Khales Shaalan Al-Shemarya, Falah Saleh Hussein Al-Jobouryb, a,bDepartment of Educational and Psychological Sciences, College of Education, Al-Hamdaniya University, Email: a*thurayaalsmaree@gmail.com

The researchers have utilised an experimental methodology that contains equal groups and the reverse testing methodology, which have proved suitable for the present study. Furthermore, the methodology achieves the goals of the study, in which, the selected test subjects are the female students of the first intermediate class at Rafidah Al-Aslamiyah High School in Kirkuk, Iraq, during the first semester of the academic year 2018–2019. There were 79 students. The researchers have prepared a test, which has 30 items that are multiple-choice. The items are divided into five sections, consisting of six items per section. Every item is followed by the selections: ‘It always applies to me’, ‘It sometimes applies to me’, or ‘It does not apply to me’. After the test, the results indicated that there is a possibility to apply the e-Learning strategy to the first intermediate class students in the subject of Arabic Language and developing their logical thinking. The test results indicate that e-Learning has encouraged the students to effectively participate in the class by reading the content material and analysing the ideas that are present within. Furthermore, developing questions and electronically including these questions. Pages 305 to 313




The Transition from US GAAP to IFRS: Fundamental Differences and Their Implications on Financial Statements That Walmart Should Know

Ahmed F. Saleha, Ahmed M. Rashidb, Mustafa Abdulqader Suwaidc, a,b,cUniversity of Anbar-Iraq, Email: aAhmedf.saleh@uoanbar.edu.iq,  bAhmedm.rashid@uoanbar.edu.iq,  cMustafa.suwaid@uoanbar.edu.iq

In the business world, it is known that companies must utilise proper accounting standards, whether they are operating in the United States (US) or outside the US. Following the correct accounting standards will help corporations’ managements to avoid failing into legal and financial issues which ultimately have an effect on company performance. Such matters might result in shaking the confidence to deal with such a business. Hence, shifting from the US GAAP to the IFRS must have fundamental adjustments of followed accounting styles and methods. Therefore, the primary aim of this document is to focus on a descriptive (comparative) analysis of two significant systems called US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The two approaches have similarities and differences. This document, in result, explains the substantial differences between the US GAAP and the IFRS and their impacts on financial reports that US companies have to take into account in terms of the revenue recognition and measurement; inventory valuation methods; extraordinary items; and the presentation of income and balance sheet statements. Pages 314 to 328




Role of Spiritual Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Employee Engagement and Flexible Working Arrangements in Institutional Performance among the Educational sector of Indonesia

Yeni Absaha, Endang Sulistya Rinib, Beby Karina Fauzeea Sembiringc, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia,

This study was conducted to analyse the significance of spiritual intelligence, emotional intelligence, employee engagement and flexible working arrangements (FWAs) in institutional performance among the educational sector of Indonesia. It is evident that the educational sector plays a vital role in the economy, however, the performance of this sector is suffering because of various issues in Indonesia. Thus, this study is an attempt to address the institutional performance among the education sector of Indonesia. The population of the study was based on universities, colleges and schools. The teaching and administrative employees of these institutions were the respondents of the study. A total 500 questionnaires were used in the survey. It was preferred that the collected data be analysed through the Partial Least Square (PLS) method. It is found that spiritual intelligence, emotional intelligence, employee engagement and FWA have a positive effect on institutional performance. It also highlighted that spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence have a positive influence on employee engagement. A decrease in the spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence can cause a decrease in the institutional performance. It is depicted that the greater the spiritual intelligence and emotional intelligence of the employees, the greater the employee engagement and institutional performance will be. Pages 329 to 347




Motivations for the Use of Social Media among University Students: A Comparative Study

Haitham Numana, aAssistant Professor College of Communication and Media Al Ain University Abu Dhabi, UAE, Jan 2020,

The goal of this study is to ascertain the motives behind the use of social media among university students in two different countries. Several prominent motives have been assessed including seeking relationships, undertaking business, entertainment, seeking information, dating, job searching and passing time. A 30-item scale is presented along with initial information about the scale's construct validity. The results confirmed the significance of the prominent motives. Finally, the theory of uses and gratification was applied to the samples of university students to measure their communication motives. Pages 348 to 363




External Forces Transforming Thai Private Universities

Phithagorn Thanitbenjasitha, Sornnate Areesophonpichetb, Manit Boonprasertc, a,b,cHigher Education Department, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, Email: aphithagorn@gmail.com,  bsornnate@gmail.com,  cmanit_rsu@hotmail.com

This research analyzed the major changes and challenges facing Thai private universities at present and in the future. Constructivism was adopted, to make knowledge claims and employ a qualitative research methodology. Research data was collected and analyzed from related documents and findings, on the external forces affecting higher education. Data was also analyzed from in-depth interviews with 10 key informants, by purposively sampling experts in higher education management at the policy and institutional levels. The analysis showed that the major challenges of private higher education institutions, as caused by external forces, include adaptability and the ability to provide high-quality education that is responsive to the changing demands of job markets and society. A further major, transformational, challenge is the potential to increase management efficiency and effectiveness to carry out their missions, keep pace with changing circumstances, and sustain their long-term viability, by responding to present and future professional needs, to benefit the development of the country and society.Pages 364 to 384




Factors Influencing Gen-Y in Malaysia to Purchase Impulsively: A Mediating Effect of Perceived Enjoyment

Muhammad Asyraf Hasima, Sallaudin Hassanb, Mohd Fikri Ishakc, Anis Abd Razakd, a,b,c,dUniversiti Kuala Lumpur Business School, Malaysia, Email: aasyrafhasim@unikl.edu.my,  bsallaudin@unikl.edu.my,  cmfikri.ishak@s.unikl.edu.my,  danis@unikl.edu.my

The prevalence of online, impulse purchasing has raised significant interest among academic scholars and practitioners, regarding the factors that influence this phenomenon. The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between online store environments, online promotions, perceived enjoyment, and online impulse purchasing. This study utilised the survey research method. A total of 407 respondents took part in this study. Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) applied, to fit the data into the hypothesised model. The results show that online store environment, online promotions, and perceived enjoyment affect online impulse purchase behaviour. The study is useful to both researchers and online retail operators, to understand the importance of online store environments, online promotions, and perceived enjoyment for consumers.Pages 385 to 396




Stimulating the Cognitive and the Psychomotor Domains of Students with Special Needs (MBK) through Theatre

Mohd Kipli Abdul Rahmana*, Ghazali Ismailb, Lakshmi Perumalc, a,cUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia, bInstitut Pendidikan Guru Malaysia Kampus Bahasa Melayu, Email: a*kipli@fmsp.upsi.edu.my

Teachers need to understand teaching and learning with Students with Special Needs (MBK), to implement that process. That requires delving into the right teaching approach. The Theatre in Education approach (TiE) can be applied to enhance cognitive and psychomotor domains among MBK. A study was conducted on an Inclusive Class in Tungku Ampuan Azizah School, Kuantan, Pahang using the Special Needs Students’ Theatre Approach Manual (MPTMBK). Data was gathered through observation, open and closed in-depth interviews. Personal and official documents were analysed according to the recommended procedure for studies of grounded theory, which is open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The findings show compatibility, between the proposed idea and the events transpiring during the learning process. The participants showed increased self-confidence and active interactions with the teacher. Other than that, MBK can also memorise drama texts and act out several scenes that automatically prove a cognitive increase. Indeed, the TiE approach can innovate teaching and learning towards developing self-potential among MBK.Pages 397 to 409




Relating Teaching Practices to Student Achievement in the Field of Ibadah (Worship)

Azmil Hashima*, Zaki Ismailb, Siti Khairul Bahriah Rasolc, a,b,cFaculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*azmil@fsk.upsi.edu.my

This study aimed to relate teaching practices and student achievement in the field of Ibadah (worship). The subject is Islamic Education and the education facilities are two types of schools, the Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Cina (SJKC) and the national-type Primary School (Chinese), in the Malaysian state of Perak. The sample consisted of 30 teachers and 85 students from ten SJKCs. Questionnaires were given to teachers and students, and a special test was also conducted on Chinese SJKC students. The data was then analysed in terms of frequency, percentage, mean, t-test, ANOVA and Spearman’s correlation test. Correlation tests showed a significant medium level relationship, between teaching practices and student achievement. They also show that elements of student knowledge, motivation method, teacher professionalism and personality contribute to student proficiency in the field of Ibadah. This study shows that student proficiency in Ibadah at SJKC needs to be improved further. Teachers of Islamic Education in SJKC need to improve teaching methods, student knowledge, and motivations, as well as teacher personality and professionalism, to improve student proficiency in Ibadah. The implications of this study are to determine which methods need further attention from the Islamic Education Teacher at the SJKC.Pages 410 to 417




Analysis of the Prospect of Heritage Tourism in Kinta Valley, Perak (Malaysia)

Adnan Jusoha*, Yunus Sauman Sabinb, Rabaah Abdullahc, Farhana Abdullahd, Tan Soon Chine, a,b,cDepartment of History, Faculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 39500 Tanjung Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA, dPhD. Candidate, Department of History, Faculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 39500 Tanjung Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA, Email: a*adnan.jusoh@fsk.upsi.edu.my

Kinta Valley is both a valley rich with tin ore and a unique tourist attraction among local and foreign tourists. Hence, this article aims to identify the potential and attraction of Kinta Valley as one of the heritage tourism centres in Malaysia. A total of 375 local tourists were selected as respondents through simple random sampling. A questionnaire instrument was used to obtain feedback. It comprised tourists' background, visit duration profile and objective when visiting Kinta Valley, the frequency of location announcements of Kinta Valley, as well as other potentials and attractions of Kinta Valley; a heritage tourism centre in Malaysia. The results of the study show that the majority of local tourists to Kinta Valley stayed one day only, and the main intention of the visits for most of the tourists is to relax or to go sightseeing. The announcement frequency for Kinta Valley showed that social media played a very important role among the tourists visiting Kinta Valley, followed by documentaries, television or radio, travel agencies, magazines or brochures, as well as friends and relatives. Other potentials and attractions of Kinta Valley include the theme park, murals, creative illustrations, buildings, restaurants and eateries. This demonstrates that apart from the heritage of archaeological sites, historic buildings, nature and food, Kinta Valley has other attractions that are on par with the current trend, such as Movie Animation Park Studio, The Lost World of Tambun, Taman Rekreasi Gunong Lang, Art of Old Town and Fantasy House Trick Art. In order to bring Kinta Valley forward as one of Malaysia's leading heritage tourism destinations, announcements via social media should be intensified, as it is the most current, fast, and effective medium.Pages 418 to 440




Changing Customer Expectations in Five Star Hotels in the Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority, Aseza (Jordan)

Omar A. Jawabreha, Ashraf Jahmanib, Qusay Q. Khaleefahc, Ehab Abdul Raheem Alshatnawid, Haitham Abdelrazaqe, aDepartment of Hotel Management, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, The University of Jordan, Aqaba 77110, Jordan, bAl Falah University – Dubai, UAE, cDepartment of Hotel & Tourism Science, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan, dDepartment of Tourism Management, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, The University of Jordan, eSchool of Business, Western Sydney University, Email: ao.jawabreh@ju.edu.jo,  bAshraf.jahmani@afu.ac.ae,  cq.khaleefa@bau.edu.jo,  de.shatnawi@ju.edu.jo,  eH.abdelrazaq@city.westernsydney.edu.au

Background: The present paper seeks to improve hotel occupancy rates. It identifies the expectations of hotel guests as a rapidly changing variable, excitement. As basic needs are met, new demands arise. This paper offers a model for identifying excitement needs and demands, so that they can be met, thereby improving hotel occupancy rates in Aqaba, Jordan. Materials and Methods: The researchers use the Kano Model to relate performance norms to the contentment of customers, and to settle a difficulty of trade-off in various norms optimization by verifying the most important norm in customer contentment. Results: This study explains excitement needs and demands to creates solutions for them, by recognising excitement as a demand which transforms over time into a basic need. Also, we prove how these extra services will affect the increase in the popularity of the hotel and therefore its occupancy rates. Conclusion: Having hypothesised that demands for complimentary tea and coffee in rooms, priority club, and heated swimming pools are exciting demands that could be seen as needs by hotel guests, we found that none of them are in fact any more “Exciters” than other demands we examined. However, we identified methods for identifying needs and demands, set out below, for creating loyalty from guests to hotels.Pages 441 to 462




Women as the Victim of Politics: Experiences in the 2019 Legislative Elections in Indonesia

Hamidah Abdurrachmana, Nayla Majestyab, Ratna Riyantic, aPancasakti Tegal University Central Java University Indonesia, bPancasakti Tegal University Central Java University Indonesia,  cDoctoral Program in Law  Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta Indonesia And Lecturer of Faculty of Law Pancasakti Tegal University Central Java University Indonesia, Email: ah.abdurrachman@upstegal.ac.id,  ble.jamais.natya@gmail.com,  cRatnariyanti662@gmail.com

This article aims to examine women's political representation in the 2019 legislative elections from the perspective of victimology. Behind the increasing number of women represented, to fulfil a 30% gender quota in parliament, there are also thousands of women politicians who have been knocked out of competition. They stumbled over internal party politics, until they ran out of funds to keep fighting. J.E. Sahetapy sees that a person can be a victim determined by a victimity not always related to the problem of crime. This includes patterns of accident victims, and natural disasters apart from victims of crime and the abuse of power. It is interesting that, regarding the Legislative General Election, women's participation appears to be increasing but on the other hand, it has not yet fully received justice. The need for a victim's perspective, in seeing the problem of women's representation, is part of an effort to making the political sphere more conducive to women. It is hoped that, by acknowledging their position as victims, the state can pay more attention to women beyond the assumption that their defeat is an 'internal party problem'. This study was conducted to encourage higher levels of women's political participation. This article is a literature review study, using reports on election results in the mass media and data analysis from the UI Political Studies Center. We compare Puskapol UI's findings with previous studies on the reality of fulfilling gender quotas in Indonesia, in the 2009 and 2014 legislative elections. Our findings showed that in the last three elections, there has not been a significant internal improvement in parties, to support women politicians and improvements overall, in the political culture of Indonesia which is still controlled by money politics, kinship politics, and serial number politics.Pages 463 to 476




Consumer Behaviour of Saudi Households in Light of Recent Social and Economic Developments

Ghada Abdulrahman AlTurifa, aPrincess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University College of Social Services Department of Social Planning,

This study aimed at defining the consumer behaviour status of Saudi households in light of recent social and economic developments.  It used a descriptive methodology relying on a social survey for a sample of household heads to collect data by using a designed questionnaire.  The study found that the most common consumption pattern is the usual one and the majority of expenditures are used for foods and drinks.  It also found there are factors affecting households’ heads including the absence of financial awareness, continue of inflation and increase of prices.  It revealed that the households couldn’t constantly save any amount of money despite the high income of such households.  One of the obstacles facing budget management is the unplanned expenditures.  The study proposed a number of suggestions to enhance consuming and saving awareness. Pages 477 to 497




The Effect of Social Network Size on the Perspectives of Volunteering

Aphiradee Wongsiria, aThe Department of Social Sciences (Social Development) Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Khon Kaen University, Thailand, Email: aaphiwo@kku.ac.th

This study aims to determine the effect of social network size on the perspectives of volunteering. Three hundred and five volunteers who participated in both informal and formal community activities in rural communities of five sub-districts in Nong Khai District, Nong Khai Province, Thailand, were included in this study. These participants were divided into three groups of social network size: small, medium, and large. The perspectives of volunteering were assessed by four dependent variables: individual values, community benefit, place attachment, and social inclusion. This study used multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for analyses. The findings indicate that individual values, place attachment, and social inclusion were significantly affected by the social network size. The comparison between the small and the large social network size shows that it had a statistically significant effect on the perspectives of volunteering. The creation of social networks can promote voluntary work in rural communities.  Pages 498 to 516




The Implication of E-Nofa towards Taxpayer Obedience in Kudus Regency

Amin Kuncoroa, Sudarmanb, Deny Nitalia Mindrawatic, aThe Lecturer and Researcher at STIE AKA Semarang and Chairman of P3M, Indonesia, bThe Lecturer of Accounting Major and Vice Chairman of STIE AKA Semarang, Indonesia, cThe Lecturer and Researcher at STIE AKA Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia,

This research aims to analyse the implication of e-Nofa towards taxpayer obedience in the Kudus Regency. The type of this research was descriptive-quantitative by using a classic assumption test and partial regression test. The population were business entity taxpayers that report their tax to KPP Pratam Kudus, while the technique of selecting the samples was by using non-probability sampling with quota sampling type, until it obtained 100 active business entity taxpayers. They report their tax to KPP Pratama Kudus. The result of this research is that e-Nofa has made a contribution towards business entity taxpayers’ obedience because by the existence of a modernisation system in the taxpayers’ report, especially business entity, then taxpayers can feel the advantage because it is easier and more efficient. Pages 517 to 530




The Role of Visual and Audio Media in Dealing with Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah's Initiative in Education:  A Field Study

Tahseen Mohammad Anis Hasan Sharadgaa, aAssistant Prof at Zarqa University Faculty of Journalism and Mass Communication Jordan,

The present study aims at identifying the role of the visual and audio media in dealing with "Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah's Initiative in Education". The study sample consisted of 25 faculty members; the study also used the descriptive analytical method. The study results concluded that the responses of the arithmetic mean of (the sample) the faculty members, for the items in the visual and audio media role in dealing with "Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah's initiative in Education", was 3.66 which is in a high level, and the items means related to the role of the media ranged between (3.39 - 4.97), between the highest and the lowest arithmetic mean. The sample’s responses were within a percentage of 68% to 84%. As indicated by the results of the study, there were no differences that were statistically significant among the faculty members' responses ascribed to the academic rank variable towards the visual and audio media's role of the in dealing with "Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah's Initiative in Education". Finally, the study recommended preparing training programs to raise the level of media professionals to deal with the educational problems and issues related to the Jordanian Education Initiative, and adopting the criteria and mechanisms of "Her Majesty Queen Rania Al Abdullah's initiative" in development and education and using them effectively to reach a knowledgeable society. Pages 531 to 542




Teacher's Innovation: Efforts to Improve Lecturer Performance through Competence, Motivation and Innovation

Suwiyadia, Slamet Riyadib, Sukrisnoc, a,bPoliteknik Ilmu Pelayaran Semarang, cSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi dan Pariwisata Semarang, Email: amarthedisuwiyadi@gmail.com,  bde_riyadi@yahoo.com,  charlinokris@gmail.com

The objective of this research is to develop a model related to improving the performance of mathematics teachers in vocational high schools for technical majors in Central Java. The performance of the teacher is determined by the competency and motivation variables which are moderated by the teacher innovation variable. Using the method the quantitative and model were tested using a sample of several teachers from vocational high schools in Central Java using the purposive sampling method with the help of AMOS 21 software data analysis tools. The results obtained were as follows: This research test results show that the competency variable, work motivation, and innovation have a positive and significant influence on the performance variable. This study also succeeded in showing a positive and significant relationship between the variables of competence and work motivation on the innovation variable. Recommendations can be put forward, especially for mathematics teachers and related parties such as principals, local governments through the Ministry of Education and Culture, and other researchers in the field of education. It can be noted that the importance of continuously improving teacher competency, motivation and innovation of teachers towards certain programs, has an impact on improving teacher performance. These programs include further studies for teachers, professional training, seminars and workshops, which ultimately have an impact on the quality and process of education and learning. Pages 543 to 554




The Integration of Lean Accounting and Activity-Based Public Budgeting for Improving a firm’s Performance

Hatem Karim Kadhima, Abdal Abbas Hassan Kadhimb, Karrar Abdulelah Azeezc, a,b,cDepartment of Accounting , Faculty of Administration and Economics, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq, Email: ahatimk.kadhm@uokufa.edu.iq,  bAbdalabbas.kadhim@uokufa.edu.iq, cckarara.alkhaldy@uokufa.edu.iq

This research aims to determine the level of integration between lean accounting and activity-based public budgeting for providing useful information to evaluate the public sector firm performance. We followed the analytical method, using a statistical questionnaire depended on the individuals of the research sample, represented by accounting, administrative, technical and engineering staff. The research sample consists of 55 individuals in public sector for hypothesis testing, the statistical software (SPSS) is used. The research hypothesis was tested and accepted after calculating a set of statistical measures such as arithmetic mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and percentage weight. Findings significantly showed that lean accounting, integrated with activity-based public budgeting for public firm performance, were evaluation indicators. The most important conclusions were that the integration between lean accounting and activity-based public budgeting leads to the provision of financial and non-financial information, to improve the efficiency of performance evaluating in a public firm. This integration supports managers to decrease the idle capacities and generate important recommendations which improve the public sector firm's performance in the future. Pages 555 to 567




The Extent to Which Female Special Education Students Have the Skills of Scientific Research

Amal Bint Saleh Al-Hmlya, Saeb Kamel ELLalab, aAssistant Professor of Special Education Department of Special Education Associate Professor of Special Education, bCollege of Education, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University  Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University,

The present study aimed at revealing the range of knowledge female students of the special education department, faculty of Education of Princess Nourah University have on the skills of scientific research. The study adopted the quantitative approach in collecting and analysing data. Two measures were developed by the researchers (a questionnaire and an achievement test). The tools of the study were applied to a sample of 344 students of the special education department at different levels and specialisations (learning disabilities and autism). The data were analysed using the statistical package (SPSS). The results showed that the knowledge of scientific research skills female students have was good. The results also indicated that the level of students’ achievement in the achievement test of scientific research skills was weak. The results showed that the perceptions of female students about their knowledge of scientific research skills do not comply with the actual achievement on the achievement test.  Several recommendations were presented by the study, including increasing the interest in teaching scientific research courses with non-traditional strategies, and increasing scientific research courses in undergraduate study plans. Pages 568 to 585


Pdf    Lyotard’s Ideologies and their Impact upon Arts in Postmodernism

Fatima Abdullah Omraana, aThe College of Fine Arts, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq, Email: adoctorfatima8@gmail.com

This paper studies Lyotard’s ideologies and their influence over postmodern arts. It is found that his methods have both seriousness and the power of influence; a new ideology that includes philosophy and politics. The paper is divided into four sections. The first contains the problem, its significance, its necessity, its limitations and terminology. In summary, this study analyses the ideologies of Jean-François Lyotard, who is known as for his activity in the postmodern arts in France. It asks “Does Lyotard’s ideologies have any impact on Arts in postmodernism?” It identifies his Lyotard’s ideology and its effect on postmodernity. This paper is limited by its study of artistic movements in postmodernity in Europe and America, from 1965 to 2010. The second section of this paper contains its theoretical approach, in two chapters. The first chapter is: Modern Criticism according to Lyotard’s Ideologies. The second chapter is: Modern Critical Movements. The third section of this paper includes its methodology. Chosen samples are dated from 1965-2010, using data analysis as a descriptive method. The fourth section consists of the study results, conclusions, recommendations, and further research recommendations. Pages 586 to 604
Pdf    Education in the Late Ottoman and the Royal Eras in Iraq: A Comparative Study

Noal Kushaish Mohammed Al-Zubaidya, aDepartment of History, College of Basic Education, AL-Mustansiriya University, Email: aSaqar.baazy@yahoo.com

The study has considered the invasion of Baghdad by the Moghuls in 1228 AD/656 H, and the disturbance of the country during both the Royal and the Ottoman eras. This study is dedicated to the educational field during these periods of Iraqi history. Education in the Ottoman regime has not seen any development, but it has been based on the irregular (non-formal) ways of teaching, such as tutors and religious schools. Since Midhat Pasha claimed the throne from 1869–1872, Iraq has seen a wide range of development in every field. Education is one such field, in which Pasha introduced the Al-Rashidia Schools in both civilian and militant forms. As for the Royal period of Iraqi history, education has seen a huge development and new horizons have opened in terms of primary, secondary and preparatory schools, female schools, Jewish schools, Christian schools, private as well as foreign schools, and schools for craftsmanship. Pages 605 to 621
Pdf    Empirical Evidence of Capital Structure in Indonesia

Elok Sri Utamia*, Ressa Octa Yoganatab, Lilik Faridac, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business University of Jember, Indonesia, Email: a*elok_utami.feb@unej.ac.id

Capital structure is part of the use of corporate debt and capital that is used to fund a company's operational activities. The determination of capital structure needs to be completed to determine the optimal capital structure in order to maximise the value of a company. The research examines the effects of asset structure, profitability, firm size, business risk and asset growth on capital structure in the mining, agriculture, and food and beverage sectors. The sampling method used is purposive sampling with a criterion of companies that do not do mergers or acquisitions. The results of the study consider the overall capital structure policy by profitability and business risk. In the mining sector, asset structure, profitability and business risks affect the capital structure, while the size of the company and the growth of the company do not. In the agricultural sector, capital structure is issued by structure, profitability, company size, business risk and company growth. In the food and beverage sector, the structure, profitability and business risks affect the capital structure, while the size of the company and company growth do not. Pages 622 to 633

A Model for State Budget Policy in the Indonesian Parliament

Bambang Santoso Haryonoa*, Safrib, Abdul Hakimc, a,cLecturer of Doctoral Program in Public Administration Science, Malang Brawijaya University, bStudent of Doctoral Program in Public Administration Science, Malang Brawijaya University, Email: a*bambangsfia@ub.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to create and develop a model for the preparation of state budget policy in the Indonesian Parliament. The research method uses a qualitative approach with Interactive Model Data Analysis (Miles, Matthew B et al., 2014). The study revealed: a. Internal factors in the Indonesian Parliament Commission; (1) Understanding of the members of the Commission in the process of making financial memorandum which is used as material for discussion of the faction and the Indonesian Parliament budgetary body; (2) Board members' commitment to the budget in favour of the community; (3) Lack of harmony between the coalition of political parties supporting the government and the coalition of non-governmental political parties (opposition); (4) It does not involve community participation in the net of aspirations about perceived needs and the problems faced to get a solution through the policy of determining the state budget. b. External factors from the government, the private sector and the community, (1) The government in this case the Ministry of Finance is very familiar with the principles of performance-based budgeting, but has not been followed evenly by the existing ministries / institutions. This relates to changes in the mindset of the traditional model that has been going on for a very long time and then changes with this new model; (2) Private, through the association of entrepreneurs as economic agents, provides input to be taken into consideration as the main strategic issues in the global economy and the things that follow; (3) The community, both through Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) and as constituents, is less involved for the members of the council to carry out an aspiration net, and there are no forums that are periodically utilized for the community in channelling their aspirations to the council.  Pages 634 to 654

Malay Authors Strategies in Displaying the Intelligence of the Figures and Its Effects in Traditional Malay Literary Texts

Norazimah Zakaria, Mazarul Hasan Mohamad Hanapi, Nur Farahkhanna Mohd Rosli, Azhar Wahid and Ani Omar

Faculty of Language and Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris Perak, Malaysia.

Email: norazimah@fbk.upsi.edu.my

This study is conducted to examine how the authors use the creative writing techniques to display the war avoidance strategies by the calibre figures as mentioned in the traditional Malay literary texts and to explain the effects of the strategies to the country. Methodology: This study is a qualitative study designed to identify and explain the war avoidance strategies by the calibre figures and their effects as mentioned in the selected texts: Sejarah Melayu (Malay History) and the Epic of Hang Tuah.  Secondary sources which are literary materials and articles are also used to support the primary data. Main findings: The analysis of the findings has indicated that the traditional Malay authors are the calibre figures and play important roles in displaying the characters’ sense of calibre and integrity through their creative writing techniques.  The intelligence of the traditional Malay authors is important in conveying ideas of war avoidance strategies through selected characters in texts.  Sejarah Melayu and the Epic of Hang Tuah are the examples of historical literature texts worth investigated to examine the intelligence of the traditional authors who think creatively and critically. Applications: This paper can be used by literary scholars and students. Novelty/Originality: Some war avoidance strategies are identified in Sejarah Melayu and the Epic of Hang Tuah texts which have uplifted the civilization of a nation in the past.  This is important for the society to know and it is well and effectively displayed through the intelligence of the authors. Pages 655 to 672


Political Policy on Oil and Gas Law in the Indonesian House of Representatives

Julizar Idrisa*, Abdul Hakimb, Sarwonoc, Bambang Santoso Haryonod, aStudent of the Doctoral Program at the Faculty of State Administration of Malang Brawijaya University, b,c,dPost-Graduate Lecturer at the Faculty of State Administration of Malang Brawijaya University, Email: a*idrisjulizar@gmail.com

The focus of this study is an interaction in reality, namely in the political process of oil and gas law in the House of Representatives, Commission VII. The research is a qualitative study. It is limited to activities in Commission VII and the Legislature, and certain actors involved in the discussion of the Oil and Gas Law. In addition, this study is a detailed study of a work unit for a certain period of time. The results showed: 1) delays in the preparation stage, especially in the preparation of the initial draft of the bill and academic texts or the terms of reference; 2) The encouragement of political motives has removed representation of the people's aspirations from the priorities of members of the House of Representative, in every decision especially as related to the submission of the Oil and Gas Law which should be based on the interests of the people, not those of political parties; 3) House of Representative members cannot provide sufficient time for their work in the Legislative Body, because other parliamentary tasks in each Commission consume a lot of time and energy; 4) Sub-optimal access to information on the development of discussion on the Oil and Gas Law, hampering community participation in input to the law. Pages 673 to 688

Revitalisation of Karo's Local Community Life: An Oral Tradition Study

Rosita Gintinga*, Sugihana Sembiringb, Herlinac, Joy Sembiringd, aFaculty of Cultural Sciences, University of Sumatra Utara, Email: a*gintingzrosita@gmail.com

Oral traditions that live in every ethnicity in Indonesia basically have values and norms that can be utilised to answer the problems faced by society. Oral tradition is a source of local wisdom that can be utilised to regulate the order of people's lives in a wise and prudent manner. The problem of this research is: what are the forms of local wisdom in the Karo community? The objective of this research is:  Revitalising the local wisdom of the Karo people. The method used is the descriptive qualitative method. The author collects data by observation, interview, and documentation. This research was conducted in the Karo Regency, North Sumatra. Pages 689 to 700

The Effectiveness of the Zipgrade-Assisted Learning Outcomes Assessment Analysis in Promoting Indonesian Vocational Teachers' Competence

Suhendara, Herman Dwi Surjonob, Slamet PHc, Priyantod, a,b,c,dYogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia,

Email: asuhendar@untirta.ac.id, bhermansurjono@uny.ac.idcslamet.ph@uny.ac.iddpriyanto@uny.ac.id

One of the tasks of Indonesian vocational school teachers is to correct the assessment of learning outcomes and analyse them. The assessment activities that must be carried out by teachers are performance assessments, self-assessments, portfolio assessments, daily assessments, midterm assessments, end of semester assessments, competency level exams, and school exams. For the majority of teachers, these activities are too administrative because the results must be corrected and analysed. The teacher makes the questions and corrects the assessment of learning outcomes still using the manual method. In fact, it is very rare for teachers to analyse the results of their assessment. Therefore, the research objectives are: 1) to improve teacher competence in analysing the learning outcomes of Indonesian vocational students; 2) to make effective the process of the ZipGrade-assisted learning outcomes assessment. Quasi-experimental, the one-group pretest-posttest design was adopted to complete the research. The survey questionnaire was designed for exploring the perceptions of teachers and students the effectiveness of using ZipGrade in the learning outcomes assessment. The findings revealed that the teacher had positive experiences about how to analyse the assessment of learning outcomes. The teacher is greatly helped by ZipGrade to effectively correct student answers. Students argue that the using of ZipGrade-based android answer sheets has simplified the filling process. The teachers explained that the analysis of ZipGrade student learning outcomes assessment made their work easier. ZipGrade has helped him/her by making correcting students' answers very easy and effective. In addition, ZipGrade provides information on the results of the validity analysis, the level of difficulty of the questions, and the distinguishing features of each item. In the future, teachers hope to get training in the use of other technologies to compile and evaluate learning outcomes. Pages 701 to 719

Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB): A Driving Force of Lecturer Performance Through Competence, Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction

Suwiyadia, Mashudi Rofikb, Suhermanc, Sukrisnod, a,b,cPoliteknik Ilmu Pelayaran Semarang, dSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Dan Pariwisata Semarang, Email: amarthedisuwiyadi@gmail.combfikmas@gmail.com,   csuhermanpip23@gmail.comdharlinokris@gmail.com

This study seeks to analyse the role of factors that can improve the performance of lecturers through competence, motivation, job satisfaction and OCB, who teach at merchant colleges using quantitative methods and models tested using samples taken from several lecturers, who teach at merchant colleges in Indonesia, by using multiple regression analysis and AMOS 21 software as a data analysis tool. The results of the study were obtained as follows: The results show that the variable competence, motivation, and job satisfaction have a positive and significant impact on performance variables. This research also managed to show the positive and significant relationship between the variables of competence, job satisfaction and motivation to OCB variables. This study focuses on lecturers' competence process, motivation, job satisfaction and OCB influence on their performance. So the future study enables to add other variables which are not used in this study to try to explain the impact of lecturers' performance, variables which are enabled to be used for future studies such as: transformational leadership, interpersonal communication, organisation culture, and lecturer’s commitment. Pages 720 to 734
Cron Job Starts