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Distribution of Productive Zakat for Reducing Urban Poverty in Indonesia

Nur Kholisa, Mugiyatib, a,bFakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam, UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: anurkholis@uinsby.ac.id,   bmugiyati@uinsby.ac.id

Productive zakat is a strategic mechanism to help alleviate poverty. This study aims to explore the mechanism by which BAZNAS manages productive zakat in an attempt to help alleviate poverty in Indonesia. This study uses a qualitative exploratory approach. Documentary data pertaining to zakat distribution to mustahīq in the urban poor Surabaya was collected from the East Java BAZNAS office. Several interviews with the leaders of this office were also conducted to capture their views on the management of productive zakat. The results showed that to reduce the poverty of the urban poor, the BAZNAS applies a strategic distribution of productive zakat implemented through (1) a revolving capital loan to increase venture capital of the mustahīq members of MSMEs run under the qarḑ al-ḫasan contract, and (2) providing work equipment for starting or developing businesses. These mechanisms were effective in helping the poor for starting and expanding their business, hereby improving their wellbeing. It is suggested that amil zakat may increase the allocation of zakat distribution for productive purposes, rather than for one stop consumption. This study expands the understanding of the currently developed approach to zakat management and provides sound good practices in reducing poverty. Pages 1 to 12

 

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Course Design for Teaching Development: Key Considerations for Faculty Developers

Mohammed Saleh Alkathiri, Assistant Professor of Teaching and Learning with emphasis in Higher Education, Deanship of Academic Development, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Email: msalkathiri@iau.edu.sa

The purpose of this paper is to address key elements of designing a course that aims at developing core competencies in teaching and learning for faculty members.  The paper includes discussion of the initial preparation, objectives and learning outcomes, syllabus construction, assignments, assessments, grading, and teaching strategies.  The paper is divided into sections, one for each theme or key topic in relation to course design.  Finally, a brief reflection concludes the paper.  The process of course design did not only allow to learn about the principles of course design, but also expanded one’s understanding of oneself as a faculty developer. Pages 13 to 29

 

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Pilot Study of Heartbeat Sensors for Data Streaming in Virtual Reality (VR) Training

Yui-yip Laua, Yuk Ming Tangb*, Ka Yin Chauc, Ho Yan Huib, a Division of Business and Hospitality Management, College of Professional and Continuing Education, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, b Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, c Faculty of International Tourism and Management, City University of Macau, Macau

Virtual reality (VR) training is important for medical staff nowadays especially for those who handle sharp objects. The training can be used to prevent accidents or potential injuries to them as they can happen at any moment during surgical procedures, disassembling, or disposal of sharp objects. For education and training purposes, VR simulated precautions training in hospitals, caring centres, etc. is proposed. In this article, we describe a pilot study of VR simulated training. The pilot study involves an initial experiment and data collection of a simulated VR education and training program by using the biosensors of the developed wearable device. Through the development of an immersive and 3D VR environment in the working place, the simulation is intended to provide VR training for health care employees and medical practitioners. In this pilot study, we attempt to design and develop a wearable device for heartbeat rate data capture and collection when the trainee is undergoing VR training. Thus, the medical workers can be trained under supervision and monitoring. The developed heartbeat device can successfully collect the bio-data of the trainees during simulated training, and the accuracy of the sensors was also validated. Pages 30 to 41
 
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Applying Waiting Queue Models to Solve Queue Problems During the Corona Pandemic in Khartoum State Hospitals (Al-Hikma Hospital as a Model)

Dr. Ahmed Osman Ibrahim Ahmed1, Dr. Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadir2, [1],2Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal University, Faculty of Applied Studies and Community Service

The research dealt with the application of waiting lines models in Al-Hikma Hospital in Khartoum State. The research problem lied in the phenomenon of queues in the hospital, which was exacerbated by the Corona pandemic, which necessitated hospitals to conduct more restrictions on auditors in order to avoid the risks arising from the possibility of transmission of the virus. The research aimed to solve the problem of waiting clients using queue models. The researcher adopted the observation method to collect data and information and also adopted the quantitative methods for Windows 2 to extract the findings. The most important findings  of the research lied in that the waiting of patients in the circumstances of the new Corona virus has health consequences related to the nature of the virus and the way it spreads. This necessitated the application of other measures to prevent congestion and waiting. One of the findings was also that the waiting period for customers is long compared to known waiting standards despite the application of some rules such as the appointment system and restriction on a spatially attending hospitals for emergency cases only. The most important research recommendations were to increase the number of service providers, taking into account the cost component, conduct studies related to customer satisfaction, and constantly survey the work environment to avoid any shortcomings, increase competitiveness, and the need to observe known global protocols through follow-up and training. Pages 42 to 61
 
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Structural Equation Modelling the Interrelationships between Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Behavioural Intention among Maldivians seeking Medical Tourism Services

Ahmed Ali Jaleela*, Ali Khatibib, S. M. Ferdous Azamc, a PhD Candidate, Post Graduate Centre, Management and Science University, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, 40100, Selangor, Malaysia, b,cGraduate School of Management, Management and Science University, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, 40100, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: a*jaleel.aa@gmail.com, balik@msu.edu.my, cdrferdous@msu.edu.my

This quantitative study contributes to theory and practice by analysing the interrelationships between service quality, customer satisfaction and behavioural intention among Maldivians’ seeking medical tourism services. A total of 385 samples collected using stratified proportionate random sampling and a survey questionnaire approach in a non-contrived cross-sectional setting with minimal interference of the researcher. The study seeks to fill existing gaps in literature related to medical industry, and this study will be a first of its kind for the Maldives, as it is conducted nationwide across the 19 atolls to generalise the results of this study conducted in the Maldives context. The findings indicated that service quality significantly affects customer satisfaction as well as behavioural intention. Further analysis is provided for testing the intervening effect of customer satisfaction on the relationship between service quality and behavioural intention. The study results would help policymakers in the Maldives to formulate better policies on medical care and medical tourism. Academics in the field of business management and marketing would be able to utilise findings to enrich literature. Furthermore, the study assists marketeers and business analysts formulate new marketing strategies to penetrate the South Asian region market, with an emphasis on the medical care industry in the Maldives. Pages 62 to 80
 
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The Poetry of Ibn Al-Qaysarani: A Stylistic Study / Al-Thughriyat as a Model

Ismail Suliman Almazaidaha, Majed Gazi Alzubib, Moath Hazza Alzubic, aAssociate Professor of Arabic Literature, The University of Jordan, Amman, bProfessor of Arabic syntax, The University of Jordan, Amman, cAssistant Professor of Arabic syntax, The University of Jordan, Amman, Email: aGuefara1981@yahoo.com, ai.mazaydah@ju.edu.jo, bm_alzubi@ju.edu.jo, cm_zubi@ju.edu.jo

This study aims to examine the poetry of Ibn Al-Qaysarani, which he told during his trip to the thughoor (fortified towns) that was later called (Al-Thughriyat), from two points of view: personal subjective stylistics and statistical stylistics. The research found that Al-Thughriyat were merely short pieces that did not exceed fifteen verses at its finest, and that the poet was fascinated with the fortified towns he visited as well as the Western civilization which he did not find in his country. After studying the lexicon, the research found that the poet’s words were softer than they were before, as his jihadist poetry was a true picture of ancient Arab poetry. We saw that he disbelieved in Arab poets such as Al-Mutanabi and Abu Tammam whom he used to consider a light for him in his jihadist poetry. Rather, he started following a poet like Abu Nawas into his flirtation with the Frankish women. Pages 81 to 93
 
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Education’s Role: Rights and Responsibilities of individuals in Welfare State

Dr. Said Saeed1 Dr. Muhammad Idris 2 Dr. Muhammad Tariq 3, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan

Man is gregarious by nature and cannot live without society. It is the moral duty of an individual to devote his/her energies to the service of society in a welfare state. Education can yield values in individuals for making this planet a better place for living. As a member of welfare state, every individual has certain rights and responsibilities in common with other individuals. The paper concentrates to investigate education role and responsibilities of individuals in a welfare state. These research questions were addressed; does education play its role in developing positive values in individuals in a welfare state? What are the rights of individuals in a welfare state? What are the responsibilities of individuals in a welfare state? Qualitative approach was employed to collect data from the informants. Thematic analysis was applied to make analysis of the data. Findings showed that it is a way to realize his self in the self of others, education inculcates citizenship values, and citizens are made not born, and citizenship is an art which has to be learnt through education. It is recommended that quality education may be ensured to make strong our character and prove ourselves worthy citizens of a worthy state. Pages 94 to 110
 
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The Influence of International Accounting Standards on the Economic Development Aftermath of COVID-19

Aymen Raheem Abdulaali Almayyahia, Mustafa Abdullah Mohammedb, Alhamzah Alnoorc, Sammar Abbasd and Zeeshan Zaib Khattake, a,bSouthern Technical University, Management Technical College, Iraq; cSchool of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Southern Technical University, Management Technical College, Iraq; d,eInstitute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Pakistan.

This study was carried out to determine the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) policies and the extent of its impact on sustainable development. During the Covid-19 pandemic there have been changes in these policies to adjust the financial risk caused by the pandemic. Similarly, the International Accounting Standards was studied to evaluate the effects on reporting of Expected Credit Loss Assessment. The International Accounting Standards revealed the impact of contract revenue reporting. The International Accounting Standards were investigated to determine the effect on reporting and disclosure of Fair Value Measurements (FVM). Similarly, it was found that the reporting mechanism of equity and debts has also been changed to adjust to the situation caused by Covid-19. To meet the objectives of the study, online qualitative data was accessed and used. To study the various changes in financial reporting standards caused by Covid-19 to mitigate the risk, online data was randomly selected and evaluated as discussed in the methodology section. Pages 111 to 125
 
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Implications of Tax Audit and Investigation on Taxpayers’ Compliance in Nigeria 

Samuel Adebayo Olaoyea  and Tajudeen Abimbola Busarib, Department of Accouting, Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun state, Nigeria. Email: olaoyes@babcock.edu.nga and tajubusari@yahoo.comb

The case of tax compliance globally is complex and largely depends on the attitudinal dispositions and taxpayers’ perception of optimal tax revenue utilisation by the governments. Previous studies had argued that taxpayers are willing to obey tax laws naturally without being audited or the threat of tax investigation; rather the presence of tax justice, optimal utilisation of tax revenue and transparency is enough to motivate compliance. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of tax audit and investigation on taxpayers’ compliance in Nigeria. The study employed cross-sectional survey research design, using a self-structured questionnaire administered to purposively selected senior members of Federal Inland Revenue Services (IFRS), a body responsible for tax collection and administration in Nigeria. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The descriptive result showed that regular tax audits influence tax compliance {Average Score = 4.05; SD = 0.93} with 76.12% percentage of total Agree; the responses relatively vary as suggested by the computed standard deviation Inferential regressions analysis carried out which revealed that a tax audit and investigation had a positive statistical significant effect on tax compliance, AdjR2 = 0.111; F-Statistics (3, 352) = 15.838; P-value = 0.000. The study recommended that the level of tax compliance in Nigeria could drastically improve when the taxpayers’ perception of corruption and insincerity of government is proved otherwise by the governments’ clear demonstration of honesty, transparency and optimal tax utilisation. Pages 126 to 141
 
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Potential Demand Prediction of Automated Parcel Lockers Adoption in Bangkok, Thailand

Orawee Thongkama, Manoj Lohatepanontb*, Pongsa Pornchaiwiseskulc*, aLogistics and supply chain management, Graduate School, bTransportation Institution, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, cFaculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, Corresponding Author* Email: aorawee.th@gmail.com, b*manoj.l@chula.ac.th, c*pongsa.p@chula.ac.th

Online shopping businesses grow significantly in Thailand. Home delivery is the first choice from a customer perspective, however, with the failure rate, automated parcel locker (APL) appears to be an alternative. This study proposes a multiple linear regression to investigate socio-demographic, behaviors and preferences of customers impacts on probability of using APL in Thailand. The study uses 718 observations from both online and offline surveys in Bangkok. The result shows that the positive impacts for demand prediction are age range (>46 years old), type of accommodation (commercial building and apartment), household living (with parents, and with spouse and child/children, discount price, hours using Internet per day, frequency of online shopping, and APL location types. In terms of location, the condominium has the highest impacts, followed by office buildings. For negative impacts, there are gender (female), age (18-25 years old), PhD education level, income between THB 30,001-45,000, online shopping experience, own a car, occupation (being full time employee and unemployed), have someone stay home during the day, APL location (Shopping mall) and travelling distance. Pages 142 to 160
 
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Designing a New Retirement Plan (with Special Reference to Service Class People)

Dr. Naila Iqbal Qureshi, Associate Professor, Business administration Department, College of Business Administration, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, KSA

Planning for retirement years means determining how much money a person will need to live comfortably when finally retiring from work, that is, from a service or profession. Retirement planning helps in weighing the options and identifying the best ways to save for retirement, given the financial situation and the capacity for risk. The researcher analysed that the plan should provide higher return to their investors. The investment should be risk free. The new plan should be risk free and should provide maximum risk cover. At present there are various retirement plans running in India, so the researcher concentrated only upon the top pension plans. The new plan only compared with the LIC’s jeevan nidhi (LIFE TREASURE) means: LIC's JEEVAN NIDHI is a with profits Deferred Annuity (Pension) plan. On survival of the policyholder beyond term of the policy the accumulated amount (i.e. Sum Assured + Guaranteed Additions + Bonuses) is used to generate a pension (annuity) for the policyholder. The plan also provides a risk cover during the deferment period. The USP of the plan being the pension can commence at 40 years. The premiums paid are exempt under Section 80CCC of Income Tax Act because it is the best plan among all plans. It is hard to understand the financial calculations by companies, but if we talk about LIC’s policies, there is a software-based system for computing the annuity amount, risk cover amount and the surrender value, which is hard to understand and is dependent upon the company’s profitability. Pages 161 to 180
 
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The Role of the Crown Prince in the Political System of Kuwait

Nour Huwaidi Al Huwaidi, PhD student- Cairo University - Faculty of Economics and Political Science

This paper aims to study and analyse the role of the Crown Prince in the political system of Kuwait.This paper uses analytical and descriptive methods in analysing the role of the Crown Prince in the political system of Kuwait, describing and analysing the rules, methods and duties related to choosing the Crown Prince in Kuwait. The Kuwaiti constitution specified how to assume the position of Crown Prince, defined the duties of the Crown Prince, and linked the position of Prime Minister in the government to that of the Crown Prince, until the position of Crown Prince was separated from the position of Prime Minister in 2003. The position of Crown Prince in Kuwait has played an important role since the issuance of the Kuwaiti Constitution in 1962, as the constitution specified how to assume the position of Crown Prince, the functions of the Crown Prince, and linked the position of Crown Prince to the position of Prime Minister until 2003, when the two positions were separated. Pages 181 to 192
 
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The Phenomenon of Standard Deviated  Language of Student Communication and the Purity Preservation Issue of Vietnamese

Vinh Le Thi Thuya, aFaculty of Philology, Hanoi Pedagogical University 2, Vietnam, Email: alethithuyvinh@hpu2.edu.vn

In the current context of innovation and integration, and before social, historical and cultural changes, the Vietnamese language has also experienced great changes, both in breadth and depth. One of the language fields that deeply affects the appearance of contemporary Vietnamese, as well as contributes to the transformation and development of Vietnamese in the modern socio-cultural context, is language at school – the language of the future owners of the country. In this article, through the utility of presenting the current situation of using standard deviating language in the communication of students, we initially propose specific orientations and measures to improve the good values retention of Vietnamese, while having a direct impact on the language education and learning process of students. Pages 193 to 206
 
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Teachers’ Social Life and Their Job Performance - A Study of Public & Private Secondary Schools of Pakistan

Dr. Abdul Ghaffar1, Dr. Amir Zaman1, Dr. M. Idris2 & Anwar Khan3 1,2Associate Professor Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, KPK, Pakistan, 3Secondary Education Department KPK, Pakistan

The teacher has remained the central part of the education system. He/she is the main person who is responsible for the overall development of students’ personalities. He has got a different role to play in order to keep the system on track. It is therefore important that his/her needs, personal, institutional and societal, may be satisfied in order to enable him to concentrate on his/her work. This study was an attempt to investigate the perceptions of teachers and principals in order to find out whether teachers are satisfied in their social life; to investigate the perception of Principals about a teachers’ job performance and to know about the relationship of a teachers’ social life with their job performance. Two questionnaires were framed in order to collect relevant data from the respondents. T-test and spearman correlation was used in order to analyse the data. Findings show that the public sector school teachers are more satisfied than private school teachers. It was also found out that work recognition of the teachers motivate them to perform in a better way. Pages 207 to 216
 
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Productivity Improvement in the Denim Industry by DMAIC Methodology

Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiquia, Imran Noorb, Muhammad Dawood Husainc, Muhammad Usama Nooranid, Allah Dade, Waqar Iqbalf, Danmei Sung, a,b,c,dNED University of Engineering & Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, University Road, 75270, Karachi, Pakistan. a,gHeriot-Watt University, School of Textiles & Design, TD1 3HF, Galashiels, UK. ePakistan Institute of Fashion and Design, Lahore, Pakistan. fTiangong University, School of Textile Science and Engineering, Tianjin, China, Email: aorazas@neduet.edu.pk

The aim of this paper is to boost productivity improvement by reducing the rejection rate and finding ways to improve the quality of the textile (denim) industry. The methodology used here is based on Six Sigma, which aids as a catalyst for lowering the rejection rate in the denim industry. Six Sigma in this paper serves as a systematic tool for continuous quality process improvement and for achieving desired targets and quality. The DMAIC model provides a framework that ultimately decreases the variation in the process, and executes a central plain that would be readily accepted by the organisation and which encourages people to adapt it. In the defining phase, the root causes of the problem and faults were recognised. As a result, a broken end was found to be the main cause of the rejection of defective products. The root causes were analysed using a cause and effect diagram. In the improvement phase, the design of the experiment (DOE) was implemented, and key parameters of the process were set up. This revealed that high concentrations of acid and hydrogen peroxide are the core origin of the diminishing yarn strength in the back process. A factorial design, with two replications, was performed. Hydrogen peroxide and acid were used in the dyeing department as chemical oxidation for indigo dye. After the implementation of Six Sigma, the productivity of the company improved and the rejection rate was reduced. Pages 217 to 229
 
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Exploring the Role of Agile Operant Resources in Facilitation of Strategic Orientation: Case of Family-Owned Businesses in Pakistan

Mehreen Waheeda*, Dr. Abdul Rashid Kausarb, Dr. Yasir Rashidc          aPh.D Scholar of Management Sciences,  Lecturer in National University of Modern Languages (NUML), bProfessor of Knowledge Management,  cAssistant Professor of Marketing a,b,c School of Business & Economics (SBE), University of Management & Technology (UMT) Lahore, Pakistan, Email:a*mehreenwaheed@numl.edu.pkbark@umt.edu.pk,yasir.rashid@umt.edu.pk

No one can deny the pertinent role of resources in each era. Over time, its usefulness enhances which facilitates firm sustainability in today’s volatile business world. To the best of the author's knowledge, no study has been done specifically in the context of Family-Owned Businesses (FOBs) in Pakistan regarding the Owner’s possessed agile operant resources. The purpose of this study is to explore the hidden agile operant resources of the family business owners which facilitate FOBs in strategic orientation. This study resides on a relativistic school of thought based on the interpretive paradigm. It is used as an exemplary nature of research. Purposive sampling is used for data collection conducted interviews through open-ended questionnaires and observation of family owners. This study is based on the abductive research approach along with Gioia methodology has been used to develop broader themes for discussion. This research paper provides sound conceptual insights on the strategic orientation of family firms through the pertinent role of learning & observational resources, agile entrepreneurial phronesis & agile sensing skills. The authors proposed a conceptual model for shedding light on the pertinent role of agile operant resource supports to facilitate the strategic orientation of Family-Owned Businesses. Pages 230 to 256
 
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Organisational Design, Organisational Climate and Burnouts in Health Services Companies

Friska Sipayung1, Liasta Ginting2, Magdalena L. L. Sibarani3, 1,2,3Department of Management, Faculty of Economic & Business, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: 1friska@usu.ac.id, 2liastaginting@gmail.com, 3magdalenaleonita@gmail.com

The purpose of this study was to analyse the hospital organisational design, whether the model has a mechanistic or organic tendency. Analyzing how the organizational climate in terms of structural design whether the leadership process tends to be very autocratic, a little less autocratic or consultative. Furthermore, this research analyzing the influence of organizational design and organizational climate on burnout and performance. This research was conducted at the mother and child hospital in the city of Medan. The data analysis technique used in this research is path analysis with the help of the SmartPLS application. The results showed that in general the respondent's perception of organisational design was good, while the organisational climate was quite supportive, the burnout level experienced by nurses was in the medium category and the nurse's performance was high. The organisational design of health care companies in this study has a mechanistic tendency. Furthermore, this study found that the organisational climate tends to be quite supportive. And in terms of its structural design, the leadership process tends to be a little less autocratic. The results showed that organisational design and organisational climate had an effect on burnout and nurse performance. Pages 257 to 275
 
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The Nature of Treaties in Islamic Jurisprudence and International Law

Prof. Dr. Hasan Taisir Shammout, Jarash University, E-mail:h_shammout@hotmail.com

Legal scholarship has confirmed that international Islamic law and international law are considered as influential systems of reference rules. Recent studies neglect several individual fields of Islamic law, particularly the area of foreign relations. These studies overlook specific features of treaty-conduct in Islamic jurisprudence. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the nature of treaties in Islamic jurisprudence and international law by explaining the relation between Islamic jurisprudence and international law in terms of the nature of treaties. The findings revealed that treaties based on international law are consistent with Islamic law. Further studies may be conducted on treaties relevant to the contemporary world. Conclusions will be presented accordingly. Pages 276 to 285
 
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Structure and Function of Pottery Production Process in Kampong Chhnang, Kingdom of Cambodia

Pramote Pinsakula, Asst. Prof. Dr. Thanasit Chantareeb, Dr. Kittisan Sriruksac, a,cFaculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen University 40002, Thailand, bFaculty of Architecture, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen University 40002, Thailand, Email: aPramote.Pinsakul@gmail.com, bThacha1@kku.ac.th, ckitisri@kku.ac.th

This article is part of a research paper on Wisdom and Identity of Cambodian Pottery to Contemporary Product Design. This research aims to study the role of people involved in the division of duties or works in the family in the pottery production process. This study is a qualitative research. Research tools include surveys, observations, and interviews of the people who are involved in the pottery production process. After the data was collected, it was analysed based on Talcott Parsons' structural and functionalism theory.  The results showed that most of the pottery produced in the community in the present were used for decorations and for daily life. The manufacturing process and style of pottery were systematically passed down from one generation to another. Experience in making pottery had been accumulated until they are skilled. The skills had been developed and improved until the form and process of production settled down in terms of functionality and beauty, which have different characteristics depending on the role of people in the community. The systematic role of these people related to the social structure in the community. The process of producing pottery in each household was a systematic sub-process because there were clear divisions of family members' duties. In those sub-processes, duties or actions were the base of the system that was developed into the social structures in the community. There are also other main factors to motivate the community, which creates a societal and cultural diversity and process of creating social systems that usually developed or changed to balance the society. Every factor mentioned earlier clearly indicated the existence of local wisdom in the pottery production in Kampong Chhnang community in the Kingdom of Cambodia. Pages 286 to 302
 
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Imagining the Diaspora Vote from Zimbabweans Abroad: Electronic Voting or Postal Voting?

Limukani Mathe, Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Johannesburg, School of Communication in the department of Journalism, Film & Television. University of Johannesburg. ORCID: 0000-0002-6776-0683. Email: limukanimathe@yahoo.com

This article envisages the diaspora vote from Zimbabweans living abroad. The study applies a qualitative content analysis on Zimbabwe Electoral Commission officials and government’s perspectives or responses to the call for diaspora vote. It further engages several politicians through in-depth interviews to discuss the possible challenges and the model that can be utilised for diaspora vote. This article draws some theoretical concepts from the diffusion of diaspora enfranchisement norms by Turcu & Urbatsch (2015) who posit that neighbourly countries are likely to emulate each other’s policy making, adoption of electoral standards and mechanisms. Therefore, the article argues that Zimbabwe can enfranchise diasporas especially for presidential elections. Presidential elections may be conducted electronically or through personal vote combined with postal voting. Zimbabwe can implement personal voting at the embassies where results will be tabulated and electoral residue posted home. However, this article further argues that unlike e-voting, the management of personal voting combined with postal might be costly especially managing millions of Zimbabweans out-of-country, hence there is a need to start deliberating on e-voting or pilot e-voting for diasporas. The article acknowledges that a positive political will is fundamental for the effective implementation of the diaspora vote. Pages 303 to 320
 
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Implementing Universal Design for Learning in Higher Education

Dr. Kaycee L. Bills, PhD, MSW, Fayetteville State University, Email: kbills@uncfsu.edu

Action research is a method of inquiry useful in solving social problems in higher education. This study seeks to address a significant problem: higher education’s use of traditional instructional methods in higher education settings. Ineffective techniques, such as lecturing, fail to account for students’ variable learning needs. In contrast to traditional pedagogy, universal design for learning (UDL) is a robust framework that “[improves] and [optimizes] teaching and learning for all people” (CAST, 2018), including students with disabilities. For this study a UDL & Accessibility Specialist at their institution was chosen for two reasons: (1) to learn how to implement UDL practices in their classrooms, and in turn, (2) motivate other faculty members at their institution to consider enacting UDL principles. A thematic analysis of the interview transcript reveals themes relevant to practicing UDL. Implications for future practice, as well as the researchers’ reflections on the research process, are shared in the discussion section. Pages 321 to 331
 
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Development and Validation of the Future Creative Confluence Competency (F3C) Test for College Students in South Korea

Kyung Hwa Leea, JuSung Junb, a,bProfessors, Department of Lifelong Education, Soongsil University, Seoul, Korea, Email: akhlee@ssu.ac.kr, bjnet@ssu.ac.kr (corresponding author)

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a test to measure future creative confluence competency (F3C), which is the capability of future talents. Creative competency and confluence competency were derived as the constructs of the F3C, and measurement items were developed to measure each construct. Seventeen experts were engaged in verifying contents validity of the test. In addition, the data collected from 653 college students were analysed to confirm reliability and validity of the test. The F3C test consists of four sub-constructs of creative ability, creative personality, integrated thinking ability, and new knowledge and value creation ability with a total of 27 items. Pages 332 to 350
 
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Social Networks, Market Orientation, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Sustainable Enterprise Development: Study of SMEs in Developing Economy

Dr. Asad Javeda*, Dr. Raza Ullahb, Akhtar Nawazc, aLecturer, Department of Management Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra- Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College University, Peshawar – Pakistan, cLecturer/PhD Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra- Pakistan, Email: a*asadjaved@hu.edu.pk, braza@icp.edu.pk, cakhtar_nawaz@hu.edu.pk

The purpose of this empirical study is to determine the impact of social networks on sustainable enterprise development. The study also evaluated the moderated role of entrepreneurial orientation and mediated role of marketing orientation in the aforesaid relationship. Data was collected from 467 managers and owners of SMEs. Results revealed that social networks have positive and significant impact on sustainable enterprise development of SMEs. The study also found that entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation are key for SMEs’ in achieving sustainable development. Social networks are important for sustainable enterprise development. Moreover, the study also focuses on other essential elements i.e. entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation for achieving sustainable enterprise development. The research has numerous theoretical and practical implications for managers as well as for government bodies. Pages 351 to 370
 
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Stock Return Behaviour around Earnings Disclosure

Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim Khana, Dr. Javed Ghulam Hussainb, Dr. Imtiaz Badshahc, Dr. Amira Khattakd aAssistant Professor, Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, bProfessor, Birmingham City University Business School, Birmingham City University, cAssociate Professor, Faculty of Business, Languages, and Social Sciences, Østfold University College- Norway, cAssistant Professor, College of Business Administration, Price Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Email: aibrahimkhan@awkum.edu.pk, bJaved.Hussain@bcu.ac.uk, cimtiaz.badshah@hiof.no, cakhattak@psu.edu.sa.

Using event study methodology, this research analyse stock return behaviour around earnings disclosure of 227 firms listed on PSX from 2004 to 2013. Empirical evidence suggests firstly, earnings announcements generate significant returns on the announcement day, declaring the PSX to be a semi-strong inefficient market. Secondly, significant returns were observed in the pre-announcement period reflecting information leakage. Thirdly, significant returns were observed in the post-announcement period suggesting a lag in the investors’ response. Fourthly, post-earnings announcement drift anomaly is reported for negative earnings announcements, and fifthly, the results are found to be sensitive to the type of statistical test undertaken. Pages 371 to 395
 
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The Red-card Effect on the Anxiety and Mental Toughness Among Jordanians’ Professional Soccer Players

Ayed Zureigat ,  Osama Abdel Fattah ᵇ*,   Ghazi El Kailani ͨ , ᵃCollege of Sports        Sciences, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, ᵇThe Ministry of Education, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-, ͨ College of Sports          Sciences, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0002-7555-5110, Email: ᵃA.Zureigat@ju.edu.jo, ᵇ*osamhsaf.2811@gmail.com , ͨ kailani59@yahoo.com

Football is one of the most popular games in the world, and it is called the world game. However, the red card is a negative indicator of the psychological performance on players. Consequently, the primary purpose of the current study was to the effect of the red card on anxiety and mental toughness level among the professional soccer players and the differences in this level depend on play position and training experience variables. Also, the relationship between anxiety and mental toughness. To achieve this, we used the descriptive approach on a sample consisting 61 professional soccer players selected using the purposive sample technique. Additionally, an electronic questionnaire was built using Google questionnaire, which consisted of 14 paragraphs that dealt with the mental toughness, and 21 paragraphs that dealt with the anxiety. The researchers used means, standard deviations, One-Way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient by using SPSS version 24 with a confidence level of 95% (p value= 0.05). The results of the study have shown that the anxiety level among professional soccer players came with a high degree; on the other hand, the mental toughness came with a low degree. Additionally, there are no statistically significant differences in the anxiety and mental toughness according to the play position and training experience variables. Finally, the researchers recommend that there is a need to enhance the mental toughness among the professional players through various psychological strategies such as mental imagery. Pages 396 to 405
 
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The Stress and Optimism Levels among Professional Football and Basketball Players during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Ghazi El Kailaniᵃ , Osama Abdel Fattah ᵇ*, Ayed Zureigat ͨ , ᵃCollege of Sports Sciences, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0002-7555-5110, ᵇThe Ministry of Education, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-, ͨ College of  Sports Sciences, the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, OKCID, 0000-0003-4545-5562, Email: ᵃkailani59@yahoo.com, ᵇ*osamhsaf.2811@gmail.com, ͨ A.Zureigat@ju.edu.jo

The blurring of vision, uncertainty about the size and how the Corona virus (COVID-19) crisis, and the lack of knowledge of who might be infected with this virus drives the motivation for this study. Consequently, the study aimed to investigate the effect of the corona pandemic on the stress and optimism levels among professional football and basketball players during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak and the differences in these levels depends on game and gender variables. To achieve this, we used the descriptive approach on a sample consisting of 386 soccer and basketball players selected using the purposive sample technique. Due to curfew in the country and to reduce face to face interaction, an electronic questionnaire was built using Google questionnaire. This consisted of 10 paragraphs that dealt with the stress, and 8 paragraphs that dealt with optimism. The researchers used averages, standard deviations, two-way ANOVA and independent samples t-test by using SPSS version 24 with a confidence level of 95% (p value= 0.05). The results of the study have shown that stress and optimism levels among professional soccer came with a high degree and on the other hand came with a moderate degree among professional basketball players. Additionally, there were statistically significant differences in the stress domain according to gender and game variables and favour of males and a football game. Finally, the researchers recommend that the continuous detection of the level of the various psychological levels among the athletes is an important factor in providing psychological care for them. Pages 406 to 418
 
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Overcoming Skin Problems in Jejunostomy and Ileostomy by Using Hand-Made Skin Protector: Case Series

Vicky Sumarki Budipramanaa, aDigestive Surgery Division – Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga/Dr. Soetomo Genetral Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: avickysbudi@gmail.com

The incidence of skin problems in jejunostomy or ileostomy is as high as 73-79%, higher than its incidence in colostomy (37%).  A hand-made skin protector made of coconut shell can overcome the problem due to its convex shape, its ability to absorb water and its non-immunogenic material. There were six cases of ileostomy complications that could be handled successfully using the hand-made skin protector. Case-1: The peristomal skin irritation caused by the use of stoma bag without skin barrier. Case-2: Skin irritation because of the retracted ileal stoma. Case-3: Parastomal hernia. Case-4: Separated jejunostomy. Case-5: The problem of containing the ileal excreta. Case-6: Double skin barrier. The excreta, alkaline, coming out of jejunostomy or ileostomy contains active digestive enzymes. The exposure of the jejunal or ileal content to the skin can cause irritation and inflammation to the surrounding peristomal skin. The exudation caused by the inflammatory reaction on the skin makes the stoma bag difficult to be perfectly attached to the peristomal skin surface. The irritation and the pain caused by the leaking of ileal content decreases the patient's quality-of-life. The only suitable stoma bag should be convex-shaped and tightened to the peristomal skin using the traction from a belt around the waist. The innovation of a hand-made skin protector made of coconut shell is not only cheap but also very useful in preventing peristomal skin irritation, retracted stomal stump and parastomal hernia, whereas the adhesive-based plastic stoma bags commonly sold in the market can’t solve those problems. Pages 419 to 428
 
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The Students' Perspectives on Implementing the Mobile-based Video Calls Using AgoraIO in Face-to-face Distance Learning Activities

Pikir Wisnu Wijayantoa, Muhammad Barja Sanjayab, a,bTelkom University, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: apikirwisnu@telkomuniversity.ac.id, bmbarjasanjaya@telkomuniversity.ac.id

Currently, the chat application development also has video chat and voice call facilities, but it is still general and not made specifically to facilitate education. This is considered less practical and dynamic in education, also, requiring different facilities from applications or conferences. Thus, in this study, the author wants to determine various students' perceptions of mobile-based applications in the learning process. This study aims to know the students' perspectives in using video calls for face-to-face distance learning activities based on mobile devices using AgoraIO. This study used probability sampling with the Simple Random Sampling technique. The Slovin technique was used to determine the sample size in the study. The population of the study was 31 students of the Diploma 3 Information System. The indicator raised in this study is a mobile device-based Video Call, which is useful for generating motivation and interest in learning. The descriptive analysis of the utilisation of mobile-based video calls using AgoraIO was obtained by 90.87%. This means that mobile device-based video calls in AgoraIO for the students of the Information System Diploma were highly expected. The score is 97%, which means that the use of information technology-based learning media for students is expected to generate motivation and interest in learning. Another indicator of this research is that information technology-based learning media is useful for increasing understanding of lessons. A score of 87% is obtained, which means that using information technology-based learning media for students is expected to improve lessons' performance. Pages 429 to 437
 
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Does Executive Compensation Dispersion Affect Firm Performance: The Moderating Role of Technology Intensity

Mr. Paul Mugenia, Mr. Christian Sarfob, Dr Ala’ Omar Dandisc*, Mr. Mohammad Al Haj Eidd, Professor Azzam Abou-Moghlie, aGachon University, South Korea, b,dUniversity of Otago, New Zealand, c*Applied Science Private University, Amman, Jordan. eDepartment of Business Administration, Applied Science Private University, Amman, Jordan. Email: apaulmugeni8@gmail.com, bchris.sarfo@postgrad.otago.ac.nz, c*A_dandis@asu.edu.jo, dmohammad.alhajeid@postgrad.otago.ac.nz, ea_aboumoghli@asu.edu.jo, ea_aboumoghli@yahoo.com

Basing on the disclosure rule of Executive Compensation in Korea which was amended through the Financial Investment Services and Capital Markets Act (FISCMA) in 2013, we use panel data for the period 2013-2017 of 133 Korean listed firms to investigate the moderating role Technology Intensity plays between the association of Executive Compensation Dispersion and firm performance. Consistent with the equity (fairness) theory, this paper enriches the current literature by providing evidence supporting a negative moderating role technology intensity plays on the relation between Executive Compensation Dispersion and firm performance. This study further indicates that Executive Compensation Dispersion is associated with better performance in labour-intensive firms than in technologically intense firms where collaboration and cooperation are fundamental requirements. However, we find a positive but insignificant relationship between Executive Compensation Dispersion and firm performance suggesting the possibility of organisational and environmental factors contributing to how firms execute the Executive Compensation Dispersion strategy. Pages 438 to 462
 
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Effect of Meta-Cognitive Instruction and Cooperative Learning Strategies on Students’ Achievement in Science

Bushra Yasina, Dr. Shafqat Rasoolb, Dr. Muhammad Azimc*aPhD Scholar, Government College University, Faisalabad Pakistan, bLecturer, Department of Education, Government College University, Faisalabad Pakistan, cProfessional Researcher, Department of Cybernetics, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Králové, Czechia[Corresponding Author: azim@dr.com].

In this research work the researcher tried to introduce the higher level methods of teaching which are essential while teaching for proper concept development of students and to make them creative. This study is experimental in nature which consists of 2 experimental groups and 1 control group. The sample of 60 biology students was selected from the Faran Model High School, Jhang. The data was analyzed by paired sample t-test and one way analysis of variance. The results concluded that there was no noteworthy difference that existed between respondents of each groups based on randomization of data. Treatment given to first experimental group based on meta-cognitive learning performed comparatively better than peers in the rest of the groups. The results of paired sample t-statistics also declared that better performance was observed in the level of better learning based on meta-cognitive learning skills being part of daily life teaching and learning. Pages 463 to 476
 
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Talent Management in Local Government in Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Quynh Tranga, Truong Tu Phuocb, aSchool of Political and Administrative Sciences, Viet Nam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, bHo Chi Minh City University of Law, Vietnam, Email: aMPP20.TrangNguyen@alumni.fulbright.edu.vn, bttphuoc@hcmulaw.edu.vn  

To improve government performance and effectiveness, many cities in Vietnam provided generous scholarships for talented students or competent public officials in exchange for their work commitments. However, talents’ turnover rate has suggested some talent management (TM, hereafter) issues in this non-western country. Based on adopting Vroom’s expectancy theory and different motivation theories, this paper investigates what TM issues discouraged talents to join or remain working in the public sector. The authors conducted an online survey with 75 scholarship recipients and in-depth interviews with 10 scholarship recipients. Results revealed the damaged prestige of human development programs in the public sector and troubles faced by talents at workplaces. The pressure of top-down management on TM was also highlighted. Based on findings, this study suggests several recommendations to improve TM in Vietnamese local government. Pages 477 to 493
 
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Risk Management Models for Prediction of Dropout Students in Thailand Higher Education

Pratya Nuankaew1*, Wongpanya Nuankaew2, Patchara Nasa-ngium3, 1School of Information and Communication Technology, University of Phayao, Thailand, 2Faculty of Information Technology, Rajabhat Mahasarakham University, Thailand, 3Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Mahasarakham University, Thailand. Email address: pratya.nu@up.ac.th1*, wongpanya.nu@up.ac.th2, patchara.nu@rmu.ac.th3

This research aimed to study the insights of students’ behavior over the past twenty years with three objectives. The first objective is to study the factors that influence the dropout of students in higher education. The second objective is to construct the model of the students’ dropout prediction, and the third objective is to evaluate the performance of the risk management models. The collection includes the 2,042 instance of students who enrolled in a Business Computer Program at the School of Information and Communication Technology, University of Phayao. The research instruments were divided into three phases; Phase I is a basic analysis phase. It consists of number of students, number of courses, academic achievement results, and various summaries. Phase II is modeling phase. It consists of decision tree techniques, and feature selection methods. Phase III is model testing phase. It consists of cross-validation methods, confusion matrix performance, accuracy, precision, and recall measurements. The results of the research showed that all four models had the highest accuracy, including the 1st model with an accuracy of 88.15%, the 2nd model with an accuracy of 91.50%, the 3rd model with an accuracy of 87.97%, and the last model with an accuracy of 88.78%. In addition, the study found that there was a significant factor for all models by only one course. It is the Business Mathematics course which appears on all models. For future research, the key goal is to apply research findings to the curriculum design, provide appropriate teaching and learning, and manage sustainable tertiary solutions that will help solve learner dropout problems. Pages 494 to 517
 
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Teaching Science in Primary Schools: A Study on the Current Situation in Ho Chi Minh City – Vietnam

Doan Thi Ngana, Bui Van Hongb, aPhd student of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, bInstitute of Technical Education of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, aThu Duc Education Enrichment School, Email: angandt.ncs@hcmute.edu.vn, bhongbv@hcmute.edu.vn

The renovation of the Vietnamese general education system has been implemented at all levels since 2018. This reform was put into practice due to the growing demands for social developments and the remaining inadequacies in the current general education system. Such inadequacies in education levels and school subjects are being investigated extensively by local educators. This article explores the current situation of science teaching and learning in primary schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. On that basis, it is possible to propose a model for organising experiential activities in science teaching with an orientation toward the development of students’ competencies. This is expected to enhance the quality of education, meeting the demands for a reformed general education system in the present and the foreseeable future. Pages 518 to 536
 
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School Management Readiness in the Elementary School

Agustinus Hermino, Sari Mulia University, Faculty of Humanities, Indonesia, Email: agustinus_hermino@yahoo.com

This research has a purpose to explore an implementation of school management in the District Fakfak and Teluk Bintuni, West Papua Province, Indonesia. The source of this qualitative research data is the Head of the Regional Education Department, school supervisors, school principals, teachers, parents of students, and the community. The focus of this research is: 1) school principal to manage the school; (2) parents in relationship with schools; and (3) supervisors as representative of the Local Department of Education to monitor and conduct supervising to all schools. This research has the following results, : 1) the principal must be able to build a good communication pattern and relationship between school, family and community so that the school's sustainability will always be supported by the school's residents; 2) the family is the closest partner of the school, so the principal needs to approach the student's family to play an active role in supporting the smooth learning process at school, as well as supporting his children to study hard; 3) school supervisors must carry out their supervisory function regularly so that the school under their guidance can run well. Pages 537 to 554
 
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Institutionalising Values and Norms at the Rehabilitation Centre of the National Anti-Narcotics Agency
Agustinus Sollu1, M. Alimin Maidin2, Hasbi3, Ansar Arifin4, 1Doctoral Program, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia, 2Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia, 3Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia, 4Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Hasanuddin, Indonesia, Email: 1asollu@yahoo.co.id

The National Anti-Narcotics Agency (BNN) Baddoka Rehabilitation Centre sees the planting of values and norms as being significantly more effective when adjusted to the needs of each client. Through the BNN Baddoka Rehabilitation Centre, which was appointed as the object of the research material, the researchers want to determine the process of institutionalising values and norms for clients at the centre. The researchers interviewed clients and managers of the BNN Baddoka Rehabilitation Centre, as well as other parties related to the Rehabilitation Centre, such as internal and external stakeholders, and distributed questionnaires to six rehabilitation centre clients regarding how changes occurred before and after the client was in the rehabilitation centre. The results showed that there had been a significant change in behaviour since the client was in the rehabilitation centre. In the rehabilitation centre, the application of values and norms was carried out by means of an initial examination of the client. This test is useful to determine to what extent an addictive substance is able to affect the client. If it is known, the rehabilitation centre will arrange any programs according to the client’s needs. Pages 555 to 576
 
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Adoption of Environmental Management Accounting: Corporate Characteristics and Innovation

Novie Susanti Susenoa,  Irma Rosmayantib, Acep Abdul Basitc, Rita Herawatid, Inda Amalia Haqe,  ᵃDepartement of Accounting, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, bDepartement of Accounting, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, cDepartement of Management, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, dDepartement of Management, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, eDepartement of Accounting, Universitas Garut, Indonesia, Email: anoviesusantisuseno@uniga.ac.id, birmarosmayanti71@gmail.com,cacep.basit@uniga.ac.id,dritaherawati@gmail.com, eindaamaliahaq98@gmail.com

The implementation of Environmental Management Accounting is essential for companies to recognise the company's activities that have an impact on the environment, where in the end, the company is demanded to be able to create quality products and not harm the environment. This research aims to determine the effect of environmental management accounting and company characteristics on product innovation. The research is carried out on Garut Regency. The research method used is a quantitative method with an associative approach. The study population was the Centre for the leather industry in the Garut Regency, West Java, with a sample of 69 respondents. The type of data used in this study is primary data in the form of questionnaires and secondary data. Data analysis techniques used multiple linear regression analysis. The results of this research indicate that environmental management accounting and company characteristics influence product innovation. This illustrates that efforts are needed to continually increase the awareness of the company always to increase innovation to create environmentally friendly products. Pages 577 to 587
 
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Family Intervention as an Important Factor in the Success of Distance Education (DE)

Mamdouh S. A. Mansour1, Adam A. Al Sultan2, 1Department of Psychology,  College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. 2Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Email: 1msmansour@iau.edu.sa

This scientific paper aims to uncover the role of families as a key factor in the success of distance education, in light of the Coronavirus Covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, distance education needs integrated support for children, building a partnership between the family and school and developing mutual responsibility for the success of children in the education system. In this way, parental interest is increased, parents' efforts to support schools are encouraged, and they directly make a positive impact on a successful educational system. Given the importance of family intervention and the participation of educational institutions, encouraging children and their involvement in school activities, in this paper, we discuss and analyse the positive effects of family intervention; the extent of cooperation and their participation with the school administration in the field of distance education; parental support for children during distance education; and provide examples of good practices by applying a questionnaire (closed and open) to 12 parents, revolving around parents ’participation in the distance learning process. In addition to their perceptions of the reality of education about, the degree of satisfaction with distance education, and the extent to which its needs are met for children? In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, conclusions are drawn and important recommendations made that focus on improving the educational environment and the growth of mental health for all. Pages 588 to 602
 
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Tonal Variation and Change in Tak Bai Dialects

Sopawan Nookunga, Somsonge Burusphatb, aDoctoral student of Linguistics of Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand  bProfessor Department of Linguistics, Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia, Mahidol University, Nakhonpathom, Thailand. Email: asopawan.lapnu@gmail.com, bgrsbr@mahidol.ac.th

Tak Bai dialect is classified under the Tai Language Family spoken in  lower southern Thailand and northern Malaysia. Tak Bai  speakers in Thailand and Malaysia still retain the six tones with similar features. Although tone splits and coalescences are the same across locations, phonetic values vary according to age-group and region. The six representative phonetic features of tones were determined based on the highest frequency of usage: Toneme 1 (A123) mid-falling-rising to high; Toneme 2 (A4) mid level; Toneme 3 (B123) high mid level; Toneme 4 (B4) mid-falling to low mid; Toneme 5 (C123) high mid-falling to mid; and Toneme 6 (C4) high mid-falling to low mid. The phonetic features of these tones in some middle age and young generation speakers were different from the typical one. Pages 603 to 622
 
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Foil Performance Monitoring Vest; An Interactive Training System for the Olympic Sport of Fencing

Manal M. Bayyat*a , Lujayn AlDabbasb, Natali Ayoubc, Amal Al-Tahand, and Talal A. Edwane, aSchool of Sport Sciences, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; b,c,dPrincess Sumaya University for Technology, Amman, Jordan, Email: a*mabayyat@yahoo.com;  a*m.bayyat@ju.edu.jo

Fencing is a well-known sport where two opponents use swords and protective gear. The addition of technology into this sport has been attempted, but results are often not feasible. This work provides a simple and novel approach to assist players in practicing foil fencing where the target area consists of eight main strike zones on the torso. A training session can be started by a coach to allow embedded technology in the gear to collect data regarding the player’s performance and transfer it by means of Bluetooth to an android phone where analysis of the data is carried out and a summary of the performance is displayed. The final prototype can be scaled down to grant the feel of the stock fencing gear in which players compete. This novel work aims to introduce smart training gear in sports and to make the sport accessible to everyone. Pages 623 to 642
 
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Insight into Corporate Governance in Islamic Finance: A Systematic Review of Literature

Quanita Rehmana, Dr.Akhtiar Alib, aPh.D. Scholar, Bahria Uuniversity Karachi Campus, bAssociate Professor, Bahria University, Karachi Campus

The concept of corporate governance (CG) in Islamic banking (IB) has gained attention of researchers in the last two decades. This review paper aims to provide broad and comprehensive review of existing literature on CG in Islamic banks(IBs). The research on CG in IBs has mainly been empirical conducted mostly in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and South Eastern region with a few conceptual studies. A sound theoretical base for Islamic CG studies is still missing. The results suggesting role of Shariah Supervision are elusive. The impact of emerging economies and country legal systems as antecedents of CG have not been thoroughly covered in the literature. In the field of research this topic needs to be covered more rigorously and exhaustively. CG in IBs is an emerging area of research and lack comprehensive review studies. Owing to the fact, this review paper aims to provide broad, comprehensive review of existing literature on corporate governance in IBs. which can be employed for further research about the subject matter. Pages 643 to 668
 
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Self-Directed Learning to Teaching the Subject of Technical Drawing for Students: A Research Result at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education

Bui Van Honga, Truong Minh Trib, aInstitute of Technical Education of Ho Chi Minh University of Technology and Education,  bPhd student of Ho Chi Minh University of Technology and Education, Email: ahongbv@hcmute.edu.vn, btritm@hcmute.edu.vn

Science and technology are increasingly developing, knowledge is increasing, so the students' learning needs are more and more diverse, and teaching design is increasingly focused on learners. Therefore, self-directed learning is considered as one of the appropriate methods for orientation of teaching method innovation in teaching technical drawing at Ho Chi Minh University of Technology and Education, Vietnam (HCMUTE) today. The article uses existing documentary research method and experimental education method to study self-directed learning approaches and its application process in teaching and organizing experimental teaching, thereby evaluating its effectiveness in teaching technical drawing at HCMUTE. Research results of the article contribute to promoting the learning process for students in the field of engineering and technology, supporting innovation of technical teaching methods for universities of technology and education in Vietnam. Pages 669 to 685
 
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Work Happiness of Ministry of Public Health Officers in Thailand

Titirut Phimolsria*, Nitiphol Thararoopb, aDirector of Research Program Promotion, Dhurakij Pundit University, bFaculty of Public Administration, Dhurakij Pundit University, Email: a*titirut.mek@dpu.ac.th

This research is to investigate the effect of household socioeconomic and relationship with colleague as antecedents of outcome variables, namely, work engagement, career satisfaction and work happiness of Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) officers in Thailand. The secondary data was adopted and it was supported by Strategic and Planning Division at the Office of the Permanent Secretary of MoPH. The sample size for random the data following the rule of statistical was 1,030 persons. Descriptive statistics and structural equation model were applied to analyze the data. The results explicated that there were the positive effects of antecedents to the outcome factors, moreover, engagement and career satisfaction were mediated effects of the structure model with χ2/df = 4.814, RMSEA = 0.061, TLI = 0.905 and CFI = 0.933, GFI = 0.938 and AGFI = 0.904. Pages 686 to 705
 
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Impact of Work Cognition Inventory & Team Diversity on Team Performance

*Syeda Urooj Babara*, Ishrat Babar Zaidib, Dr. Muzammal Ilyasc, a*Lecturer University of Swabi, bX-Head Mistress Govt Girls High School Nowshera, cAssistant Professor Bahria University Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: a*urooj@uoswabi.edu.pk, bMrs.babar.zaidi@gmail.com, cMuzammal496@gmail.com

The current investigation is about the influence of work cognition inventory & Team diversity on team satisfaction & team performance. The research was done by using Quantitative method followed by positivist approach. Simple random sampling was done through survey-based questionnaires. Eleven class-A Combined Military Hospitals (CMH) were selected as sample for the research throughout from Pakistan. Mediating effect was measured through Structural equation modeling (SEM) and Preacher & Hayes regression approach. This study helped in exploring the effect of multi-dimensional backgrounds of team members, i.e., learning, practical, task-relevant, opinion and behavioral background on team satisfaction and performance. The research helped in explaining moderating role of individual team member creativity among relationship of work cognition inventory & team diversity with team performance. Pages 706 to 723
 
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Acquisition of Coordination Structure Constraint of Graduate Learners in Pakistani Public Sector Colleges

Azhar Munir Bhattia, Dr. Furrakh Abbasb, Muhammad Umer Azimc, Zaheer Hussaind, Dr. Muhammad Iqbale, aPhD student (Linguistics), The University of Lahore, Pakistan, Lecturer in English, Higher Education Department, Punjab, bSchool of Languages, Civilization and Philosophy (SLCP), University Utara Malaysia, cPhD Scholar (Applied Linguistics),University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Assistant Professor of English, Higher Education Department, Punjab, dPhD student (Linguistics), The University of Lahore, Pakistan, eEnglish Program Manager, US Consulate Lahore, Pakistan, Email: aazharmunir18@hotmail.com

The current research was designed to address the acquisition of coordinate structure constraint by the graduate learners of public sector colleges in Pakistan. Respondents were randomly selected from the population of public sector colleges situated at Lahore. Equal numbers of respondents from both genders were selected for the study and an equal ratio of students were chosen from three disciplines BA, BSc and BCom. The researcher specially was careful about the age of respondents so that the students selected from the population were of almost same age bracket. The idea was to check whether the graduate students have acquired the concept of coordinate structure constraint. The researcher used a questionnaire as a research instrument and administered a rigorous pilot study to validate the tool. Descriptive statistics were applied for knowing frequency measures and in order to determine gender- based differences independent sample t test was applied. The results show that males and females are not significantly different at using coordination structure constraint. One way ANOVA was applied was to analyse the variation of acquisition regarding different disciplines. It was shown that the students of BA showed better results; BCom students were second in creating coordinating constructions, whereas BSc students were at the last leg. They fail in using coordinate structure constraint in their writing. Pages 724 to 745 

 
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Exploring the Affecting Factors on Self-Esteem and Health-Related Quality of Life of Vitiligo Patients: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Samia Eaid Elgazzar, Assistant Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Nursing College, Qassim University, KSA, Assistant Professor of Medical-surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, Egypt, Email: Adamramy36@yahoo.com

This study aimed to examines the self-esteem and quality of life level of vitiligo patients and to recognise affecting factors on self-esteem and quality of life. Methods: in a web-based cross-sectional study, 88 patients in the vitiligo charity foundation in Saudi Arabia Self-Esteem and Health related Quality of Life of Vitiligo patients were measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Dermatology Life Quality Index and the sociodemographic data. Results: The results of this study displayed that the majority of the patients (67%) had moderate self-esteem & vitiligo can have a major effect on  patient's quality of life (34.1). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to recognise affecting factors with self-esteem and quality of life. showed that female (β=−0.228, t=2.042, p=0.045) negative effect quality of life  ,and positive effect on quality of life for divorced (β=0.440, t=2.976, p=0.004*)  , lesion localisation site related trunk (β=0.457, t=3.540, p=0.001) were significantly associated with quality of life . While , the major factors influencing self-esteem patients only psychological stress was negative effect on self-esteem. In addition, there was no correlation between self-esteem and quality of life. Conclusion: Providing some appropriate health care personnel for vitiligo patients may improve quality of life and keeping their psychological status may be vital for preventing suffering from an alteration of self-esteem. Pages 746 to 761
 
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Information and Communication Technology as a Moderator of the Relationship between Organisational Clarity and Knowledge Sharing Behaviour

Dilshad Y. Mohammeda , Hadi KH. Ismaelb,   a,bDuhok Polytechnic University, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, Email: aDilshad.mohammed @dpu.edu.krd  ,  bHadikhlil@dpu.edu.krd,

The current study aimed to examine the relationship between four dimensions of organisational clarity (role clarity, strategic clarity, organisational structure clarity, processes clarity) and knowledge sharing behaviour. It also aimed to explore the moderate effect of information and communication technology (ICT) on the relationship between the dimensions of organisational clarity and knowledge sharing behaviour. A quantitative method was employed, and data was collected from 101 of the academicians at Duhok polytechnic university (DPU) in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Results support the moderating role of ICT of the organisational clarity dimensions and knowledge sharing behaviour relationships. The originality of this study stems from the scarcity of studies that investigate the relationships between organisational clarity and knowledge sharing behaviour, and the role of ICT as a moderator on this relationship is unprecedented. Pages 773 to 789
 
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Construction of Transparency and Disclosure Index for Commercial Banks in Vietnam

Manh Hung Phama, Linh Nham Vuongb, Thi Hoai Thu Nguyenc, Banking Academy of Vietnam, 12 Chua Boc Street, Quang Trung Ward, Dong Da District, Hanoi, 100000, Vietnam, Email: ahungpm@hvnh.edu.vn

This study proposes a composite index to measure the transparency and disclosure practices of commercial banks in Vietnam. The index is developed based on the measurement framework of previous scholars at the Bank of England and the World Bank, as well as the binding rules and regulations of disclosure in Vietnam. In this study, the proposed composite index consists of four factors with 40 items. After developing the index, the researcher uses the data of 28 commercial banks in the Vietnamese commercial banking system to calculate the index for each bank in the period of 2006 to 2018. Results indicated that the transparency and disclosure practices of Vietnamese commercial banks have significantly improved over the period of 2006-2018. Particularly, those that have above-industry-average index of transparency and disclosure are usually listed banks with substantial capital and assets, with the participation of foreign investors in the shareholder structure. Pages 790 to 811
 
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The Impact of Covid-19 on Employees’ Motivation: A Saudi Arabian Case Study

Dr. Ahmed M. Asfahani, Assistant professor, University of Business and Technology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a.asfahani@ubt.edu.sa  

This research is of great significance as it highlights the effect of COVID-19 on employees’ motivation with particular interest in a Saudi Arabian population. In addition, it will support the organisational structures by showing negative influences of this economy-deteriorating event on the Arabian workforce. The study is designed with a quantitative research design with a sample population of N=100 employees. Descriptive statistics including the standard deviation as well variance analysis in addition to Pearson correlation statistics have been applied for the interpretation of the collected data. Two variables have been studied in the research: effect of COVID-19 and employees’ motivation. The results of the study concluded that COVID-19 impacted adversely the motivation of workers, therefore the adoption of a resilience strategy is suggested to deal with the present adverse situation. Pages 812 to 822
 
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Exploring the Writing Techniques of ELT Practitioners in Private and Public Schools

Dr. Azhar Pervaiz1, Abdul Majid Khan Rana2, Irfan Bashir3, Naima Batool4, 1Assistant Professor, Department of English, University of Sargodha, 2Assistant Professor, Institute of Education & Research, University of the Punjab, 3Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, 4Lecturer in English, University of Mianwali

The aim of this research is to analyse the usage of writing techniques used by the ELT practitioners in English textbooks used by the teachers in elementary level government and private schools. To meet this objective, the present study is divided into two parts: the questionnaires (consisting of 20 statements) which were filled by the ELT practitioners (40 government teachers and 40 private teachers) about the writing techniques they were using in classroom situations in Sargodha city. Secondly, the English books of OUP and PTBB of elementary level were analysed on the basis of nine questions. The study has marked the differences between the writing techniques used by the government and private school teachers in the classrooms. The study revealed that the techniques adopted by the private teachers are pre-planned, structured and well-constructed while the techniques adopted by the government school teachers are basic, introductory and are ill arranged. Investigations further reveal that writing techniques are mostly adopted by the English books of OUP of elementary level and as a result, the writing techniques adopted by the private school teachers are effective and have better outcomes. The study finally recommends that teachers of the public sector must adopt modern writing techniques to have fruitful results. Pages 823 to 838       
 
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An Analysis of Contextual Configuration and Text Structure of Nonnative English Speakers’ Written Texts

Nayel Darweesh Al-Shara’h, The University of Jordan, Al-Ahliyya Amman University

The current study aims to investigate how EFL successful and unsuccessful students develop their argumentative written texts. Hasan's (1989) analytical framework of contextual configuration and text structure was used to explore how students develop their texts globally. This analysis was based on Halliday's (1985/1989) three elements of social situation: field, tenor and mode. The findings indicated that successful texts were better structured at the global level than unsuccessful ones. Most of the successful texts were developed using the structure: (i) initiation, which is an optional element; (ii) thesis statement or topic sentence, in which the writer declares his/her position; (iii) elaboration and support, in which the writer develops the thesis statement/topic sentence and supports his/her position; and (iv) conclusion, in which the writer evaluates his/her position. Elements (ii), (iii) and (iv) are obligatory. Only a small proportion of the unsuccessful texts showed this structure of text. Most of the unsuccessful texts lacked good organization. The analytical framework used in this study was of great help in understanding and revealing how nonnative student writers express themselves and make meanings, the poor ones as on the way and the good ones as getting there. Pages 857 to 871
 
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The Effect of Knowledge-Sharing Behaviour on Performance, Mediated by Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) - Study on Village Facilitators in Wakatobi District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Husin1, Nurwati2, Nanik Hindaryatiningsih3, 1,2Faculty of Economics and Business, 3Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, 1,2,3Universitas Halu Oleo, Indonesia, Email:  1nurwatihusin@yahoo.com, 2nurwati.husin@yahoo.com, 3nanik.hindar1976@gmail.com

The research objective was to examine and explain the effect of knowledge sharing behavior on village facilitators' performance, mediated by the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) study on Village Facilitators. We have proved that excellent knowledge-sharing behavior contributes significantly and can increase OCB. This study uses a survey method with an explanatory research design approach. Data collection is done using survey methods through questionnaires and interviews. The study population was 43 Village Facilitators from Wakatobi District, Southeast Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. We used Partial Least Square (PLS) to analyze our research. Essential elements that influence employee performance consist of education, experience, motivation, health, age, skills, emotions, and spirituality. In contrast, extrinsic factors that affect employee performance include the physical and non-physical environment, leadership, vertical and horizontal communication, compensation, control in supervision, facilities, training, workload, work procedures, and punishment systems. This study indicates that knowledge-sharing behavior has a positive and significant effect on village facilitators' performance. Furthermore, knowledge sharing behavior has a positive and significant impact on OCB; OCB has a positive and significant impact on Village Facilitators' performance. OCB mediates the influence of the Village Facilitator's knowledge sharing and performance behavior. Pages 872 to 890

 
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Artificial Intelligence in Promoting Teaching and Learning Transformation in Schools

Yufei Liua, Salmiza Salehb*, Jiahui Huangc, School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

With the development of science and technology, artificial intelligence technology has entered an unprecedented period of rapid development, and it is profoundly changing all areas of life. Various countries require implementation of intelligent education, but how artificial intelligent education promotes the development of school teaching is still lacking in systematic discussion. This paper discusses several aspects of artificial intelligence to promote teaching and learning reform, including artificial intelligence to promote the innovative development of teaching resources and teaching environment, teaching and learning methods, the development of school teaching management and teaching evaluation, and to promote the reform of subject structure and educational content. With a view to encouraging the application of artificial intelligence in promoting the transformation of teaching and learning, it is proposed that schools meet new requirements in the era of artificial intelligence. Pages 891 to 902
 
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E-Business Driving Forces as Mediated by Cultural Characteristics in the SMES in Saudi Arabia

Dr. Abdulah M. Aseri, Department of Management Information System, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Email: amaseri@iau.edu.sa

Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) witnessed a true revolution across the country and it played a critical role in the economic arena. However, e-business with the huge IT revolution and rapid change in culture in Saudi Arabia has become more important. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the e-business driving forces and the mediating impact of cultural characteristics in the SMEs in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected through questionnaires from SME companies in Saudi Arabia. SmartPLS was used to analyse the research data and to test the hypotheses. Findings prove that organisational, technological and financial capabilities can be  driving forces for E-business application in a different way. Pages 903 to 912
 
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Geochemical Proxy of Palaeoclimate of the Pleistocene Coals in Bintuni Basin, West Papua

Ahmad Helman Hamdania, Syaiful Alamb, a,b,Faculty of Geology, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia 45363, Email: a*ahmad.helman@unpad.ac.id, bsyaiful.alam@unpad.ac.id 

The aim of this research is to determine the paleo depositional and palaeoclimatic conditions of coal succession from the Steenkool Formation, Dataran Beimes District, Bintuni Regency, West Papua, Indonesia. The major oxide elements were obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS) analyses were used to identify trace element composition. The moderate-to-high value of paleo-weathering parameters such as the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Index of Composition Variable (ICV), a plot of CIA against Al2O3, as well as the Al2O3-CaO+Na2O-K2O Ternary diagram, suggest a moderate-to-strong degree of weathering of the source rocks. The positive correlation between Al2O3 with TiO2, K2O, Fe2O3, and MgO implies that they occur in clay minerals formed from weathering. The palaeoclimatic index (C-value) ranges from 0.47 to 2.06 and low Sr/Ba (0.15–1.22) ratio values, indicating a humid condition during the sedimentation of the coals. The paleo-redox parameters based on Ni/Co, V/Cr and V/(V+Ni) ratios indicate that all the samples were deposited under oxic to anoxic conditions. The coals from Steenkool Formation were deposited in freshwater to low saline water and shows a strong marine influence, due to the alternating salinity and desalinity processes during sedimentation. Pages 913 to 930
 
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A Study on Time Use of Nurses and Paramedical Staff, Working in Public Hospitals of District Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Humera Gul1*, Dr. Syed Shakir Ali Ghazali2, Dr. Muhammad Yaseen3, Huma Qasim4, 1Assistant Professor, The Govt. Sadiq College Women      University Bahawalpur, Pakistan. 2Retired Professor, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. 3University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.  4District Health Authority, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Email: 1humeragul3@gmail.com, 2shakir.ghazali@iub.edu.pk, 3myaseen208@gmail.com, 4huma.qasim89@gmail.com

The aim of the present study was to identify the drivers of inefficiencies existent in nurses’ and paramedics’ work and to detect the factors liable for decline in this profession, especially nursing. All the public sector hospitals of District Rahim Yar Khan were included in the study. A sample of size 118 was selected from the population of 1296 nurses and paramedics by the stratified random sampling technique. The analysis was done in R-programming. Comparisons made were made showing that female nurses/ paramedics go through a tough time routine and time poverty as compared to their male counterpart which seems to be the cause of deterioration in this profession in the perspective of Pakistani society. Pages 931 to 944
 
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Relationship between Teacher Educators' Professional Development, Workplace Related Basic Need Satisfaction and Researcherly Disposition

Lubna Oada, Kiran Hashmib, Najmonnisa Khanc, aPhD-Scholar, Department of Education, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi Pakistan, bAssistant Professor at Ziauddin University, College of Education, Karachi Pakistan, cAssociate Professor, Department of Education, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi Pakistan.

As the 21st century commenced, both policy and research literature has acknowledged the need for teacher educators – or teachers – professional growth. A growing publication highlights a teacher educators' role in performing research, and becoming a teacher as a researcher is an essential part of education. This quantitative research study aims to determine the relationship between professional development, basic need satisfaction, and attitude towards conducting research (researcherly disposition) of teacher educators at the workplace. This study was conducted only in Karachi. The study population comprises of teachers of public and private educational institutions of Karachi in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The scales are adopted and duly permitted to be potent measuring instruments. The random sampling technique is selected with a sample of 300 teacher educators. Data was analysed in three phases through SPSS and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling. The study's findings reveal a relationship between basic need satisfaction of teachers and researcherly disposition. The study recommends policymakers and educational administration plan such types of programs that meet the four dimensions of researcher disposition with the specific need of teacher educators. Pages 945 to 967
 
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The Socio-economic and Political Role of Women’s Empowerment towards Inclusive Growth: Comparative and Regional Analysis

Adnan Ali Shahzada*, Hafiz Asimb, Aftab Anwarc, aLecturer, Department of Economics, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan. bPh.D. Scholar at Department of Economics, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Education, Lahore, Pakistan. Email: a*adnanalishahzad@gmail.com; a*adnan.ali@ue.edu.pk

One of the vigorous components of inclusive growth is to encourage equitable participation. Almost half of the world’s population consists of women, however their participation, subject to empowerment, is constrained by many factors in developing countries. The present study has explored the socio- economic and political dimensions of women’s empowerment and estimated their impact on inclusive growth for different income groups of countries for the period of 1996 to 2017. It pursues to explore that social and political empowerment of women contributes towards inclusive growth in the developing countries, while the economic empowerment of women remains insignificant. In emerging countries, social and economic empowerment of women positively affects inclusive growth, while political empowerment of women is insignificant. On the other hand, only economic empowerment of women strongly contributes towards inclusive growth in developed countries. The study concludes that greater social and political empowerment of women is required in developing countries in order to promote inclusive growth. Once developing countries achieve a standard level of social and political empowerment of women, the role of economic empowerment of women will  emerge towards inclusive growth as observed in the case of developed countries. The study suggested that there is a dire need to introduce an environment for work-oriented culture and eradicate gender disparities in society. As women become more powerful, their positive contribution towards the economy will surely increase and ultimately stimulate inclusive growth. Pages 968 to 986
 
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The Influence of Reclamation of Singapore on Indonesia in a Marine Law Perspective

Erny Herlin Setyorinia, Tomy Michaelb, Yovita Arie Mangestic, a,b,cFaculty of Law, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya - Indonesia

The State of Indonesia is a sovereign state and has jurisdiction over the state and the entire territory of the Republic of Indonesia. Sovereignty resides in all maritime areas. A region has a border which is sovereignty for the country. Unclear state boundaries must be resolved which will have an impact on a relationship in a country as well as the country's sovereignty. In fact, there are still many countries that are having problems at national borders. This problem has been occurring for a long time in the relationship between Indonesia and Singapore and until now it has not been able to solve the problem. This study uses normative legal research based on legal principles and a case approach. Singapore's reclamation from the perspective of the law of the sea has a harsh impact. Promises and formal or informal meetings should be accompanied by strong action from Indonesia. Such as carrying out the arrest of ships and imposing the death penalty for the ship transporter and removal of regional heads to the expulsion of Singapore representatives in Indonesia. Pages 987 to 997
 
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Illegal Act Composition  in Indonesia: a Study from Legal Responsibility Perspective

Krisnadi Nasutiona, aFaculty of Law, Universitas 17 Agustus Surabaya, Email: akrisnadin@yahoo.com

In Indonesia, composition of illegal act is always formulated based on Article-1365 of KUHPerdata (Code of Indonesian Civil Law) that shall meet the elements of:  action violates the law, the existence of error or fault, the existence of loss and there is a causal relation between the action and the loss. On its development, such composition has undergone the changes, particularly the one related to the element of fault. In determining the fault element, it must be classified whether there is or there is not any illegal act which is absolutely determined by the liability principle implemented based on the applicable law. Pages 998 to 1013
 
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The Use of WhatsApp in Teaching and Learning English During COVID 19: Students Perception and Acceptance

Haeza Harona, Abdullah Al-Abrib, Nasser Masoud Alotaibic, aUniversiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8337-3184, bUniversity of Technology and Applied Sciences, Nizwa, Oman, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7198-9643, cMinistry of Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6346-5321, Email: ahaezaharon@gmail.com, babdullah.alabri@nct.edu.om,  cnasser_masoud@hotmail.com


Researchers across the world are examining the educational value and effectiveness of integrating mobile technology into the teaching-learning activities. As an attempt to help improve the mastery of writing skills, WhatsApp as an alternative tool to help the students master in their writing as they face a lot of difficulties in executing a good write up. However, the university level syllabus does not provide ample time for the students to exercise this ability in the classroom due to time constraints. The low-level students will find it hard to master the skill within the time given in a semester. A total of 66 students in Penang who have smartphones with WhatsApp were assigned into experimental and control groups. Besides the traditional classroom learning for both groups, the experimental group was also supported by the teacher-student interaction via WhatsApp. The intervention of WhatsApp improved the learning achievement of the participants. The strength of the intervention between the two groups was medium to large. A questionnaire designed by the author was administered and the participants showed positive perception and acceptance of the use of WhatsApp for teaching and learning. The typical usability issues on mobile learning were found to be valid. Pages 1014 to 1033

 
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Ownership Structure and Firm’s Financial Policies: A Case of Pakistan Stock Exchange

Kiran Farooqa, Najia Shaikhb, Khalid H. Abbasic, Ashfaque Ali Banbhand, aAssistant professor, Institute if health and business management (Dow university of health sciences), b,c,dAssistant professor, Institute of commerce University of Jamshoro, Email: akiran.farooq@duhs.edu.pk, bshaikhnajia@hotmail.com, ckhalid.abbasi@usindh.edu.pk, dAshfaque.banbhan@usindh.edu.pk

This research examined the impact of ownership structure on financial policies of the firm. The study used debt to equity and dividend payout ratio to examine financial policy decisions. The study finds that director and foreign equity is caused by significant reduction in the dividend payout ratio, and they prefer to retain the firm’s earning instead of distributing to the stockholder. Further, this study finds that foreign ownership has no significant impact on debt-to-equity ratio, but in the case of director equity firms, equity finance is more preferred than debt financing. Future studies may consider the interest rate, market valuation, government's laws, and various other external factors while analyzing the structure of ownership and firm’s financial policies in Pakistan. Pages 1034 to 1049
 
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Pensioners and their Time Use: A Case Study of District Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan

Huma Qasima*, Dr Syed Shakir Ali Ghazalib, Dr Muhammad Yaseenc, Humera Guld, a,b,dDepartment of Statistics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, cDepartment of Statistics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, Email: ahuma.qasim89@yahoo.com

The main objective of the study is to find out how the retied people spend their time. A survey study was conducted in District Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan. Statistical analysis was done using R programming. Results revealed that average time spent on most of the activities is influenced by gender and education. Most of the daily life activities like eating, time spent with family and physical exercise/sports are affected by the interaction of education and gender. Pages 1050 to 1060
 
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The Association between Psychological Capital and Burnout: The Moderating Effect of Job Fulfilment

Dr. Farah Iqbala, Mahwish Saeed2, aProfessor – Department of Psychology, University of Karachi, Pakistan, bUniversity of Karachi, Pakistan

The study aims to focus on determining the association among the psychological capital and employee burnout along with the moderating effect of job fulfilment. This study is quantitative in nature in which the data has been gathered from the primary sources of information. The researcher instrument used in the study is survey questionnaire. The researcher has adopted the convenience sampling in order to gather the data. The data in this study is analysed with the help of SEM technique in which CFA and path analysis were considered using SmartPLS. The analysis carried out in this study has determined that there is a significant effect of psychological capital over the employee burnout which is also positive. On the other hand, with respect to the moderating effect job fulfilment, it has been determined that there is insignificant moderating effect of job fulfilment over the relationship of psychological capital and employee burnout. However, the direct effect of job fulfilment was determined over the employee burnout. This study has focused on determining the association of psychological capital over the employee burnout in the moderation of job fulfilment. This study is restricted to psychological capital as the factor which influence the employee burnout. However, there are other factors which must be considered while determining the causes of employee burnout. Pages 1061 to 1074
 
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Workplace Spirituality, Emotions and Turnover Intentions

Abida Shaheena*, Zaki Rashidib, aPhD Scholar, a,bIqra University, Main Campus, Defence View, Shaheed-e-Millat Road Extension, Karachi-75500, Pakistan, Email: aabida.shaheen@iqra.edu.pk , b zaki@iqra.edu.pk

This research study aims to explore the role of emotions (happiness, love, sadness, fear and anger) in the relationship between the dimensions of workplace spirituality (namely Team’s sense of community, Alignment between organizational and individual values, Sense of contribution to the community, Sense of enjoyment at work & Opportunities for the inner life) and the turnover intentions. Three separate instruments were adapted to collect the data. The data were collected at three different points in time from employees of the IT Sector of Karachi. Cronbach alpha and confirmatory factor analysis were used for establishing the reliabilities and validities of the instruments used in the study. Whereas five separate Structural Equation Models were used to test the hypotheses. Results indicated that majority of the dimensions of workplace spirituality have significant relationship with the emotions and turnover intention. Whereas, dimensions of workplace spirituality have significant negative association with turnover intention. It is also found that emotions mediate the relationship between the dimensions of workplace spirituality and turnover intention. Pages 1075 to 1090
 
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Determining the Influence of Socio-Economic Factors on Entrepreneurship Activities in Pakistan

Nadia A. Abdelmegeed Abdelwaheda, Bahadur Ali Soomrob, aBusiness Management School, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Economics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan,

In the present era, entrepreneurship has a good reputation for creating jobs and wealth in the economy with small business management support. To overlook the situation, the current study investigates the role of socio-economic factors towards entrepreneurial activities in Pakistan's SMEs sector. The study employed a conceptual framework based on the prevalent literature. The study employed cross-sectional data, which is randomly collected from entrepreneurs. In total, 336 usable cases are applied to gain outcomes. Using the structural equation model, the overall findings highlighted a positive and significant impact of socio-economic and cultural factors (norms, beliefs, religion, and other social values) on entrepreneurial activities. Further, entrepreneurial activities resulted in a positive and significant impact on entrepreneurial performance. The study recommends that the government and policymakers should reduce the interest rate to allow flexible borrowing for entrepreneurs. A lower tax regime should encourage low-level income earners to access funding for entrepreneurship activities in Pakistan's SMEs sector. Finally, the study's findings may further enrich the validity of the concerned literature, particularly in developing national context. Pages 1091 to 1106
 
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