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The Literacy Component Model: A Pragmatic Universal Paradigm

Bruce Allen Knighta, Susan Galletlyb, Kerry Therese Aprilec aCentral Queensland University, Australia; University of Ostrava, Czech Republic, bPrivate Speech Pathologist, Australia, cCentral Queensland University, Australia

The Simple View of Reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Hoover & Gough, 1990), a well-established model used widely in reading research, states that reading comprehension builds from two relatively independent subskills, word-reading skills and language skills. By not including writing and key literacy-processing skills, the SVR lacks power as a universal model to guide instruction. This article proposes the Literacy Component Model (LCM) that the authors have adapted by including writing with the SVR to highlight five key literacy components, namely: reading comprehension, word reading, language skills for literacy, word writing, and written expression.  Additionally, it includes phonological, orthographic, visual, and automatising subskills of word reading and word writing, as important impacting factors. Already used successfully with practitioners, the LCM is a flexible pragmatic paradigm supporting an understanding of literacy development across different orthographies. Pages 1 to 23

 

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Entrepreneurial Financing and Profitability: Evidence from Selected SMEs in Ogun State, Nigeria

1Dr. Margret N. Kabuoh 2Dr. Sammuel A. Ulikere, 3Dr. Francis A. Akintola, 4Osunsami A. Obafemi, 1,2,3,4Department of Business Administration and Marketing, School of Management Sciences, Babcock University, Ilishan –Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria, Email: iheanetu2000@gmail.com

The contribution of small medium enterprises (SMEs) in any economy globally is critical and must be given adequate attention. Most of the SMEs  are still constrained by poor management skills and lack of modern technology despite what private investors and government have done and still doing in order to enhance the performance of the SMEs, which  may be as a result of inadequate financing leading to low profitability. This study examined the effects of entrepreneurial financing dimensions on the profitability of selected SMEs in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study adopted cross-sectional survey research design. The population comprised 1,794 owner/managers of SMEs. The sample size of 425 was drawn via Taro Yamane 1967 formula. A validated questionnaire was administered for data collection. The Average Variance Extracted of the constructs ranged from 0.741 to 0.896. The response rate was 82.4%. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics and multiple regressions. Findings from the study revealed that eentrepreneurial financing dimensions (bank loans, government grant, venture capital, funds from family)  had positive and significant effect on profitability of SMEs in Ogun State (R = 0.495, Adj. R2 = 0.236, F (4, 345) = 28, p < 0.05). The study concluded that entrepreneurial financing dimensions play an important role in enhancing the profitability of selected SMEs in Ogun State, Nigeria. Thus, this study recommended that the financial institutions should creatively craft and adopt the availability of cheaper funds that would yield adequate profitability of SMEs with view to sustainability while enhancing economic growth. Pages 24 to 45

 

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A Study of Learning Style Preferences and Challenges Faced by the Students in Virtual Education

Sobia Yaseena, Dr. Bushra Iqbal Chohanb, Wajeeha Komalc, Dr Mudassir Hussaind*, Roza Jamalc, a University of Kotli, AJK, b Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi, c Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, d* University of Lakki Marwat, KPK, Pakistan. Email: d*mudassir@ulm.edu.pk   

This research was designed to identify the learning styles preferences, and to explore the challenges, and learning strategies of the students of Virtual University of Pakistan. The research approach of the study was mixed method, in which quantitative approach was used for identifying the learning styles preferences of students of Virtual University in Pakistan. The qualitative approach was employed to find out the challenges faced by the students having different learning styles in virtual learning environment, and to identify the learning strategies which they used before and after starting online mode of education in order to cope with the academic requirements of virtual education and to improve their learning. In the quantitative phase of the study, a sample of 149 students of business administration in Virtual University of Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Gujarkhan, Kahuta and Muzafrabad city was identified according to the three main learning styles, i.e., auditory, visual and kinesthetic, and classified as auditory, visual and kinesthetic learners. A small group of 5 students (total 15) from each learning group was conveniently selected as the informants for the qualitative part of the study. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with these participant students. There were considerable differences and similarities found in the challenges faced and learning strategies used by the students with respect to the virtual education. Pages 46 to 68

 

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Predicting Impulse Buying Beyond the Traditional Motivation in Mobile Social Commerce

Syed Waqar Haider1*,  Muhammad Farooq Rehan2, Rana Nadir Idrees3, Syed Khurram Jafri4, Sehrish Naz5, Tajalli Fatima6, 1*Faculty of Management Sciences, ILMA University, Kararchi, Pakistan & Xi'an Jiaotong University, China, 2College of commerce, GC University, Faisalabad, 3Management Sciences, COMSATS University, Lahore campus, 4Management sciences, Bahria University, Lahore, 5University of management & technology, Sialkot Campus, 6Business department, Govt College Women University, Sialkot, Correspondence Email: 1*sw_rizvi@hotmail.com

To unfold impulse buying behaviour beyond traditional settings and to see how individual chronotype and regulatory focus can predict impulse buying behaviour in a mobile social commerce context. This study used the questionnaire-based survey. Using “SPSS” survey questionnaire, responses of 504 respondents were analysed and validated by employing ANOVA and multi regression. All the variables were adopted from literature. The findings from a sample of 504 mobile social commerce consumers confirmed that the regulatory focus and chronotype have a significant relationship with impulse buying. This study only considers morning and evening types; future studies can also investigate “neither type” chronotypes. Online shopping in a mobile social commerce environment was considered in general in this study, but future research can use a specific product category. The new insights and contributions of this study provide a better understanding of digital consumers to help sellers to develop a more effective mobile social commerce strategy.Impulse buying has been an important topic for researchers and marketers. It has been studied mostly in traditional offline and online shopping channels. This is perhaps the first research to gain an insight into impulse buying behaviour in mobile social commerce by incorporating the regulatory focus theory (prevention vs. promotion), and chronotypes (evening vs. morning type person) which are a part of the consumers’ traits. Pages 69 to 87

 

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Developing Factors of Sustainable Purchase Intentions of Luxury Brands Mediated by Power Distance Beliefs

Syeda Quratulain Kazmia , Mustaghis Ur Rahmanb , aAssistant Professor PAF (Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology), bProfessor at Faculty of Management Sciences, Bahria University, Karachi Campus. Email: aSyedakazmi44@gmail.com, bmustaghis.bukc@bahria.edu,pk

To understand the deeper theoretical and practical implication of consumer’s sustainable buying intentions of luxury brands and what previous literature has contributed to social, marketing, financial and functional contexts. However, the cultural aspect associated with the role of power distance belief in determining sustainable purchase intentions of luxury brands is still underexplored. In order to address this gap in the literature, this research has been conducted by taking the power distance dimension from Hofstede’s cultural framework and by looking at its application in Pakistani society’s attitude toward the purchase of luxury brands.The empirical study among 350 male and female respondents aged between15-45 has been conducted and is explanatory in nature. The structural equation modeling (SEM) by using Smart PLS 3.0 is used for data analysis. As this research is a consumer-based study that leads to finding unavailability of specific sampling frames and data of exact numbers of customers that is why customers of various luxury brands which include apparel, watches, and cosmetics were approached in shopping malls located in different prime locations of Karachi.The results of this research were addressing the positive impact of brand loyalty, brand awareness and personal factors on sustainable purchase intentions of luxury brands mediated by power distance beliefs whereas brand awareness has no significant direct and indirect impact on purchase intentions of luxury brands.The results of this research have confirmed the presence of power distance dimension in the Pakistani business market and strong power distance belief systems that bifurcate customers on the basis of how strongly they accept and expect inequality in society and vice versa. However, this study refers to significant impacts of personal factors, brand awareness and brand loyalty on sustainable purchase intention of luxury brands mediated by power distance beliefs. Still, numbers of variables need to be determined like power distance belief and purchase of low and high involvement products and the impact of power distance beliefs on consumer perception in the secondary business market. Pages 88 to 108

 

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Assessing the Impact of Supervisor and Co-worker Incivility on Employee's Turnover Intention among Nurses at Tertiary Care, Public Sector Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan

Maryam Moula Bakhsha, Tariq Jaleesb, Muhammad Sufyan Ramishc, Aqeel Isrard, Atif Azize, aKarachi Institute of Economics and Technology, bKarachi Institute of Economics and Technology, cInstitute of Business Management, dInstitute of Research Policy, eKarachi Institute of Economics and Technology

The environment in the services industry, especially hospitals, is non-conducive for the employees. Long working hours and excessive workload drain their resources (time and energy), leading to emotional stress, low motivation, and high turnover intention. Thus, we have developed a new model that has four direct relationships and one mediating. We have collected the data from nurses of the public sector hospitals of Karachi. We have used a self-administered questionnaire for the study adapted from the earlier studies. The study's sample size was 372, which we calculated at a 95% confidence interval and 5% confidence level. We found Supervisor incivility, co-worker incivility, and emotional exhaustion affects turnover intention. Also, emotional exhaustion promotes turnover intention.  We also found that emotional intelligence mediates co-worker incivility and turnover intention. Hiring and training new employees are expensive, and it affects the sustainability of an organisation. The health sector in Pakistan and globally suffers due to a shortage of nurses, affecting human lives. The hospitals must develop a conducive environment so that nurses do not suffer from excessive workload and working hours. Uncivilized behaviour and bullying in the health sector are common. Pages 109 to 124

 

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Factors Influencing the Customer (Students) Value of E-Learning Systems: A Case of the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal

Ayanda Pamella Deliwe, Faculty of Business and Economic Science, Nelson Mandela University, University Way, Summerstrand, 6019, South Africa, Email: Ayanda.deliwe@mandela.ac.za

Education enables several social aspects such as public health, economic growth, sustainable development and poverty reduction more specifically in today’s knowledge society. There is a need for rapid changes in physical, digital and biological technologies and how people work and live to maintain economic competitiveness and social development. For universities to be able to keep up and adapt to the changes in technology, their e-learning systems should be in order. Information and communication technologies are said to be one of the pathways that have gained currency over the past two decades. This study’s main focus was on understanding the factors which influence customer value on e-learning systems. The study was based at the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal where a quantitative study was conducted through a questionnaire being distributed to students. A hypothesised model was used in understanding the factors that could contribute to the customer value of e-learning. The results revealed that what students view as most important to them which is more valuable was the service delivery quality, Information Technology (IT) infrastructure services and perceived usefulness. This led to the researcher proposing through recommendations that if universities want to improve customer value they have to focus mainly on service delivery quality, IT infrastructure services and perceived usefulness as these were viewed as adding more value to students. Pages 125 to 145

 

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Innovation as a Mediator in the Effect of Organisational Learning and Organisational Performance of Egypt’s Public Sector Spinning and Weaving Companies

Ihab Lotfy Abdelaal Abed1*, Sayed Hassan Abdelmajeed2, Naglaa Mohamed Roby Sofy3, Solaf Aboelfateh Elhamrawey4, Mohamed Noureldin Sayed 5, Alaa Fathi Soliman 6, 1,2Associate Professor of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441. P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia. 3Assistant Professor at the College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441. P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia. 4Assistant professor of kindergarten, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441. P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia, 5Assistant Professor of Finance, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441. P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia, 6 Assistant Professor of Accounting, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441. P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia. Email: 1ilabed@iau.edu.sa, 1dr.ehablotfyabed@gmail.com, 2Shabdelmeguid@iau.edu.sa, 3nmsofy@iau.edu.sa, 3dr.naglaa.sofy123@gmail.com, 4saabdelazeem@iau.edu.sa, 4saabdelazeem@gmail.com, 5 smnsayed@iau.edu.sa, %20afathy1970@gmail.com%20">6afsoliman@iau.edu.sa, afathy1970@gmail.com

This study aims to explore the impact of organisational learning (information acquisition- information dissemination - information interpretation- organisational memory) on organisational performance due to the innovations centred in Egypt’s public sector spinning and weaving companies. To test the degree of impact, the researchers undertook path analysis by using the Analysis of Moment Structures’ tool known as Amos. This study’s findings show that, due to the innovations centred in Egypt’s public sector spinning and weaving companies, the dimensions of organisational learning processes have a significant effect on organisational performance. This supports the recommendation that, with technical innovation at the centre, care and attention is needed to support organisational learning processes to improve performance. Pages 146 to 163

 

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Co-integration and Causal Relationship among South Asian and World Equity Markets; Impact of Political Uncertainty

Mr. Muhammad Mahbooba, Mr. Muhammad Aksarb (Corresponding Author), Mr. Shoib Hassanc, Dr. Shahzad Hussaind, Mr. Naveed Anjume, aPhD Scholar, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, bLecturer, NUML, Rawalpindi, cPhD Scholar, COMSATS University Islamabad, dAssistant Professor, Foundation University, Islamabad, ePhD Scholar, University of Swabi, Email: asmfanni@yahoo.com, bmuhammad.aksar@numl.edu.pk, cshoaibhasan83@yahoo.com, dshahzadhussainpeace@gmail.com, enaveedicma@gmail.com

The current research study aims to analyze the relationship and spillover effect among equity markets of South Asian region (Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka) and World developed equity markets (UK and US) along with impact of political uncertainty on volatility of south Asian markets and world equity markets by taking daily time series data from July, 2000 to June, 2017. The current research employed Unrestricted VAR, Johansen Co-integration, Impulse Response Function, Variance Decomposition and VAR Grainger Causality tests. Overall results depicts that weaker correlation exist in all markets except for UK and US. Similarly, no long run co-integration is found, however, world developed markets granger cause themselves and other South Asian markets. Further, variation in all markets is almost due to their own innovation and innovation in other markets. However, KSE has no impact of other markets and major changes are due to its own innovation in short run. The study is a source of awareness for regional and international investors, bankers, fund managers, decision makers, researchers and academia towards making decisions in portfolio diversification and exploits investment opportunities. Pages 164 to 186

 

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Impact of Project Complexity on Cost Overruns with the Moderating Effect of Contractors’ Financial Attributes in Construction Projects

Faizan Shahroz1, Rao Aamir Khan2, Muhammad Khushnood3, Sohail Aslam4, Zeeshan Zaib Khattak5, Sammar Abbas6, 1,2Department of Management Sciences, Comsats University Islamabad (CUI), Pakistan, 4Department of Accounting and Finance, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, 3,5,6Institute of Business Studies, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST), Pakistan, Email: 1faizanshahroz@gmail.com; 2rao_aamir@comsats.edu.pk; 3mkhushnood@kust.edu.pk, 4sohail.aslam@iub.edu.pk, 5dr.zeeshan@kust.edu.pk; 6sabbas@kust.edu.pk

This study selected the financial attributes of the contractor working on a construction project as a moderator on the strength of the relationship between project complexity and cost overruns in a project after the completion of a project. The population includes project managers, senior engineers, project owners and contractors employed on infrastructure projects. After testing the validity and reliability of the instrument through a pilot study, a full scale survey was conducted to collect data from 230 respondents. SPSS, AMOS were used to test the measurement models and structural model. Hayes’ Model (2009) of moderated regression was used to see the moderated relationship between project complexity and cost overruns for each type of project complexity separately, which showed that the financial attributes of contractors have a negative impact on the strength of the relationship between project complexity and cost overruns in construction projects. The impact of each type of complexity on cost overrun was found significant using ANOVA and through standardised coefficients in multiple linear regression. The impact of project complexity on cost overruns was significant and project complexity predicted a significant proportion of cost overrun in the construction projects in Pakistan. Financial attributes of the contractors played a vital role in the construction projects when it came to the relationship between project complexity and the cost overrun. The study was limited to analyzing the effect of dimensions of the project on cost runs in the construction projects. The results are relevant for project managers, especially contractors to consider the importance of financial attributes in reducing the risk of cost overrun. The role of contractor’s financial attributes on positive relationship between project complexity and cost overrun has been empirically tested. The study included infrastructural projects in Pakistan, with unique settings. Pages 187 to 206

 

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The Omani Diaspora in Eastern Africa

Cuneyt Yeniguna, Yasir AlRahbib, aAssociate Professor, Director of International Relations and Security Studies Graduate Programs, Founder of Political Science Department, College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman,  bOman National Defence College, Sultan Qaboos University, IRSS Graduate Program, M.A. in International Relations, Muscat, Oman. Email: acuneyt@squ.edu.om, cuneytyeni3@gmail.com; bYasir.Rahbi@ndc.edu.omyasser5757@gmail.com

Diasporas play an important role in international relations by connecting homeland and host country. Diasporas can act as a bridge between the sending states and the receiving states in promoting peace and security, and in facilitating economic cooperation between the two sides. Omani people started to settle into Eastern Africa 1300 years ago. It intensified dramatically and reached its peak during the Golden Age of Oman. After Oman lost power and territories in the last century, the natural Omani Diaspora emerged in five different African countries. Perhaps there are millions of Omanis in the region, but the data is not well known. This study concentrates historical background of the Omani Diaspora and today’s Omani Diaspora situation in the region. To understand their current situation in the region, a visit plan was projected and 4 countries and 17 cities were visited, 155 families’ representatives were interviewed with 13 interview questions. In this study, the Omani Diaspora’s tendencies, cultural developments, family relations, home country (Oman) relations, economic situation, political participation, and civil organisational capabilities have been explored. If they establish a diaspora confederation in the region, it could be a bridge and a contributive actor between Oman and Eastern African countries today. Pages 207 to 227

 

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Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurship and its impact on SMEs Development

Dr.  Faiz Ul Hassan Shah1, *Dr. Urooj Fatima2, Dr. Maqsood Ahmad3, Abdul Ahad Roshan Saeed4, Dr. Muhammad Usman Riaz5, Farhan Ghafoor6, 1Mir Chakar Khan Rind University Sibi, Baluchistan. HOD of Department of Education, 2*Riphah International University, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Faisalabad (Corresponding author), 3Divisional Model School, Faisalabad, 4Lecturer, Department of Education, Mir Chakar Khan Rind University Sibi, Baluchistan, 5Harbin University of Science and Technology, China, School of Economics and Management, 6Government College University Faisalabad, Research Assistant, Emails: 1Syed.f@mckru.edu.pk, 2*fatimaarooj092@gmail.com, 3maqsoodbabar5050@yahoo.com, 4iamroshansaeed@gmail.com, 5musmanriaz@yahoo.com, 6mfarhaan258@gmail.com

With the passage of time, women entrepreneurship issues have significantly increased in Pakistan.  This investigation tries to find how women entrepreneurs suffer with different issues such as lack of networking, unsupportive or unfavourable regulatory and business environment and lack of training and development which cause their resistance. The findings have prompted training of the women entrepreneurs for their development. Earlier research argue that the development of women is integral for the better economic health of the country. The respondents highlight that women entrepreneurs experience various difficulties in accessing finance, following regulation, and overcoming resistance for their business. The research made use of quantitative approach. The investigation was done only in Pakistan context. The sample size was 200 women entrepreneurs from Pakistan. Regression and correlation were carried out on SPSS to accept or reject the hypotheses. it was found that women entrepreneurship is one of the major factors that contribute to the success and development of countries. However, women of Pakistan suffer with many issues when they want to start their business. This has resulted in many issues for them. Hence, it is recommended that women should be supported as an entrepreneur, as it would allow them to remain competitive and make their nation sustain.  Pages 228 to 252

 

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The Current State of Property Development in Indonesia During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Dwi Rahmawati1, Raden Aswin Rahadi2, Almira Devita Putri3, 1Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Ekuitas Bandung, 2School of Business and Management, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 3Universitas Teknokrat Lampung

This study aims to understand the current state of real estate and property development in Indonesia, particularly in the Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi (Bodetabek) areas. The methodology of this study is by applying a quantitative approach to the research. This study was carried out by reviewing quantitative results with each target in mind to achieve the objectives. The confirmatory work was carried out using a structural equation model for validating the assumptions and checking the conceptual construct. Factor Analysis and Multiple Multinomial Logistic Analysis were performed to analyse the results of this study. Dat from 116 respondents was collected. It is concluded that the sample is sufficient for further analysis or 89.438% (KMO value). These factors can explain the variance. The analysis shows that there are two more categories added compared with the previous study conducted by Rahadi (2015). This study can be useful to understand the current state of real estate and property development in Indonesia, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pages 253 to 271
 
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The Entrepreneurial Intention of Tertiary Accounting Students

Bomi Nomlalaa, Thabo Mtshalib, Ziska Fieldsc, aSenior Lecturer, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, bPhD Student, Graduate School of Business and Leadership , University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, cProfessor(ex) in  School of Management, Information Systems and Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Email: anomlalabc@ukzn.ac.za. bmtshali@ukzn.ac.za , cfields@ukzn.ac.za

The unemployment rate remained very low, at 27.7% (Stats SA, 2017). The Bachelor of Commerce (Accounting) students follow a structured academic program of the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA). The researcher used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to determine if Bachelor of Commerce (Accounting) students are capable and ready to become entrepreneurs. The results of 170 Bachelor of Commerce (Accounting) final-year students showed that students are willing to start their businesses and become entrepreneurs, but they lack entrepreneurship education to equip them with the necessary skills to start their businesses. The results also revealed that students have positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship, mainly when they are supported by family, friends, classmates and society. Even with these positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship, the Perceived Behavioural Control showed that students are not likely to start businesses because they lack entrepreneurial skills and have limited knowledge and understanding about managing a business. Pages 272 to 286
 
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Does Firm Level Corruption Increase Innovation: A Case of Lower-Middle Income Economies

Syed Muhammad Imrana, Dr. Nabila Asgharb, Dr. Farhat Rasulc, aLecturer, Government Degree College Yazman, Pakistan, bAssistant Professor, Department of Economics and Business Administration, Division of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Education, Lahore. cAssistant Professor, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, Email: asyedimran.ravian@gmail.com, bdrnabeelakhan.eco@gmail.com, cfahat.rasul@umt.edu.pk

Firms take part in innovation to increase their market share, competitiveness, and productivity which eventually expands their profits. Significant literature has been devoted to exploring the factors determining innovation, however, the impact of corruption on innovation is rarely studied. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effect of bribe payments on innovative activities of the firms. For this purpose, the Logistic Regression model is applied to Word Enterprise Survey data of lower-middle-income countries. The results supported the grease the wheels' hypothesis in the case of lower-middle-income countries, i.e. corruption increase the likelihood of innovation. The registered firms, manager’s experience, external audit, and exporting firms have a positive effect on the probability of innovation. Pages 287 to 297 
 
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Innovative Woven Designs: Concepts and Development for New Entrepreneurs in the Textile Sector of Pakistan

Dr. Allah Dad1, Umber Zahid2, Dr. Muhammad Dawood Husain3, Syed Asad4, 1Assistant Professor, PIFD, Lahore Pakistan, 2PhD Scholar, Design Studies, IIU-Malaysia, 3Associate Professor, Textile Engineering Department; NED UET Karachi Pakistan, 4Assistant Professor, AIFD, Karachi Pakistan

The Textile Industry of Pakistan is considered the lifeline of the country's economy. It has an overwhelming impact on the economy, contributing 60% to the country’s exports. Major textile exports of Pakistan are spun yarns, greige and finished fabrics, and some degree of value-added textile articles. However, for the last decade, the industry is experiencing lots of problem in terms of getting sustained orders. This has also affected the Weaving Industry of Pakistan which is gradually losing its competitiveness with the passage of time; resulting in the loss of millions of US Dollars annually. The downfall in weaving businesses results in less motivation and encouragement for starting new businesses. In this research, by using a multi-stage sampling method where stratified random and clustered sampling approaches were selected in which 59 weaving factories considered for studying their factor of product development during years of 2015 to 2020 to address the problem for improving value-added orders in the weaving sector. The internal factor of product development is considered as most significant and important with an existing gap in its types. In this article the author suggested and formulated new types of woven fabrics such as tri-axial woven, multilayer innovative fabrics, and 3D insulated woven fabric for new entrepreneurs and entrants in the markets that can serve as a road map for them which can remain valid for a long time. Pages 298 to 314
 
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Investigation of Rhetorical Move Structure of Theses Abstracts at Government College Women University, Faisalabad, Pakistan: A Genre Analysis

Qurat-ul-Ainea, Dr. Syeda Samina Tahirab, Somia Yaqubc, bHoD, Department of Education, G.C. Women University Faisalabad, cDepartment of Education, G.C. Women University Faisalabad.  Email: aaneerana1564@gmail.com, bdr.samina@gcwuf.edu.pk, csomiayaqub@gmail.com

In the current study, researchers investigated the rhetorical move structure of theses abstracts at Government College Women University, Faisalabad, Pakistan using qualitative analysis techniques of genre analysis.  The study aimed to classify and distinguish the move- based generic structure of Sixty (60) English theses abstracts (20 from each program) wrote by students Government College Women University, Faisalabad, Pakistan in Education, English Literature, and Physics programs using Bathia’s four-move RA abstract structure and Swales & Feak’s RA abstract five-move structure. Researchers analyzed the reliability of these cross-disciplinary abstracts and also identified the verb tense move frequently used in the abstracts of the students' theses. This study employed a Qualitative Case Study method.  From the results, Researchers concluded that out of 60 abstracts, there were 11 (18.33%) abstracts followed the move structures were as per Swales and Feak's (2004) five-move RA abstract structures, and no abstract followed the move structures followed four-move structure RA abstract by Bhatia's (1993). Pages 315 to 325
 
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An Innovative Mentorship Behavior Model Imperative for Sustainable Higher Education

Syeda Sheeba Hussaina, Dr. Syed Muhammad Ali Tirmizib, Dr. Wajeeha Shahidc, Prof. Dr. Syed Mutahir Hussain Shahd, aM.Phil Qualified, Department of Education, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan, bAssociate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Foundation University Islamabad, Rawalpindi Campus, Pakistan, cAssociate Professor, Department of Education, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan, dPro-Rector, National College of Business Administration & Economics, East Canal Campus Lahore, Pakistan. Email: asheebatirmizi@gmail.com, bdr.alitirmizi@fui.edu.pk (Corresponding Author), cwaurangzeb@numl.edu.pk, dprorector.ecc@ncbae.edu.pk

A sustainable approach in the mentorship of the mentees is a prerequisite for a vibrant and continuously developing higher education sector of a country. This study has investigated the perceived mentorship behavior of the mentors, the PhD faculty members teaching at higher education level in public and private sectors of Pakistan. Theory of mentors’ roles by Kram (1985) has been used to record mentors responses relating; age, gender, academic rank, confidence and anxiety levels, career support, intellectual growth, psychosocial development and research supervision which are major mentor functions. A sample of 515 PhD faculty members out of which 335 belong to 19 public sector and 180 from 8 private sector universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi have been studied. A total of 440 responses have been analyzed using stratified random sampling technique after conducting initial validation of the research instrument. Additionally the overall reliability resulted 0.80 value of cronbach alpha for the perceived mentorship behavior scale. The statistical tests revealed that the perceived mentorship behavior model is statistically fit and highly significant in explaining that mentors compassionately and dedicatedly focused on the career support, intellectual growth, psychosocial development and research supervision of the mentees during the mentorship arrangements in the universities. Pages 326 to 353
 
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Features and Basic Institutions of Modern National Governance

Nguyen Trong Binh, Academy of Politics Region IV, Can Tho City, Vietnam, Email: trongbinh195@yahoo.com

In recent decades, the transition of the state governance model in the world has shown a focus at one core point, which is to move from the traditional state management model emphasising the unique role of the state in social management to a modern governance model with the core characteristic of emphasizing the rule of law and democracy in the social management of the state. This article is from a theoretical and practical perspective to analyse the basic institutional characteristics of modern governance. Research shows that democracy and the rule of law are basic features of modern governance; at the same time, modern governance needs many different institutions, mainly (i) information disclosure and transparency; (ii) policy advice and criticism; (iii) citizen participation; (iv) cooperation between state, market and society; (v) self-governance and social autonomy and (vi) governance assessment. Pages 354 to 365
 
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Impact of Women’s Economic Dependency on Women’s Political Participation in Pakhtun Society

Muhammad Israr1, Arab Naz2, Muhammad Khan3* Ahmad Ali4, Sajjad Ali Khan5, Sami Ullah5, Tahir Mahmood7, Aman ullah8 Sameer Ul Khaliq Jan9 1,6Department of Sociology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Dir (U) Pakistan. 2Department of Sociology, University of Malakand, KP, Pakistan. 3Department of Management Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, 23200, KP, Pakistan. 4Department of Sociology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 23200, KP, Pakistan. 5Department of International Relations, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan23200, KP, Pakistan. 7Department of Rural Development and Sociology, Karakorum International University, Daimir-Chilas Campus. 8Department of Sociology, University of Swabi, Pakistan. 9Department of Social Work, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Dir (U) Pakistan. *Correspondence Email: muhammadkhan@awkum.edu.pk

In most of the societies, a socio-economic divide exists between men and women in economic spheres. However, economic resources have similar effects on both the genders. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of women’s economic deprivation on their political status in Pakhtun society. Quantitative method of social research was applied through a survey in seven districts of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The data was collected from a sample of 320 women councilors using interview schedule. Univariate analyses were conducted for frequencies and percentages and bivariate analyses for the possible association between the variables by chi-square test, using SPSS 20. The study revealed that women’s economic dependency has a significant impact upon their political participation in Pakhtun society. Due to strong patriarchy men are considered the only bread winners that deprive women from proprietorship and inheritance rights. Similarly, different gender roles, lack of vocational training and unpaid domestic labor lead to women’s dependency in the socio-economic structure of society. Women are stereotyped under the false conception of least intelligence and unproductive. Strong honor codes and gender segregation limit their access to employment that limit women’s participation in public spheres. Hence, women remain on the disposal of men in every decision including politics. This study recommends the role of mass media to spread awareness, legislating gender friendly policies and strict implementation. Similarly, campaigns of civil society would certainly yield long lasting effects on women’s economic uplifting and their political participation. Pages 366 to 391

 
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The Impact of a Problem-Solving Strategy to Develop Reflective Thinking in Physical Education Among Pre-Service Teachers

Suha Simreena, Bassam Mismarb, aDepartment of Physical Education School of Arts Al-Quds University Abu Dis-Palestine, bProfessor, Department of physical  education, School of sports science, University of Jordan Amman-Jordan, Email: ab.mismar@ju.edu.jo, bssimreen@staff.alaqds.edu

The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an instructional program based on a problem-solving strategy to improve reflective thinking among field training students at Al-Quds University. The study sample consisted of 40 male and female students from the Department of Physical Education who were officially enrolled in the field training course (1). They were distributed in two equal groups, the experimental and the control groups. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers used the experimental method. Data were gathered and treated by using the SPSS program with appropriate statistical methods.    The results of the study showed that the problem solving-based instructional program had a positive effect upon the experimental group in reflective thinking skills when comparing the results of the post-measurement of the two groups (experimental and control). Also, results showed that there were statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups relative to the skills of reflective thinking attributed to the instructional program for the benefit of the experimental group. It also showed that there were no statistical differences in any of the skills of reflective thinking due to some variables (gender, level of study, and accumulative grade point average). In the light of the results of the study, the researchers recommended using a problem- solving based strategy to teach the field training course, to enhance the thinking processes in teaching practical and theoretical courses and training the students in this field because of their impact on the development of reflective thinking among students at AlQuds University. Pages 392 to 415
 
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Report on Community Coping Experiences during the South African COVID-19 Lockdown

David J. Edwardsa, Jabulani D. Thwalab and Stephen D. Edwardsc, Psychology Department, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa; Email: aedwards.davidjohn@gmail.com, bedwardsd@unizulu.ac.za

This study reports on the coping experiences of a convenience sample of 16 people: 8 males and 8 females (mean age = 58.4, SD = 17.6) during the COVID-19 pandemic. NVivo thematic content analyses and syntheses by three independent researchers’ yielded ten coping themes of time, lockdown, work, family, friends, activities, technology, health, prayer and care. The relative affluence of the sample is reflected in the rank ordering of the themes. Men and older people reported more positive emotions than younger people, which is understandable in relation to balancing work and family roles, especially when working from within their home environments. The meaning of these findings is discussed in relation to other studies in other contexts, as well as future investigations and interventions. Pages 416 to 426
 
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Techniques Used in the Teaching-Learning Process at Secondary Schools in Peshawar District, Pakistan

Dr. Adnan Shahzad*1, Dr. Amjad Reba2, Dr. Tabassum Mehboob3, Siraj Khan4 Shakeel Ahmad51Phd . Institute of education and Research University of Peshawar, Pakistan. 2Assistant Professor Institute of education and Research University of Peshawar, Pakistan. 3TGT, University of Peshawar. 4&5Phd Scholars Institute of education and Research University of Peshawar, Pakistan, Email: 1shahzadadnan321@gmail.com,2amjadreba@uop.edu.pk, 3drtmehboobums@uop.edu.pk.4khan1ier@gmail.com. 5kittynaz2000@yahoo.com

The paper was designed to investigate the effect of different classroom techniques in the teaching-learning process. Mixed-method approach was used to explore the issue at hand. The participants were all government secondary school teachers and students in Peshawar district. The stratified sampling technique was used to select the respondents. The sample size was 400 students and 20 teachers from 20 different campuses. The questionnaire and the observation checklist were used to gather data. Approximately 94.1 percent of respondent students agreed that teachers were using strategies to improve expectations in the classroom. Almost, 94.1 percent of respondent students believe that the instructor uses strategies to maintain classroom expectations It was found during observation that the majority of instructor watched the student during the teaching-learning process, and it was a useful technique. Most of the respondent teachers often found, in practice, that they were using the technique to uphold classroom expectations. Teaching and learning processes take place step by step, the change also plays an important role in improving appropriate conduct during the teaching-learning process and empowering the learner through a technique that helps both the teacher and the students to achieve the learning objective. Pages 427 to 438
 
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Mobile Learning Acceptance in Higher Education:  Using a Simplified and Extended Technology Acceptance Model

Vijayesvaran Arumugama, Nezar M.Sheikh Ahmedb, Asha Nair Ganeserc, aInternational Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, bIndependent Researcher. cInternational University of Malaya Wales (IUMW), Kuala Lumpur, Email: a*Vijayesvaran@imu.edu.my, bnezar.m@gmail.com, casha@iumw.edu.my           

This empirical study investigates the factors affecting mobile learning acceptance among higher education students in Malaysia. It is based on an extended and simplified version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and data collected from 384 students. Besides, the study is supported by an extensive literature review. The research shows that Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Perceived Enjoyment significantly affect the Intention to Use mobile learning. The study also indicates that the Perceived Enjoyment has the highest effect on the Intention to Use mobile learning. This enhances our understanding of TAM by extending and simplifying it. The study concludes that higher education students in Malaysia are ready to accept and use mobile learning. Pages 439 to 453
 
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Fuelling Employee Innovative Behaviour Through Servant Leadership: A Moderated Mediated Framework

Dr. Sajid Rahman Khattaka, Dr. Muhammad Fayazb, Dr. Shams ur Rahmanc, Dr. Zafar Saleemd, Dr. Muhammad Fayaze, aAssistant Professor IBMS, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, bLecturer IBMS, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, cAssistant Professor IBMS, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, dAssistant Professor Mir Chakar Khan Rind University, Sibbi, eAssociate Professor Agriculture University Peshawar, Email: asajidktk99@yahoo.com, bfayazarbab96@yahoo.com, csayedshams@aup.edu.pk, ddrsaleem1947@gmail.com, emfayaz@aup.edu.pk

The present research was an attempt to identify how servant leadership fuels employee innovative behaviour. Based on the notion of social cognitive theory, we assume that servant leadership enhances employee innovative behaviour via motivating knowledge sharing. Furthermore, the impact of servant leadership on knowledge sharing is strong when employee organisational identification is high. We tested the proposed model using cross-sectional data collected from 180 supervisor-employee dyads from five leading electrical companies in Pakistan. We found that servant leadership has a strong association with employee innovative behaviour. Knowledge sharing partially mediates the indirect effect of servant leadership and innovative behaviour. Furthermore, we also found that organisational identification moderates the relationship between servant leadership and knowledge sharing. Implications and theoretical contributions are also discussed. Pages 454 to 467
 
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A Female-Agency Perspective on Female Political Leadership in Africa

Petronella Jonck, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, North-West University, South Africa

A paucity of research studies explore agency utilised by female political leaders to navigate spaces predominantly occupied by male counterparts. The main objective of the study was to explore female-agency fostering the ascension of women to leadership positions in Kenya, an East African country. This study examined the lived experiences of Kenyan female political leaders using a qualitative exploratory approach implemented by means of interviews. Findings indicated that female-agency with specific reference to political leadership centres on eight strategies, inter alia, formal educational attainment, utilising formal educational leadership opportunities, personal development and lifelong learning,  social support systems, mentorship, challenging gender roles and stereotypes, leadership traits and tactics. Female participation in leadership remains essential to ensure balanced decision-making and public outcomes. However, African women remain under-represented in leadership positions, in particular within the political sphere. Male dominance and gender stereotypes have been identified as significant obstacles hindering women from accessing leadership positions. Strategies to improve female participation in leadership positions with specific reference to the political sphere should be based on empirical findings. Moreover, female-agency research could be perceived as a strategy to challenge gender stereotyping. Pages 468 to 482
 
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Discursive Identity of Immigrants: A Review

Dr. Fouzia Rehman Khana, Dr. Mehwish Malghanib, Dr. Shazia Ayyazc, aAssistant Professor, Department of English, SBK Women’s University Quetta. Pakistan, bProfessor, Department of English, Mir Chakker Khan Rind University Sibi. Pakistan, cAssistant Professor, Department of Applied Linguistics, Kinniad College for Women University Lahore, Pakistan

Migration and immigrants’ identity is a worldwide phenomenon in present times and the main issue in migration studies. The paper presents a review of formation of identities of immigrants through discourses and discursive practices. Language and discourses are significant in constructing and defining immigrant identity. Discourses on immigration are a topic of controversy therefore it has been studied differently by different scholars. The review of contemporary literature on the subject reveals that immigrant identities are affected by the policies, practices and discourses in the country of migration. A positive immigrant identity is fostered by transnational practices when immigrants think themselves as members of multiple communities. This fostering of identity is only possible if positive and encouraging kind of supportive discourses are produced in the host society. Pages 483 to 494
 
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Structured Equation Model on Strategic Quality Planning, HR Utilisation, Information Analysis and Hospital Quality Performance

Dr. Muhammad Irfana, Muhammad Shaukat Malikb, Laraib Aslamc, Naureen Afzald, Muhammad Hasnain Alie, aAssistant Professor, Institute of Banking and Finance. Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, bInstitute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, cMS scholar (Business Administration), Institute of Banking and Finance, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, dLecturer, Institute of Management Sciences, The Women University Multan, eVisiting Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, University of Sahiwal, Email: adr.mirfan@bzu.edu.pk, bshoukatmalik@bzu.edu.pk, claraibaslam11@gmail.com, dnaureen.afzal@wum.edu.pk, em.hasnsinali270@gmail.com

The study aimed to quantify how different quality aspects like strategic quality planning, information and analysis, leadership and human resource utilisation affect the treatment quality and overall TQM implementation in the health sector. Hospitals are key to a healthy and sustainable society. Quality is of utmost importance while treating the patients. Human health depends upon the better cure offered by hospitals. This research started on a broader view of literature about the impact of leadership, strategic quality planning and human resources on the incremental quality in the health sector. It was a survey-based study. The data was collected from doctors and paramedical staff in the hospitals of South Punjab region in Pakistan. The questionnaires used to collect the data for the survey research were adopted based on the Likert scale. The respondents were the middle-level managers including medical doctors, paramedical staff, and administrative heads of each hospital. All the respondents had at least a graduation in a qualification. The data was analysed using the structured equation model for accurate results. The findings show that strategic quality planning has a positive link with treatment quality. Human resource utilisation is also positively related to enhancing cure quality. Leadership plans for quality while human resource implements it to enhance treatment accuracy, timeliness, and patient satisfaction. The scope of the study of total quality management (TQM) is a critical success factor for public and private hospitals. There are many challenges faced by hospitals regarding quality, efficiency, and adequacy. The study is limited to the health sector. The health sector management should give more importance to TQM practices to provide better treatment. It provides a guideline for policy makers to improve the treatment quality and quality management practices to achieve better patient satisfaction and promotion of health among the citizens. The study found the real problems in the hospital need to improve; future study can be conducted by improving sample size to make it more generalisable. Pages 495 to 515
 
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Teaching Competencies of Pre-Service Spanish Language Teachers through the ECO method

Lucas-Oliva, Inés1, García-Jiménez, Jesús2, Torres-Gordillo, Juan-Jesús3, 1Department of Language and Literature Education, Educational Sciences Faculty, University of Seville, Spain, 2Department of Educational Research Methods and Diagnostics, Educational Sciences Faculty, University of Seville, Spain, 3Department of Educational Research Methods and Diagnostics, Educational Sciences Faculty, University of Seville, Spain. Email: 1ilucas@us.es, 2jgarcia139@us.es, 3juanj@us.es

Developing the teaching competencies of pre-service Spanish Language and Literature teachers is one of the current demands in higher education. A teaching-learning experience has been developed through the ECO method (Explore, Create, Offer), which is an innovative methodology inspired by Human Centred Design, Design Thinking, and challenge-based learning. The aim of the study was twofold: a) to check whether pre-service teachers perceive that their teaching competencies have improved after this experience; b) to find out the relationships between their perception of the different competencies and certain socio-demographic characteristics. A Likert-type questionnaire on teaching competencies before and after the experience was conducted. 92 participants took part in the pre-test and 66 in the post-test. The results show an improvement in the perception of their competencies at the end of the experience and high levels of motivation throughout the course. These improvements occurred regardless of socio-demographic characteristics such as age or educational background. It is concluded that the ECO method favours the acquisition of competencies, fosters motivation, and offers equal learning opportunities, thus fulfilling the democratising function of the university. Pages 516 to 535
 
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Evaluation of User Experience in Mobile Applications

Mohammad Awni Mahmouda, Usama A. Badawib, Tamer Faragc, Walaa Hassand, Yazan M. Alomarie, Fahad A. Alghamdif, a,b,c,d,e,fDepartment of Management Information Systems, College of Applied Studies and Community Services, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

Mobile technologies have improved dramatically over the years which has allowed users to execute more functions when compared to previous models of mobile devices. Although there has been an increase in the effectiveness of mobile technology, it has come at the cost of usability. A well-designed and optimised user experience is important in a successful mobile application. A poor user experience can certainly contribute to application or product failure. The objectives of this research are to study and evaluate the user experience in mobile applications.  Data for this research will be collected through observations and interviews. Both methods will help in evaluation of user experience.  It is expected that the different methods proposed for evaluation of user experience will be helpful and serve as a source for enhancing knowledge regarding user experience in mobile applications. Pages 536 to 552
 
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Association between Soft Skills and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study among Secondary School Heads in Kohat Division, Pakistan

Dr. Qaiser Suleman1, Dr. Makhdoom Ali Syed2, Dr. Sadaf Zamir Ahmed3, Alam Zeb Khattak4, Dr. Razia Noreen5, Muhammad Saif Ullah Qureshi4, 1Principal, Elementary & Secondary Education Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 2Department of Education, University of Kotli, Kotli, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. 3Department of Humanities, Education, & Psychology, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 4Department of Psychology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 5Principal, Government Girls Higher Secondary School Bhedian Pattoki, Kasur, Pakistan.

The study examined the association between soft skills and job performance among secondary-school-heads in Kohat Division, Pakistan. A sample of 117 out of 197 secondary-school-heads was used. A quantitative, descriptive, and correlative procedures were used for this investigation. To collect data from the research participants, two valid and reliable instruments were used. For measuring the participants’ job performance, a standardized research tool “Job Performance Scale” was used while a self-developed structured questionnaire “Soft Skills Questionnaire” was used for measuring the soft skills of the participants. Personal visits were made for data collection. The statistical tools used in the study were mean, standard deviation, independent samples t-test, Pearson’s product-moment correlation, and multiple linear regression. The findings explored that soft skills were found in both male and female heads. Also, their job performance was reported satisfactory. Comparatively, male heads were found more equipped with soft skills as compared to female heads. Similarly, in job performance, male heads were found better than female heads. Pearson’s correlation analysis explored that there was a strong positive correlation (r=0.898, p<0.01) between soft skills and job performance. Regression analysis indicates that six subdimensions of soft skills were found significant predictors of job performance i.e., managing relations, positive attitude, decision-making skills, integrity, communication skills, and responsibility. The study suggests that the soft skills of secondary-school-heads may further be improved through training, seminars, workshops, and conferences to enhance their job performance and subsequently, it will improve the institutional productivity and efficiency. Pages 553 to 576
 
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Examining the Involvement of School Governing Bodies in Promoting Educators in South Africa

Nxumalo, T.M.1, Gamede, B.T2, Uleanya, C*2University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa, *2University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, Email: 2*chinazauleanya@yahoo.com

The place of school governing bodies in the promotion of educators in South African public schools is crucial. This study focuses on the perspective of the school governing body as seen as the contributors to challenges that are experienced by educators during promotion processes and ineffectiveness of the school system. A quantitative method was employed to collect data from ten schools in ILembe District, South Africa. Random sampling was used to select 180 respondents. The collected data was analysed using SPSS, version 25. The findings of the study show that although there are educational policy guidelines that are made available to guide schools on how the processes of promotion are conducted, schools continue to experience challenges with some stakeholders who do not keep within their roles. Several factors such as incompetence of the school governing body, lack of training of the SGBs, illiteracy of the SGBs, political influence, and interference of the union members were found to be stumbling blocks in pursuing fair processes when dealing with promotions. The research recommends that the Department of Education (DoE) take a leading role in appointing independent bodies to deal with promotions in order to mitigate corruption and abuse of power by stakeholders.  Pages 577 to 592
 
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Developing an Apprenticeship Model of Entrepreneurship Education in an African Context

Omotosho Ademolaa, Bongani Gamedeb, Chinaza Uleanyac, a,b,cDepartment of Social Science Education, University of Zululand, South Africa, Email:  arufusademola1@gmail.com, bgamedeb@unizulu.ac.za, cchinazauleanya@yahoo.com

The purpose of this study is to present a prospective entrepreneurship training model. The Afrocentric model is expected to train student entrepreneurs in an apprenticeship way. This will stimulate the production of entrepreneurs which is not being achieved by the current methods in the two selected rural universities in South Africa and Nigeria. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Random and convenient sampling respectively were used to select 544 students: 256 from South Africa and 288 from Nigeria who responded to questionnaires, and 16 academics, 8 from each nation who were interviewed. The study analyses the current approaches in use, identifying inherent weaknesses and the gaps that need to be filled. Through literature reviews and case studies, it provides a model that integrates apprenticeship learning into entrepreneurship education. The views of both students and lecturers show that the efficacy of entrepreneurial training programs in the two selected universities was unsatisfactory. A model that focuses on the development of entrepreneurs in an apprenticeship way is therefore designed and recommended. The student-centered model draws inspiration from best practices around the world in the field of entrepreneurship training. Pages 593 to 613
 
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The Impact of Mobility on Long-term Inequality: An Analysis from Selected Districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan

Samra Kahlida, Nabila Asgharb and Hafeez ur Rehmanc, aAssistant Professor, Higher Education Department, Government of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan, bAssociate Professor, Department of Economics and Business Administration, Division of Arts & Social Sciences, University of Education Lahore, Pakistan. cProfessor/Chairman, Department of Economics-SBE, University of Management and Technology Lahore, Pakistan. (Corresponding Author)  Email: asamrakhalid88@yahoo.com, bdrnabeelakhan.eco@gmail.com, c*hafeez.rehman@umt.edu.pk

Since the beginning of this century, researchers and policy makers have been concerned about the crucial relationship between mobility and long-term inequality particularly in developing countries. This study deals with the long-term inequality that emerges in a society due to socio-economic stratification over time. The assessment of the relationship between mobility and long-term inequality may enable us to determine the direction of mobility in terms of convergence or divergence. For analysis purposes, this study uses primary data from six developed and backward districts of province Punjab, Pakistan. The results of the study show that developed and big districts exhibit more dis-equalizing occupation income due to the excessive availability of opportunities, occupation diversity, competition and more income generating activities, which increases the income inequality among households. This study suggests that dis-equalizing effects can be reduced though proportionate distribution of economic resources among ruler and lower struggling class in Punjab province. Pages 614 to 625
 
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HeartMath Personal and Global Coherence Data Collected Before and After COVID-19

Stephen D. Edwardsa and David J. Edwardsb, Psychology Department, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa; Email: edwards.davidjohn@gmail.comb, edwardsd@unizulu.ac.zab

This brief report summarises HeartMath personal and global coherence patterns of data collected before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings indicated that COVID-19 data correlated significantly with all baseline data, as well as being significantly different from all baseline data. The best predictors of COVID-19 data were personal and global coherence data collected from HeartMath electronic devices, the Inner Balance and Global Coherence Applications (apps) respectively, as well as Schumann Resonance power spectrum data from the HeartMath Institution based magnetometer in Boulder Creek, California. Related meditation experiences, global research and health implications are discussed. Pages 626 to 636
 
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Understanding the Experience of Accounting Students during the COVID-19 Lockdown in South Africa

Alexander Oluka1, Misheck Musaigwa2, Bomi Nomlala3, 1Auditing, College of Law & Management Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 2Management, college of Law & Management Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 3Auditing, College of Law & Management Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Email: 1olukaam@gmail.com, 2msaigwamish@gmail.com, 3nomlalabc@ukzn.ac.za

This article investigates the experiences of accounting students during the COVID-19 lockdown in South Africa. Drawing from the qualitative research approach, which uses interviews, the study observed that the students learning environment changed from face to face to online (or however it was changed), academic performance deteriorated because of the transition, students experienced anxiety and depression, and their financial wellbeing was affected by loss of income. To deal with the impact of lockdown, students physically exercised in their homes, enrolled for online courses and decreased following COVID-19 updates on the spread of the virus. Pages 637 to 649  
 
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Analysis of Newly Proposed Efficient Experimental Designs Strongly Balanced for Carryover Effects when p<v

Muhammad Daniyala*, Rashid Ahmedb, Roseline Oluwaseun Ogundokunc,Muhammad Ismaild, Uzma Iqbale, Huma Rehmanf, aDepartment of Statistics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, *Corresponding author, bDepartment of Statistics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, cDepartment of computer science, landmark university, Nigeria, d,e,f Department of Statistics, COMSATS university Islamabad Lahore campus, Lahore, Pakistan, Email: a*muhammad.daniyal@iub.edu.pk, brashid701@hotmail.com,cogundokun.roseline@lmu.edu.ng, ddrismail39@gmail.com,euzmaiqbal453@gmail.com, fhumarehman@cuilahore.edu.pk

Repeated measurements designs (RMDs) special kinds of experimental design have gained much attention today in the field of experimentation. Due to the flexibility in different constraints, these designs have great practicality in a variety of fields especially in dairy farms and veterinary experiments. But there is one problem that arises in such experimentations which are called Carry-over effects. Such effects can be balanced out using Balanced RMDs (BRMDSs). But these designs do not give equal efficiencies for both treatment and carry-over effects which is the goal of every experimentation. In such situations, Circular Strongly balanced RMDs (CSBRMDs) have been suggested. The present paper focuses on the analysis of sheep weight data (lb) by using efficient CSBRMDs proposed by Daniyal et al, (2020) through a well know method of cyclic shifts. Designs obtained by this construction independently estimate direct and carry-over effects with equal efficiencies and hence they can be recommended as compared to any other designs. Discussion related to contrasts has also been added and a list of designs for future experimentation has also been mentioned. This study of ANOVA facilitates the experimenters to use these efficient designs when the number of treatments is odd and p periods<v treatments. The list of designs using the procedure proposed by Daniyal et al, (2020) can be used for large experiments in dairy form as well as in other experimental studies. Experimenters will have more flexibility in the choice of designs in terms of treatments, period sizes, and experimental subjects. Pages 650 to 662
 
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Diversity, Adversity, and Inclusiveness: Student Experiences of Linguistic Landscape

Maneerat Chuaychoowong, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand, Email: maneerat.chu@mfu.ac.th

This study aims to examine the display of languages and students’ experiences in an Asian university that offers an English medium of instruction (EMI). With this unique language policy, the university has embraced students with diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds.  Two main questions are ‘What is the construction of signs on campus?’ and ‘How have both Thai and international students’ lives been shaped by the linguistic landscape?’ A digital camera and smartphones were employed to take photos of linguistic tokens, and semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain insight into student experiences and perspectives. The analysis of 815 linguistic items revealed that their main construction types consisted of monolingual, bilingual, and multilingual signs. While Thai was indicated as the dominant language due to its official and frequent use on the signs, English was indicated as a lingua franca on campus. Student experiences emphasised the vital role of English in international students’ transition to campus life and their inclusiveness in university activities. The displays of different languages represented diverse groups of university members. However, an adverse effect on international students was also revealed when their language was solely displayed on signs. Thus, bilingual and multilingual signs were well received by university members.  Pages 663 to 683
 
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Critical Discourse Analysis of Selected Tweets of Pakistani and Indian Prime Ministers on Indian Occupied Kashmir Issue (2019)

Ayesha Farooqa, Khadija Akramb, Ammen Younusc, Kanza Naveedd, Bisma Hassane, aMPhil, Applied Linguistics, University of Management and Technology Lahore, b,cLecturer, Department of Applied Linguistics, Kinnaird College for Women, dMPhil, Department of Applied Linguistics, Kinnaird College for Women, eMPhil, Educational Leadership and Management, University of Management and Technology Lahore, Pakistan.

Language is a powerful medium of communication which is significantly used by political leaders to govern over the people. Political leaders use language as an instrument to gain dominance and power by influencing political, economic, social and cultural practices. The aim of this research was to explore and identify rhetorical devices in social media political discourse. The qualitative methodology was adopted to identify rhetorical devices in the tweets of Prime Minister Imran Khan and Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Rhetorical devices are mainly used in political discourse. Political actors employ various rhetorical devices to persuade the public for particular political objectives. Fifteen tweets of both each Prime Minister were analyzed that were related to Indian Occupied Kashmir (2019). The data was in the form of tweets that were taken from verified accounts of both the Prime Ministers. The study examined social media political discourse by applying Paul Gee Model of Seven Building Tasks of Language. The rhetorical devices were identified through this model of critical discourse analysis. The study revealed that which rhetorical devices were used by both the Prime Ministers to discuss the Kashmir issue on social media platform. It revealed that how Prime Minister Imran Khan raised voice against the Indian violence in Kashmir and for the freedom of Kashmiri Muslims and how Indian Prime Ministers used rhetorical devices to glorify the annexation of Kashmir with India. The research found that some rhetorical devices were significantly used by both the Prime Ministers such as amplification, repetition, allusion, patho and logo. The study explored that Prime Minister Imran Khan used rhetorical devices to highlight the Kashmir issue at international level and to raise voice for the freedom of Kashmir from Indian annexation, whereas Prime Minister Narendra Modi emphasized on making friendly relations with Kashmir and their collective socio-economic development. Pages 684 to 707
 
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The Effects of Human’s Rational Subjective Values: An Evaluation of Dan Brown’s Inferno

Syed Qasim Shaha, Muhammad Bilal (PhD English Scholar)b, Nasim Ullah Khanc, Gulfam Hassaind, Salma Hassane, Saeed Ur Rahmanf aLecturer in English (Corresponding Author), Bacha khan University Charsadda, Pakistan. b,c,fLecturer in English, Bacha khan University Charsadda, Pakistan. dResearch Scholar, Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan. eLecturer in English, Sabawoon School and College System, Bara Peshawar Pakistan. Email: aqasimshah.eng@bkuc.edu.pk

The article focuses on interpretation of Dan Brown’s Inferno of various effects on humanity because of the disappearance of God and the destruction of religion. Humans have found not only meaning but also their definitions in religions, but the disappearance of religion will make them alienated to themselves. Dan Brown has declared the abominable consequences for humanity if they turned down the teachings of religions because the teachings of religions tame them from committing what is obliterating for the social structure and stability. Humans then feel lonely because there is no one to tell humanity about the ethics and code of conduct. Similarly, humanity also feels lonely on an epistemological level, which means that they will become lonely in understanding the true essence of life. Brown also cheers the positive influence of human’s rational developments which can make humanity lead a better life by introducing various goods. Brown also applauds the human being on the verge of becoming ditties themselves. Pages 708 to 720
 
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Improving Students’ Creativity Using Project-based learning and Spreadsheets Module

Sekar Paramita Siska Dewia, Susilaningsihb, Tri Murwaningsihc, a,b,cSebelas Maret University, Email: paramitasiskadewi@gmail.coma, susi_uns@yahoo.comb, murwaningsih_tri@staff.uns.ac.idc

Entrepreneurial activity is one of the things that encourages an increase in the economic welfare of a country. The Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture as stated in the 2013 curriculum requires that each field of expertise be able to implement the knowledge learned in the Creative Products and Entrepreneurship subject. This regulation has not been able to be realised in reality. The data shows that 43.75 percent of students have low creativity in creating products according to their accounting expertise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of applying the Creative Product and Entrepreneurship Module based on project-based learning and spreadsheets to increase students' creativity. The research method used was quasi-experimental research. The research samples were class XI Accounting 2 and XI Accounting 3 at SMK N 1 Surakarta. Data collection techniques used were questionnaires and written tests. The effectiveness test results using the t-test showed a significance value of 0.00, and the N-Gain value for the experimental class was 0.71. Based on the data analysis results, a significance of <5% indicated that the module is effectively used for learning, while an N-Gain value of more than 0.70 indicated an increase in students' creativity in a high category. Pages 721 to 734
 
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Social Innovation in the Indonesian Village Enterprises for Sustainable Development

Aluisius Hery Pratonoa, Sonya Claudia Siwub, Frederik Claeyec, aFaculty of Business and Economics, Universitas Surabaya, Raya Kalirungkut, Surabaya 60293, Indonesia, bFaculty of Law, Universitas Surabaya, Raya Kalirungkut, Surabaya 60293, Indonesia, cFaculté de Gestion, Economie et Sciences, Lille Catholic University, 60 Boulevard Vauban, 59800 Lille, France, Email: ahery_pra@staff.ubaya.ac.id, bsonya@staff.ubaya.ac.id, cfrederik.claeye@icl-lille.fr

This article seeks to understand how community enterprises manage a place for sustainability and future growth. Drawing from the intersection concepts of social enterprise and place management, the analysis examines the case study of three communities in Indonesia with an interpretative approach. The results indicate that the enterprises contribute to the place management (1) by providing a success story in the past to promote place-based innovation policies, (2) by utilising local identity to avoid cross-cultural clash in coping with fierce economic competition, (3) by developing products and services, which concern to promote family well-being, and (4) by enhancing the social networks to generate inter-organisational knowledge transfer. This study extends the discussion on social innovation by adopting the concept of place management and social enterprise principles for sustainable development issues. Pages 735 to 753
 
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Teachers & Parents’ Perception of Tri Hita Karana as a Noble Value to Teach Character Education

Ketut Putra Sedanaa, I Made Yudanab, Ni Ketut Suarnic, I Gede Yoga Permanad, aStudents of Postgraduate Program Ganesha University of Education, Indonesia, bProfessor at Ganesha University of Education, Indonesia, cProfessor at Ganesha University of Education, Indonesia, dLecturer at STKIP Agama Hindu Singaraja, Indonesia. Email: akpsedana@gmail.com, bmade.yudana@undiksha.ac.id, cniketut.suarni@undiksha.ac.id, dyogapermana@stkipahsingaraja.ac.id

The presence of foreign cultures due to the globalisation process can be a threat to local culture if there are no efforts of cultural selection. The 2013 curriculum as a reference for education in Indonesia currently emphasises 18 characters that need to be inserted into the whole process of teaching and learning. In Bali, there is the Tri Hita Karana concept which is closely related and associated to these character values. This study identified the perceptions of elementary school teachers and parents in Buleleng, Bali. This study used a survey method using a questionnaire. This study followed 50 elementary school teachers and 50 parents. The results showed that there was no difference in perceptions between primary school teachers and parents in Buleleng, Bali. They realise the importance of integrating the Tri Hita Karana values ​​into the learning process both at school and at home. The results of this study reflect that teachers and parents have the same role in the process of students’ character-building. Pages 754 to 765
 
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Future Threats and Opportunities in Afghanistan in the Post-US Withdrawal Scenario

Dr. Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Amir2, Saira Bano3, 1Lecturer, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, 2Lecturer Department of Pakistan Studies, Abbottabad University of Science & Technology, 3Lecturer Department of Pakistan Studies, Hazara University Mansehra, Email: 1muhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk, 2muhammadamir@aust.edu.pk, 3sairabano@hu.edu.pk

The US withdrawal from Afghanistan makes a landmark in the history of the United States and Afghanistan. This will have great impact on the security paradigm of the regional as well global politics, since main focus of the world rested upon the counter-terrorism strategy and strengthening security system. The main focus of the research paper includes implications of the US drawdown from Afghanistan on the future politics and security system of Afghanistan, the commitment of the international community in bringing peace and stability in Afghanistan, the future status of women in Afghanistan and various challenges associated with peace. The study is based on the qualitative approach of methodology mainly focusing on official statements and document analysis. The paper is very significant on account of its dealing with the most important issue that is going to decide the future of Afghanistan, which will have great repercussions on the security dynamics of the neighboring countries and regional powers. The basic theoretical frame work for the study is provided by the Game Theory of Stag Hunt that explains the overall nature of the US-withdrawal, intra-Afghan talks and future challenges and opportunities. The theory caters for the competitive environment between the various competing actors. The theory deals with describing a conflicting situation between the conflicting environments in a competing situation between the various actors. It describes a condition of competing nature between the United States and the non-state actors, and between the government of Afghanistan and the non-state actors-the Taliban. Pages 766 to 778
 
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Pebbles in Ritual and Cult Practice: An Archaeological Context

Shonazarov Sh.B, National University of Uzbekistan

This article describes how sharp stones were not only used for production, but also actively used in religious ceremonies and worship rites (altars, funerals). The researchers believe that various symbols or graphic inscriptions carved in the style of graffiti are associated with religious ritual practices of the ancient population of the Bronze Age, and have different meanings. Moreover, that the stones themselves were a symbolic sign of the particular ceremonies. In the mythological view, the idea of ​​the connection between stone and earth (the stone being the son of the earth) can be associated with a common meaning. If light is a source of energy (heat), so stone is also a source of energy. Medieval pebbles with inscriptions are the most studied and numerous categories of material cultural monuments both for Kyrgyzstan and for the whole of Central Asia. The origin of pebbles has long been a subject of controversy among scientists. In this article, the author has tried to describe the problem that has become the controversial subject about the origin of pebbles. Pages 779 to 790
 
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Perceived Impact of Non-Academic Teaching Assignments: Perceptions of Secondary School Teachers in Pakistan

Dr. Amna Yousaf1, Dr. Irfan Bashir2, Dr. Faisal Anis3, Dr Sajid Masood4, Hyder Ali5, 1,2,3,4Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, 5Secondary School Teacher, School Education Department, Lahore Pakistan, Email: 1amna.yousaf@umt.edu.pk, 2irfanbashir@umt.edu.pk, 3faisal.anis@umt.edu.pk, 4sajid@umt.edu.pk

This research was conducted to study the effect of additional non-teaching duties on teachers’ performance at secondary level. This was a quantitative research and survey was used to collect data. The population of the study was secondary school teachers of district Lahore and district Chiniot. The sample for this study was selected through convenient sampling. A sample of 40 schools was selected and data was collected from 620 male and female public-school teachers using an instrument having Likert scale items.  Descriptive and inferential statistics (independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA) were used to analyse the data. The results of descriptive statistics show that teacher performance was affected by additional non-teaching duties. An independent sample t-test was used to assess the difference in teachers’ perception about effects of additional non-teaching duties on the performance of teachers on the basis of gender. Female teachers perceived more effects of non-teaching duties on their performance as compared to male teachers. No significant difference was found on basis of location. On the basis of sub-district, overall, teachers from Shalimar town experienced more effects of additional non-teaching duties on their performance as compared to teachers from other tehsils. On the basis of designation, elementary school teachers perceived more effects of additional non-teaching duties as compared to secondary school teacher (SST) and subject specialist (SS). On the basis of qualification, teachers having qualifications of M.Sc and M.Phil suffered more from additional non-teaching duties. On the basis of teaching experience, teachers having teaching experience of 16 to 20 years and more than 20 years experienced more effects from additional non-teaching duties as compared to teachers belonging to other groups. Pages 791 to 811
 
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Political Participation of Women in Afghanistan in the Present Set-up

Dr. Muhammad Tariq1, Anwar Ali,2 Dr. Arif Khan3, Dr. Manzoor Ahmad4, Dr. Muhammad Ayaz5, Dr. Said Saeed6, Dr. Rizwan Ahmad7  1Lecturer, Department of Political Science, Hazara University Mansehra, 2Teaching Assistant, Department of Political Science Hazara University & Ph. D Scholar (Department of Pak Study, AUST), 3Assistant Professor, Department of Politcal Science, University of Buner, 4Associate Professor and Chairman Department of Political Science AWKUM,, 5Associate Professor and Chairman Department of Political Science Hazara University Mansehra 6Said Saeed, Principal Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 7Associate Professor and Chairman Department of Pak Studies, AUST, Email: 1muhammadtariq@hu.edu.pk2Anwarali@hu.edu.pk3arif@ubuner.edu.pk4Manzoor@awkum.edu.pk, 5drmuhammadayazkhan@gmail.com, 6saidsaeed54@gmail.com, 7drmuhammadrizwan_hu@yahoo.com

Women have been playing the most significant role in the overall structure of the society and socio-politico fabric of the state. A country can do well where they are given their due rights and given the opportunity of working shoulder to shoulder with men. The focus of this study is to analyze the role played by women in Afghanistan with special reference to the comparative analysis of the Taliban and the post-Taliban era. They have become very active in the post-Taliban era on account of their increased role as a consequence of the allocation of 27% seats in the legislative assembly of the country. The objective of the study centers around analyzing the social and political participation of women in the country, while research questions focus on different hurdles in the way of their political participation, challenges and issues posed by the non-state actors, and the extent to which women have been successful in achieving their goals. The paper focuses on the present status of women with regard to their participation in the social and political activities of life. The theoretical framework of this study is given by the ‘Theory of Victimization’ which circles around five basic tenets by providing foundations to the role played by the women in the war-stricken country of Afghanistan. Pages 812 to 824
 
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Adaptive Theory and Learning: Creating an Adaptive Learning Environment in Higher Education

Dr Abdulah H. Alabbada, Dr. Haifa F, Bin Mubayrikb, aAssociate Professor, bProfessor, a,bEducational Policies Department, College of Education, King Saud University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The aim of the study is to investigate the use of adaptive learning (AL). The concept of adaptive learning is discussed. The basic principles offered by the theory of adaptation in education and the components of the adaptive learning is clarified. The system of the adaptive learning is mentioned, as well. All of the issues are explained in relation with the higher education. Pages 825 to 838
 
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Impact of Accounting Disclosure of Social Responsibility on Market Performance for Banks

Hanan Subhi abu Na’er1, Abdullah Salah Hardan2, 2Associate professor in accounting. The World Islamic Sciences and Education University, (W.I.S.E), Amman Jordan. Email: 2as.hardan@yahoo.com

The study aimed to figure out the impact of accounting disclosure of social responsibility on market performance of the commercial and Islamic banking sector listed in the ASE for the period 2014-2018. The study adopted the descriptive analysis approach using the content analysis of annual reports of fifteen banks through an index consisting of four dimensions (environmental protection, human resources, interaction with the community, and services provided to customers). Two main indicators were adopted to measure market performance: Stock turnover, and the Tobin's Q. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to test the study hypotheses. The study's results showed that the level of the disclosure of social responsibility was 57.24%, which is an indication that the banks - in general - disclose social responsibility in its dimensions. Commercial banks have a greater disclosure, whereas Islamic banks were less dispersed. Results also revealed a significant impact of the disclosure on the market performance of these banks. In light of these results, the study recommended banks to increase their interest in the disclosure of that activities related to social responsibility, as this improves the positive mental image of these banks, thereby increasing their market performance. Pages 839 to 851
 
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Barriers in Implementation of Inclusive Education in Punjab Government Schools

Dr. Ibtasam Thakura, Dr. Moafia Naderb, Dr. Muhammad Idrisc, Saba Batoold, a,bAssistant Professor, Department of Elementary and Teacher Education, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan. cAssistant Professor, Department of Education, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan. dPrincipal Alshoumoukh Int.Academy, Qatar. Email: aIbtasam.thakur@lcwu.edu.pk, bvividmofia@gmail.com, cmidrees@awkum.edu.pk, dsabaabid3030 @yahoo.com

Education is one of the human rights, undeniable and fundamental in nature encompassing all ethical, social, economic and legal dimensions. As a signatory of UNCRPD, Pakistan has to take steps for effective implementation of the UN Convention on the Right of Persons with Disability (UNCRPD). This study attempts to analyse the barrier faced by stake-holders in implementation of inclusive education in schools. The method of research adopted for this study was descriptive and quantitative. The data collected was to identify the barriers faced by stake-holders of the inclusive education system and concerned Government functionaries. The detailed and in depth understanding of the subject has been acquired through reading of available relevant Government’s instructional material and policy documents. In this study convenient sampling technique was used. The sample of the current study was comprised of concerned Government functionaries, Principals and teachers of the Institutes of Education working in the Punjab. The questionnaire was developed by the researcher. Pages 852 to 871
 
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Bituminous Coal as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Battery (LIBs)

Faisal Muhamdsyaha, Ahmad Helman Hamdanib*, Agung Mulyoc, a,,b.,cFaculty of Geology, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang  Km. 21, Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia 45363, Email: afaizal.muhamadsyah@unpad.ac.id  b*ahmad.helman@unpad.ac.id, cagung.mulyo@unpad.ac.id.

Portable electronic devices and electric vehicles have used lithium-ion batteries (LIB) as a continuous energy storage device. Graphite is one of the anode materials in the battery circuit. However, it only has a low carbon energy capacity, around 372 mAh g-1, whereas, the need for types of devices with large storage capacities will certainly not be fulfilled. The aim of this research is to determine if bituminous coal can be considered a viable alternative to an anode of lithium-ion batteries. Three samples of high volatile bituminous coal from West Java were selected for analysis to determine the electrochemical performance. The coals were acid-washed and carbonized at 8000 C under nitrogen at 20 C min -1 for 1 hour. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to identify morphology, structural patterns, and pore distribution of coals. Our findings show that coal has small interlayer spacing, is more microporous, and is more ordered. A high reversible capacity of 418 mAh g-1 was detected via an electrochemical experiment. Pages 872 to 884
 
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The Effectiveness of SCAMPER Strategy in Enhancing Gifted Students’ Habits of Mind and Achievement Motivation

Sumayyah S. Al-Asqaha, Mohammad F. Al-Qudahb, Ismael Salamah Albursanc, Salaheldin Farah Attallah Bakhietd, Seham Muhji Almutairie, Ahmad Mohammad Ali Alzoubif, Abdullah M. Almanieg, a,cQassim University, Department of psychology, College of education, Qassim, Saudi Arabia,b,eKing Saud University, Department of psychology, College of education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, dKing Saud University, Department of psychology, College of education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, fAjman University, the College of Humanities and Sciences, Psychology Department, United Arab Emirates, gKing Saud University, Department of Educational Administration, College of Education, Saudi Arabia. Email: aDr-somaia1405@hotmail.com, bmalqudah@ksu.edu.sa, cibursan@ksu.edu.sa, dbakhiet@ksu.edu.sa, eSealmutairi@ksu.edu.sa, fa1970ahmad@hotmail.com, gaalmana@ksu.edu.sa

We explore the effectiveness of SCAMPER strategy in enhancing certain habits of mind and achievement motivation of gifted female students in the first grade of the secondary school in Qassim, KSA. Participants were 18 gifted female students who were purposively selected and divided equally into two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group was then trained on SCAMPER strategy. For data collection, the Habits of Mind Scale and the Contextual Achievement Motivation Scale (CAMS) were used. Significant difference between the experimental and control groups on the total score of the Habits of Mind Scale and its dimensions occur in favour of the experimental group, and on the total score of the Contextual Achievement Motivation scale and its dimensions in favour of the experimental group. No significant differences were found between the experimental group’s habits of mind and achievement motivation post-tests and delayed post-tests. Based on the results, it is recommended that the SCAMPER strategy be embedded in the education of gifted students. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of SCAMPER strategy in enhancing certain habits of mind (thinking flexibly, managing impulsivity, thinking interdependently, applying past knowledge to a new situation, striving for accuracy, questioning and posing problems, thinking metacognitively) and achievement motivation (situation and behaviour) of gifted female students in the first grade of the secondary school in Qassim, KSA. The quasi-experimental method was used. Participants were 18 gifted female students who were purposively selected and divided equally into two groups: experimental and control. The experimental group was then trained on SCAMPER strategy. For data collection, the Habits of Mind Scale and the Contextual Achievement Motivation Scale (CAMS) were used. Results showed significant difference between the experimental and control groups on the total score of the Habits of Mind Scale and its dimensions in favour the experimental group, and on the total score of the Contextual Achievement Motivation scale and its dimensions in favour the experimental group. No significant differences were found between the experimental group’s habits of mind and achievement motivation post-tests and delayed post-tests. Based on the results, it is recommended that SCAMPER strategy be embedded in the education of gifted students. Pages 885 to 901
 
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OTOP Distribution Potential of Phum Riang Silk, Thailand

Yalada Pornprasert Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, thailand,yalada.po@ssru.ac.th

This research was aimed to study the OTOP distribution potential of Phum Riang Silk, Surat Thani Province. The population of this study was 4 producers of One Tambon One Product (OTOP) of Phum Riang Silk, Chaiya District, Surat Thani Province, using the questionnaire for OTOP distribution potential of Phum Riang Silk, Surat Thani Province. The findings revealed that 4 aspects of OTOP distribution potential of Phum Riang Silk, Surat Thani Province were in the high level: 1) quality of OTOP of Phum Riang Silk, it was impressed, re-purchased and recommended by the customers, the overall was in the high level; 2) time of product distribution to respond to the customers’ needs timely, and choosing the suitable, timely and reliable logistics by the entrepreneur, the overall was in the high level;  3) marketing, suitable inventory management process to respond to the market needs, and quick product turnover, the overall was in the moderate level; and 4) product distribution, there was no issue on storage, bounce rate and damage during delivery, the overall was in the moderate level. Pages 902 to 914
 
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User Centred Design: A New Essential for Effective Designs for the Physically Challenged

Asna Mubashra, Incharge Department of Textile Design, College of Art & Design, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Design has recently been recognised as problem solving activity. This research was an effort to unravel comprehension of the complex activity of design and to develop an insight of the nature and methodology in which creative thinking skills are put together in the user-centred mannerism of thriving contemporary clothing design for physically challenged. A user centred design approach requires a great deal of involvement from the users during the whole process of designing. The challenge of design is more pronounced when special problems of the aged, infirm, and handicapped arise for solution. This study comprises a collaborative workshop to explore and compare dissimilar design practices. The transformed approach to design methodology of prioritising understandability and usability over aesthetics and technology is found to be more efficient. This new wave in favour of user centred design is now more than only a method, rather it is emerging as the new mindset for the interpretation of problems of design for twenty first century. Pages 915 to 923
 
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Curriculum in Teacher Education Programs with Reference to National Education Policies in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Abid Alia, Amjad Rebab, Adnan Shahzadc, aPh.D scholar, bAssistant professor, cPh.D, a,b,cInstitute of Education and Research, University of Peshawar

The main aim of this research was to explore the views of the teacher educators towards the teacher education programs with reference to curriculum in national education policies. The main research question of the study was to investigate the various education policies regarding curriculum in teacher education programs; the study was qualitative in nature. All thirteen teacher training institutions in public sector universities offering teacher trainings at all levels constituted the population of the study. The sample size of thirteen teacher educators ie one teacher educator from each institute was selected purposively. A semi-structured interview was used to collect data from teacher educators. The research found that reforms in teacher education curriculum are somehow in line with the modern trends. We have many changes in the education program; especially, introduction of a new program 4-year degree, while the rest of the participants mentioned education policy 2009 as well as other policies also focused on reforms in curriculum with other measures. It is recommended that the policy maker and implementer may focus on curriculum in teacher education programs reviewed as stated in the national education policy 2009. Pages 924 to 932

 
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The Impact of Social Media on International Marketing Strategies

Tai Ming Wuta, Shun-mun Wongb, a,bSchool of Professional Education and Executive Development, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HKSAR, Email: aEdmund.wut@cpce-polyu.edu.hk, bHelen.wong@cpce-polyu.edu.hk

The purpose of this paper is to review critically the studies on the impacts of social media on international marketing strategies. Research gaps and future research directions were identified. A systematic review method was used. Authors reviewed 42 articles from high quality academic journal papers between 2009 and 2020. Eight existing research areas were grouped under macro, organisation and individual levels. Cross-cultural factors, international branding, social media international advertising, and other social media research on international marketing are four emerging research fields. Findings of social media effect on marketing outcome variables were presented. Specific future research questions were proposed for future research. Pages 933 to 952
 
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The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Occupational Stress among Secondary School Heads in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Dr. Qaiser Suleman1*, Dr. Makhdoom Ali Syed2, Alam Zeb Khattak3, Khalid Mahmood Kayani4, Dr. Zobia Zaman5, and Iqleem Khan6 1Principal, Elementary & Secondary Education Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 2Department of Education, University of Kotli, Kotli, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. 3Department of Psychology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan. 4Mohi-Ud-Din Islamic University Narian Sharif, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. 5Trainer at IQCS Innovative Solutions PTY Ltd., 7 Korana Street Plympton, South Australia. 6PSHT, Elementary & Secondary Education Department Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Email: 1*qaiserkust2014@gmail.com

This study examined the association between emotional intelligence and occupational stress among secondary school principals in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study population comprised of male and female heads from all secondary schools located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A total sample of 402 participants comprising 260 male heads and 142 female heads was chosen by a multistage sampling method. The current study was quantitative and correlational and two standardised instruments – “Emotional Intelligence Scale” and “Occupational Stress Index” were used for ascertaining the responses from the participants. Data was statistically analysed employing the statistical tools of mean, standard deviation, Pearson’s product-moment correlation, and multiple linear regression. The findings reported a moderate negative relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational stress. Furthermore, there was a substantial moderate negative correlation between all the sub-domains of emotional intelligence and overall occupational stress. In these sub-domains of emotional intelligence, six sub-domains were found significant predictors and have negative impacts on occupational stress (managing relations, empathy, integrity, commitment, self-development, and altruistic behaviour). Based on the findings, the research recommends focusing on those activities that contribute to strengthening and stimulating emotional intelligence among secondary school heads. The Education Department and policymakers should frame effective and comprehensive strategies for reducing stress with the aim to ensure organisational productivity and individuals’ prosperity. Pages 953 to 972
 
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Industrial Revolution (IR) 4.0 in the Construction Sector: Exploring the Possibilities in Pakistan

Mirza Hammad Ghazanfar Baig1, Muhammad Mutasim Billah Tufail2, Mirza Jawad Ghazanfar Baig3, 1,2Department of Management Studies Bahria University Karachi Campus Pakistan.

Construction in Pakistan is a flourishing and booming industry with significant economic impact. Like most of the world, the construction industry in Pakistan has failed to implement and incorporate the Industrial Revolution (IR) 4.0 and has not been able to yield the fruitful affects brought forward through this revolution. Though relying mostly on traditional ways and technologies, the industry has been able to deliver projects ranging from private residences to mega commercial sites. This study was conducted to evaluate the challenges and possibilities faced by the construction sector in terms of the IR 4.0 implementation. Industry professionals were approached and their opinions and understanding of the IR 4.0 were evaluated. Despite being the third largest industry of the world, construction sector is still lacking in the adaptation of advance digital technology, this sector presents a huge potential for IR 4.0 implementation and if successfully incorporated into the existing system will make the industry more productive and efficient. Pages 973 to 987
 
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Satisfaction of Students about Educational Process through E-Learning during COVID-19 Pandemic at Qassim University, KSA

Samah El Awady Bassam1, Khaled Fahah Al Hosis 1Associate Professor, Pediatric Nursing, College of Nursing, Qassim University, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, 2Associate Professor,  Nursing Administration, College of Nursing, Qassim University, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Email: s.basam@qu.edu.sa; awadysss@yahoo.com

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked havoc on a variety of troubles around the world, including learning and university. Many surveys have focused on expected learning outcomes and student satisfaction toward e-learning as a result of the transition to online education since the COVID-19 pandemic. Research Aims: assess the students’ satisfaction related to e-learning during COVID-19 pandemic at Qassim University Methodology: A cross-sectional research design was utilised at May 2020 after 2nd trimester at Qassim University. Convenience sampling included 400 students. An online survey was conducted by using a Survey website form, which contains four parts (characteristics and satisfaction scale) Results: revealed that more than two thirds of studied subjects were at practical faculties and more than one quarter of them at fourth year. More than three quarters of studied students were satisfied about virtual classrooms and tests, information, sources and importance of the electronic course and obstacles that the student faces during e-learning. Conclusions: the current study concluded that more than three quarters of studied subjects were satisfied while less than one quarter of them was unsatisfied in relation to e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, theoretical college, increasing graduate year and grade point average had high frequency positive effect on students’ satisfaction about e-learning at p value < 0.01**. While, female gender had a slight positive effect on students’ satisfaction about e-learning with p value <  0.05. Pages 988 to 999
 
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Confirmed and Death Cases of COVID-19: Which is Informative in Explaining the Returns and Volatilities of Saudi Stock Market Indices?

Monia Ben Ltaifaa, Abdelkader Derbalib, aDepartment of Administrative and Financial Program, College of Community in Abqaiq, King Faisal University, P.O Box: 380, Al-Ahsa, 31982, Saudi Arabia. bDepartment of Finance and Accounting, Higher Institute of Informatics and Management of Kairouan, Kairouan University, Kairouan, Tunisia and Department of Administrative and Financial Sciences and Techniques, Community College, Taibah University, Medinah, Saudi Arabia. Email: ambenltaifa@kfu.edu.sa, baderbali@taibahu.edu.sa

In this paper, we examine the impact of COVID-19 surprises on the volatilities of the Saudi industry sector indices during the period from August 01, 2019 until November 30, 2020. We use a sample composed of 20 Saudi industry sector indices listed in the Saudi Financial Stock Market. To calculate the surprising component of COVID-19 shocks in Saudi Arabia and in USA, we utilize the Kuttner’s (2001) methodology. We use GARCH (1.1) model to estimate the volatilities of the Saudi stock market indices. We conclude that the high return levels of the daily returns of Saudi industry sector indices are detected during the end of the 1st quarter to the 2nd quarter of 2020 which is paralleled with the elevated-level spread of the COVID-19 epidemic in the worldwide mostly in USA and in Saudi Arabia. We confirm that the returns of the Saudi stock market index and of the Saudi industry sector indices are influenced by the COVID-19 confirmed and death cases surprises in USA and by the COVID-19 confirmed cases in Saudi Arabia. Our conclusions prove that the spread of the virus in USA and in Saudi Arabia negatively influences the volatilities of the Saudi financial stock market indices. Pages 1000 to 1028
 
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The Structural Equation Model of Ecological Footprint and Inspiration of Public Mind Affecting Student’s Pro-Environmental Behaviour

Sapphasit Kaewhao, Lecturer, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, Mahasarakham 44000, Thailand, Email: Sapphasit1981@gmail.com

The research objectives were to verify the structural equation model of Ecological Footprint (EF) and Public Mind Inspiration (PMI) affecting the Pro-environmental Behaviour (PB) of undergraduate students. The samples were 400 undergraduates of Rajabhat Mahasarakham University, collected by  The Multi-Stage sampling technique. The research tool was a five-rating scaled questionnaire. The data was analysed by employing descriptive statistics and the factor analysis with LISREL Mplus. The results revealed that EF and PMI were able to explain the variation of PB with 72.00 percent. EF had the most direct effect on PB with an effect of 0.45, subsequently was PMI with an effect of 0.42. Moreover, EF had an effect on PMI with an effect of 0.31 and was able to predict the variation of PMI with 75.00 percent. The structural equation model of EF affecting PB through PMI verified the proposed model. It fitted with all observed variables in line with the criteria of a Chi-Square/df value less or equal to 1.929 and it was less than or equal to 5.00 ( ). RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error Approximation) equalled 0.045  (RMSEA  <  0.05) and RMR (Root Mean Square Residual) equalled 0.024 (RMR  <  0.05) and included the index level of model congruent value of  Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) equal to 0.95, and Adjust Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) equal to 0.93, which are between 0.90-1.00. Pages 1029 to 1042
 
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The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Women’s Entrepreneurial Intention: A Mediated Moderated Model

Dr. Jamila Khurshida, Dr. Nabila Khurshidb*, Dr. Arif Masih Khokharc, Nyela Ashrafd, Dr. Muhammad Irfane, aDepartment of Business administration, University of the Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, bDepartment of Economics, Comsats University, Islamabad, Pakistan, *Corresponding author, cDept. of Business Administration, Iqra University, Islamabad, Pakistan, dDepartment of Business Administration University of the Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Comsats University Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: adrjamilakhurshid@upr.edu.pk, b*nabilakhushid@comsats.edu.pk, carif.khokhar@rocketmail.com, dnyelaashraf@yahoo.com   emirfan@comsats.edu.pk

The research is conducted to examine the role of self-esteem on entrepreneurial intention among women and the moderating effect of extraversion in the relationship. The sample for the current research is comprised of 895 students of graduate and post-graduate students from the business departments of various Pakistani universities. For analysis correlation, bootstrap and hierarchical regression are used and the results indicate that self-esteem and entrepreneurial intention are positively related. So, it is concluded that self-esteem plays a significant role in understanding female entrepreneurial intention and behaviour in Pakistani women. Policymakers and institutions must promote entrepreneurial behaviour in students through educational institutions. Pages 1043 to 1057
 
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The Improvised Manifestation among the Old and New Grammarians

Dr. Mustafa Taher Al-Haiadreh, Department of Arabic Language, Yarmouk University, Jordan, 00962795014090, Email: hydr12@yahoo.com

It was firmly rooted in the minds of scholars that standardizing the grammar in the Arabic language was based on the collection of the Evidence for poetry that the scholars went out to the desert collecting them; until it was first said that Al-Kisaa’i spent fifteen bottles in writing the Poetic verses that were collected by the A'raabs. And when looking at the Grammarians’ books, the oldest and the newest, we find a significant number of improvised verses that were used to serve the grammatical base confirmatively and representationally, or Interpretation and clarification. And when looking at this collection of the Poetic verses , we find that a set of circumstances and reasons was involved in some places of its usage, and it was governed by psychological and sociological aspects surrounded the grammarians and the subjects that use this kind of The Poetic verses . From here, this paper seeks to examine the reality of this type of Poetic verses , the motives behind its use as a substitute for various Qur’anic, poetic verses, and Prose Evidence, and is this due to the absence of the expressing or due to its difficulty? or due to the grammarian’s desire to reach the mind of the reader? or is it something otherwise? Then it seeks to discuss the phrase used by the grammarians in its social and psychological aspect, the role of context in choosing only specific phrases  while neglecting the others, and the culture from which the grammarian set forth to put up the improvised phrase. Considering the fact that Arabic grammar has gone through many stages, the researcher decided to make the field of application works for the grammarians; one is the earlier ones who is Sibawayh, and other is from the newer ones who is Ibn Hishaam, to show how much is the convergence and difference between them in what they use of improvised verses. Pages 1058 to 1075
 
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