On Some Features of Expressing Simultaneity Relations in the English Economic Discourse

Olga A. Kocherginaa, Irina S. Oblovab, a,bAssoc. Prof. Saint Petersburg Mining University, Department of Foreign Languages, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Email: aKochergina_OA@pers.spmi.ru, bOblova_IS@pers.spmi.ru

This article deals with the main structural and semantic features of simultaneity relations implemented in the economic discourse. The simultaneity relationship under study can be seen in the very essence of economic science and economic concepts, therefore it is bound to manifest itself and to be expressed in the language and linguistic categories forming the economic content. Thus, a large group of abstract names having predominantly deverbal nature can be distinguished. Such substantives are able to designate a situation synchronous with that represented by the main part of the sentence in a reduced form, which allows considering sentences with abstract names to be a specific form of expressing the taxis relation of simultaneity, characterised by its own specific features. Linguistic structures of the economic discourse in which the taxis meaning of simultaneity is implemented include sentences with homogeneous predicates, with participial, gerundial and other phrases, compound sentences, as well as simple sentences and sequences of independent sentences. Specific features of the material under study also include convergence of semantic meanings in a complex sentence: conditional and temporal meanings, concession and time, and reason and time. Taxis cannot be considered irrespective of the complicating semantic elements mentioned above. Pages 1 to 21




Problems of Implementation of Arabic Language E-Curriculum in Amman’s Schools

Dr. Issa Khalil Alhasanat, Arab Open University/Jordan, Email: I_hasanat@aou.edu.jo

This study aims to explore the problems that exist in the challenges of implementation of Arabic language e-curriculum in Amman’s Schools. The researcher designed a questionnaire to identify these problems. The most prominent problems that confronted Arabic language teachers while applying e-curricula for the subject included technical problems in computer devices or communication networks, the scarcity of devices, inadequate class time allotted to the computerized subject, shortage of support personnel in school administration, the deficiency in teachers' perception of level as to what their role entails in this process, and the negative attitudes some of them have towards applying technology in education. The study suggests some recommendations based on the findings such as review and refine the training programs in order to better prepare and certify Arabic language teachers in effective Arabic e-curricula application; or offer a greater quantity of courses catering to the variable levels of teacher expertise. The results of the study showed no differences between males and females in estimating the problems of applying Arabic language e-curricula in Jordanian schools. Pages 22 to 49




Development and Validation of the Korean Simple Integrated Creativity Test (K-ICT-S)

Kyunghwa Lee, Soongsil University, Seoul Korea, Email: khlee@ssu.ac.kr

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an integrated creativity test that can easily measure college students’ creativity (creative ability, creative personality). The Simple Integrated Creativity Test (ICT-S), designed to facilitate group online testing with greater ease of scoring on the basis of previous studies, was reconstructed the K-ICT (Lee, 2014) into an object-type instrument, and validated as measuring creative ability and creative personality in an integrated method. Creative ability was measured in terms of fluency, elaboration, imagination, sensitive thinking, and originality through five activities in the language and drawing domains. Creative personality was scored on a 5-point Likert scale along the dimensions of curiosity, sensitivity, task commitment, humor, and independence. The participants were 775 college students, and the collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, correlation, reliability verification, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. Overall reliability was shown by Cronbach’s α.= 877, and the internal consistency of the items was good, as were the factor coefficient, fit, and correlation coefficient according to tests of validity. Thus, the K-ICT-S was confirmed as a tool with proved reliability and validity for measurements of creativity integrating college students’ creative ability and creative personality. Pages 50 to 70




Investigating relationship of Multiple Intelligences with English Language Teaching Strategies at secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Dr. Fazli Khaliq1*, Dr. Muhammad Nadeem2*, Dr. Irfana Rasul3*  Dr. Said Saeed4*,  Dr. Maksal Minaz5*, Ghazala Naheed Baig6* Dr. Amir Zaman7* Dr. Abdul Ghaffar8* Dr. Sajjad Hussain9*, Dr. Imtiaz Ali10*, 1*Lecturer National College of Physical Education Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 2*Principal Officer, Mines & Minerals Department Punjab, 3*Assistant Professor, University of Management & Technology Lahore, Pakistan,  4*Principal, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan,   5,6*Lecturer, Department of Education AWKUM, 7,8*Associate Professor, Department of Education, AWKUM, 9*Assistant professor, Deputy Director QEC, University of Swat, 10*SST, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,  Email: 1*khaliq78@yahoo.com, 2*mnadeem439@gmail.com, 3*irfana.omar1@gmail.com,   4*syedsaeed54@gmail.com,   5*maksalminaz@awkum.edu.pk, 6*ghazala@awkum.edu.pk, 7*amirzaman69@yahoo.com,8*abdulghafar@awkum.edu.pk, 9*sajjadhussain@uswat.edu.pk, 10*imtiazali1120@gmail.com,

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of Common Multiple Intelligences (CMIs) and preferred English Language Teaching Strategies (PELTS) of English Language Teachers, compare their gender differences, and ascertain their relationship, working in government schools of Zone 3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample of 300 [n=150 female+150 male] English language teachers was chosen employing stratified and purposive sampling techniques. Two questionnaires were developed by adapting Armstrong’s Multiple Intelligences Inventory-MII (2009) and Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL). Data were analyzed through means, STD, independent sample t-test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r-value) with SPSS (V-26). A strong relationship r = 0.531 was found between PELTS (Memory Strategies) and CMIs (Verbal-Linguistic Intelligences) among English language teachers. These findings imply that language teachers do not take into account their multiple intelligences (MIs) while designing or selecting English language teaching strategies (TS). It is suggested that the teachers must be aware of their own intelligence strengths to be better able to select good TS to help the young minds in achieving their learning goals. The awareness of personal MIs strengths and learning styles is also commended for learners. The study attempts to provide a framework for English language teachers to improve their teaching through adopting a more practical approach of utilizing their MIs in the selection and development of TS. The findings can be helpful for all stakeholders in designing lessons, materials, and teaching-learning strategies and conducting further research for the professional and academic development of both teachers and students. Pages 71 to 86




Computer-Adaptive-Testing Performance for Postgraduate Certification in Education as Innovative Assessment

Jumoke I. Oladele, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: jumokeo@uj.ac.za

Learning in higher institutions of learning has moved online in a bid to keep students engaged amidst the lockdown. It becomes necessary to engage innovation-driven assessment solutions in ascertain the extent to which learning outcomes are being achieved. Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT), as an innovative assessment format has been empirically proven to hold a number of attractive advantages such as reduction in test length, the promise of an increase in precision and security extensively utilised by developed countries for certification and licensing. While a global adoption is expected, feasibility studies are needed to determine its workability for particular testing programmes. This study is a simulation of CAT for Postgraduate Certification in Education (PGCE), a consecutive route to teacher professionalisation. Monte-Carlo simulation was employed as a powerful research method that enables researchers to project future outcomes in terms of assessment performance for use at the higher education level. Utilising CAT can be adopted for educational assessment to compliment online teaching and learning for ensuring quality crop of teachers produced for senior schools. This study gives a clear direction on moving the African continent to the second of four generations of computer-adaptive testing in aligning to current trends in educational assessment. Pages 87 to 101




Technology Innovation, Trade Openness and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach

K. A. Sanusia, Y. O. Akinwaleb, J. H. Eitac, aCollege of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, bCollege of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, cUniversity of Johannesburg, South Africa, Email:  asanusikazeemabimbola@yahoo.com,akazeems@uj.ac.za, byoakinwale@iau.edu.sa, cjeita@uj.ac.za,

Technology innovation and trade openness have been playing strategic roles towards economic development in emerging and developing economies in recent time. This study explores the dynamic relationships between technological innovation, trade openness and GDP in Saudi Arabia between 1989 and 2019. The study used autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and the results show that GDP is cointegrated with technology innovation and trade openness, which signifies long run association among the variables. Moreso, using error correction model technology innovation and trade openness have short run impacts on economic growth. Furthermore, Pairwise Granger causality indicates a causality running from each of technology innovation and trade openness to GDP growth with no feedback. This supports an innovation-led and trade liberalisation economy. This result therefore suggests a more strategic opening of the Saudi Arabia’s economy to external trade and a massive investment in research and development and technology innovation by the Saudi government for the achievement of a strong, steady and sustainable economic growth by year 2030 and beyond. Pages 102 to 116




Arab Patriarchy and Human Relationships in Fadia Faqir's Pillars of Salt, Diana Abu-Jaber's Arabian Jazz, and Laila Halaby's West of the Jordan

Rund Ja’far Sabah, Jadara University

This is a socio-cultural study of three novels: Pillars of Salt, Arabian Jazz, and West of the Jordan by Fadia Faqir, Diana Abu-Jaber, and Laila Halaby respectively by using socio-culturalism and by using feminism theory exclusively applied on Pillars of Salt. It explains the cultural aspects and social traditions of the Arab societies, like how the Arab men ask girls’ hand for marriage and how these traditions could be different in the three novels. It is worth mentioning that the three novels share some similarities, such as all families are Jordanian so they somehow share the same thoughts like the appropriate marriage age for girls and the age of reaching spinsterhood. The three novels are set in different spheres and different cultures but all of them talk about cultural issues like women's social position. The analysis shows how a patriarchal society is portrayed in Pillars of Salt, the nature of Arab relationships, like Arab family reputation, family members' relationships, the way that America affects Arab families and Individuals in both novels, West of the Jordan and Arabian Jazz, and Arab marriage age, wedding traditions, the way that brides meet grooms, and the wife’s role in West of the Jordan, Arabian Jazz, and Pillars of Salt.   The first section unveils women suffering, physical assaults, and oppression because of patriarchy and because of applying falsified Islamic rules in Pillars of Salt by Fadia Faqir. It discusses female stigmatization, prohibiting women from inheritance and education as examples of women's oppression. The second section tackles West of the Jordan and Arabian Jazz novels from a socio-cultural perspective talking about Arab women's reputation, about family relationships, and America's effects of both family relations and individuals, and about Arab conservatism. The third section compares the three novels dealing with marriage age, marriage traditions, some ways of meeting whether they are traditional or modern, and the Arab traditional wife’s role. Pages 117 to 140




Supervision of Curriculum in the Era of Covid-19 in Primary Schools: School Management Teams’ Experiences

Dumisani Wilfred Mncubea, Thandiwe Nonkululeko Ngemab, Mncedisi Christian Maphalalac, aUniversity of Zululand, Faculty of Education, Department of Social Science Education, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5566-2288, bUniversity of Zululand, Faculty of Education, Department of Arts and Language Education, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5915-5619, cNorth West University, School of Professional Studies in Education Studies, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1078-1985, Email: aMncubeD@unizulu.ac.za, bthandingema@gmail.com, c25787810@nwu.ac.za

This article sought to explore the School Management Team’s experiences in the supervision of curriculum during the Covid-19 pandemic in rural primary schools. In the South African context, all schools have been partially opened for teaching and learning as a precautionary measure to protect learners and teachers from contracting coronavirus. The paper adopted a qualitative approach to generate and analyse data to answer the main research question and is underpinned by two theories namely: Democratic Human Supervision and Fiedler's Contingency Theories. Three SMT members from three rural schools in the KwaDlangezwa area, one SMT member from a private school in Empangeni, two SMT members from two ex-model C schools in Richardsbay, and two SMT members two sub-urban from two primary schools in Esikhaleni participated in the data generation process. All the primary schools operate under King Cetshwayo District. These participants were purposively selected to participate in virtual semi-structured interviews as part of the data generation process, through WhatsApp and Zoom platforms. We analysed data using an inductive thematic framework following Braun and Clarke’s (2006) approach. The following themes emerged from the analysis: supervising curriculum in an abnormal rural situation, online learning and the digital divide, teacher resilience, and adaptation to new normal and the needed support for teachers. Pages 141 to 158




A Two-Staged SEM-Neural Network Approach for Predicting the Determinants of Mobile Government Service Quality

Fakhar Shahzada, Zeeshan Ahmadb, Nadir Munir Hassanc, Muhammad Rafiqd, aDepartment of Business Administration, ILMA University, Karachi, Pakistan, b,cDepartment of Business Administration, Air University Multan, Pakistan, dDepartment of Economics and Business Administration, University of Education, Lahore, Vehari Campus, Email: afshahzad51@yahoo.com, bzeeshan.ahmad@aumc.edu.pk, cnadir.magsi@aumc.edu.pk, dm.rafiq@ue.edu.pk

Rapid advances in technology have transformed the world, forcing governments worldwide to move from electronic government to mobile government (m-Govt) in delivering quality services. The m-Govt service quality (mGSQ) is an arrogant concept, but so far, it has been relatively rare in this growing field. Thus, this research intends to explore the most critical factors predicting mGSQ, especially overseas citizens’ cognition of the mGSQ. The online survey was conducted to collect data on overseas Pakistanis living in mainland China. A multi-analytic approach verified the valid responses of 345 overseas users of m-Govt services. The structural equation model (SEM) was used as the input of the artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the main factors influencing mGSQ. The outcomes revealed that infrastructure quality is the most important strength of m-Govt’s quality of service. The outcomes of this investigation provide an aerial perspective for government and practice to improve mGSQ. Pages 159 to 185



Function of Production, Capital, Labor and Government Policy in The Coal Mining Sector - Case Study of an Indonesian Coal Mining Company

Suryadia, Yeni Nuraenib, Ivan Lilin Suryonoc, Yuniarti Tri Suwadjid, Hennigusniae, Nur Siti Annazahf, Zelius Ragilliawang, a,b,c,d,e,f,gPolicy Development Center, Ministry of Manpower, Email: asuryadi.value@gmail.com, byeninur@hotmail.com, civanlilins@gmail.com, dyuniartits85@gmail.com, ehenigusnia@alumni.ui.ac.id, fanazah.siti@gmail.com, gzellius.ragiliawan@gmail.com

This study aims to determine the effect of labor, capital, and government policies on coal output and the scale of coal business results of PT Indo Tambangraya Megah Tbk. The new thing from this research is the Cobb-Douglas production function which usually uses labor and capital variables, but in this study, it has been expanded by adding policy variable in the form of Law No. 4 of 2009 regarding Mineral and Coal Mining, which is not yet present in other studies. The research method is linear regression using the Cobb-Douglas model function. The results showed that labor did not significantly influence coal production. Capital has a significant effect on model 2 and policy has a significant effect on model 3. The coal mining business of PT Indo Tambangraya Megah Tbk is in decreasing return to scale because if the three variables are combined, it will be worth -0.24. This condition occurs because the additional output produced is smaller than the additional input (δ% output <δ% input). Pages 186 to 199

Exploring the Challenges of Teaching and Learning of Scarce Skill Subjects in Selected South African High Schools

Siduduzo Cyprian Dlamini, Bongani T. Gamede, Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani, Department of Social Sciences Education, University of Zululand, Email: oaajani@gmail.com

This study explored the perspectives of teachers on learners’ performance in scarce skill subjects. A qualitative approach was used to investigate the challenges of teaching and learning scarce skill subjects in King Cetshwayo District. Bronfenbrenner’ theory of ecological systems theory was adopted as the theoretical framework to underpin the phenomenon. The theory enables the researchers to understand human development in various social, legal, economic, political and technological environments. A semi-structured interview guide was used for the data collection for the study. Data from the face-to-face individual interviews were thematically analysed to present interpretive findings for discussions. Findings revealed that several factors such as overcrowded classrooms, inadequate infrastructure, and inadequate appointments of teachers contributed to learners’ poor academic performance in scarce skill subjects. Seemingly, inadequate necessary support from stakeholders affects the teaching and learning of these subjects in South African high schools. The study recommends collaborative effort among all stakeholders through regular evaluation of teaching to enhance learners’ academic performance. Pages 200 to 217

KYC and Blockchain Onboarding Process for Banks

Abdelmageed Algamdi, Department of Computer and Information Systems, college of community. University of BISHA. Bisha. Saudi Arabia, Email: amofrh@ub.edu.sa

Interest in blockchain technology has grown significantly over the last decade, both technical and due to the many uses of this potentially revolutionary technology. This study examines the status of the much-discussed use of Blockchain technology in the context of client preparation and Know Your Customer (KYC) for banks. This systematic assessment acknowledges the emergence of technology and the critical role in reimagining KYC procedures for banks worldwide. This study presents a federation-based solution in response to the current growth in high-risk market situations, such as reconnaissance and security breaches affecting client data privacy. Yearly funds for KYC have increased, as have annual updates for high-risk customers. Regulators have also strengthened compliance checks beginning with client onboarding procedures and continuing with a slew of additional compliance standards to execute KYC. The importance of anti-money laundering investigation at the macroeconomic level, according to rules such as the Patriot Act and the Bank Secrecy Act, and at the microeconomic level via credit performance and operational risk management. The strict KYC requirements guarantee that banks comply with the need that each client establishes their legitimacy via evidence of identity and address and supporting documentation for the source of money. This article covers how to determine if banks really demand Blockchain for KYC and then analyses the benefits of using the technology if they do. Pages 218 to 229

Meta-Analysis on Green Human Resource Management Practices and Retaining Employees in Hotel Industry

Adeyefa Adedayo Emmanuel1,2, Zuraina Dato’ Mansor1, Abdul Rashid Abdullah1, 1Department of Management and Marketing, School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia.43400UPM. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Department of Hospitality and Tourism, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria.                                                           

Employee turnover is considered one of the endemic issues for the hospitality industry around the globe. At the same time, this industry is strongly capitalizing on its human resources to gain its competitive advantage. A lot of studies on human resource practices mostly focused on the universal interest in the minds of practitioners and researchers, but not many have been conducted in the hotel especially in a less developed country such as Nigeria, what more with the effect of green human resource management (GHRM) in influencing retention of employees. GHRM initiatives have found to be helping organizations find alternate ways to reduce costs without losing their skilled and highly placed talent and encourage sustainable business practices. GHRM also teaches the workforce and society to be aware and utilize natural resources more economically and enhance eco-friendly products. This paper review and discuss past studies on GHRM and retention in Hotel industry as a meta-analysis paper for guiding the future studies in this theme. At the same time, it is hoped that this paper can raise the interest and awareness of GHRM activities and the reasons why it should be adopted as a solution for retaining employees, specifically in Nigeria. Pages 230 to 246

Comparison Structure of Life-Form Hard Corals at Aquaculture and Non-Aquaculture Sites as Biomonitoring at Karimunjawa Islands, Indonesia

Sapto P. Putro1*, M. Fajrin Ramadhon2, Widowati3, Satryo Adhy4, 1Center of Marine Ecology and Biomonitoring for Sustainable Aquaculture (Ce-MEBSA), Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, 3Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, 4Department of Informatics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia; Corresponding Author Email: 1*saptoputro@live.undip.ac.id.com

This study on hard coral life-forms in relation to anthropogenic activities was carried at the marine utilization zone near Menjangan Besar, Karimunjawa Islands National Park, Central Java, during July 2019. The goal was to assess the structure of corals at aquaculture and non-aquaculture coastal areas of Menjangan Besar Island. Sampling was carried out using the Line Intercept Transect (LIT) method at two underwater aquaculture stations at 10 m deep. The coordinates of Station I (Aquaculture) and Station II (Non-Aquaculture Waters) were 5° 52’54,3 “LS 110° 25’41.29” EL and 5° 52’26,22 “LS 110° 25’12,10 “BT respectively. The coral classification was based on the form of growth (life-form). Observations were made with tools in the form of a SCUBA set and a 50 m transect tape stretched over the coral reef cover. The transect position was parallel to the shoreline on the left side of the transect and was at a constant depth. The observation data of coral cover were analyzed using the in situ proportion approach to live coral cover. The biotic cover of coral reefs at Station I was dominated by Dead Coral with Algae (37.5%), Non-Acropora Foliose (30.5%), Acropora Branching (12.2%), Non-Acropora Encrusting (11.0%). Meanwhile, the diversity of coral reef biotic cover at Station II was dominated by Non-Acropora Foliose (17.3%), Acropora Branching (19.2%), Acropora Encrusting (13.2%), and Acropora Digitate (16.0%). Life-form corals found in the non-aquaculture site were slightly higher when those in the aquaculture siteThe ordinates on the PCA-graph of environmental conditions of the aquaculture and non-aquaculture zone are discussed. Further analysis indicated that soluble phosphate concentration and water clarity (p=0.771, BIOENV) as the strongest abiotic factors influencing the abundance of life-form corals. Pages 247 to 260

The Rewards for Accusers of Corruption by Vietnamese Law

Cao Vu Minh, PhD, Ho Chi Minh city University of law, Vietnam, Email: cvminh@hcmulaw.edu.vn

Currently, corruption is a serious problem in Vietnam. It is believed that a large number of government officials and civil servants corrupt, and many have been accused of guilty and fined or prisoned. In order to detect and promptly handle acts of corruption, Vietnamese laws allow and encourage every citizen to exercise their right to denounce acts of corruption. One of the important points that encourages individuals to denounce corruption is a reward regime. However, Vietnamese legal regulations on rewarding denouncers of corruption have shortcomings. This article analyzes these shortcomings and proposes some solutions to improve them. Pages 261 to 276

The Influence of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) And Self Efficacy on Vocational High School Teachers’ Innovativeness

Ahmad Tirmizia, Joni Rokhmatb, Sukardic, aPostgraduate Educational Administration Study Program, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia, bFaculty of Teacher Training and Education & Postgraduate, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia. cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education & Postgraduate, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia. Email: csukardi@unram.ac.id 

Building relationship of a good quality between principals and teachers (LMX) and increasing self-confidence through teachers’ self-efficacy are the most crucial indicators of teachers’ innovativeness. In order to maintain the teachers’ motivation in innovating in modern learning, LMX and self-efficacy are highly required. Thus, this study aims to determine the effect of LMX and Self-Efficacy on the innovativeness of teachers in Vocational High Schools. To meet this objective, the study uses analytical descriptive quantitative approach with surveys. The sample of this study consists of 89 teachers from 14 Vocational High Schools in West Lombok Regency, that are chosen using simple random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using simple regression, multiple regression, Pearson Product Moment correlation, and multiple correlation. The results of the study showed that: 1) LMX influences teachers’ innovativeness, 2) self-efficacy influences teachers’ innovativeness, and 3) LMX and self-efficacy have positive influences on teachers’ innovativeness by contributing as much as 50.8%. From these results, it was thus concluded that, in order to increase teachers’ innovativeness, LMX and self-efficacy of a high quality are required from the teachers. Pages 277 to 288

Common Sport Injuries in the Closed Basic Cycle and Causes among the New Students at Al-Istqlal University - Palestine (Analytical Study)

Ismail Zakarneha, Abdallah Ghannamb, Muath Ghanimc, aAssistant Professor - head of the military sports training department / Diploma College for Security Studies, Email: aismailzk@pass.ps, bAbdallahghannam1@gmail.com, cMoadghanem1990@hotmail.com

The study aimed to identify the common sports injuries in the closed foundation course and their causes among new students at Al-Istiqlal University. To achieve this, the researchers used the descriptive method, in its survey style, for its suitability and the nature of the study. The study population consisted of 360 male and female students, and the sample consisted of 190 students who represented 53% of the study population, and after analyzing the data, the researchers concluded that the most common injuries in males were joint pain, then fleshy nails, and muscle spasms, while in females it was muscle spasms, sprains, and bruises. According to the most important causes of injuries, represented by the failure to use immediate treatment methods (massage, cold and ice compresses, sprays), high effort and overload in training, imposing penalties upon failure to perform exercises, and the results showed statistically significant differences in sex and the academic program and in favor of diploma students. Males stated that the most common causes of injuries were due to factors related to the nature of training and the nature of the environment and capabilities, while there were no differences between males and females in the causes related to the nature of nutrition and physical health. The results also showed that there are statistically significant differences between practicing and non-practicing students and in favor of practitioners that most of the causes of injuries were due to factors related to the nature of the environment and capabilities and came due to factors related to the nature of nutrition and physical health in favor of non-practitioners. However, there were no statistically significant differences between practitioners and non-practitioners in the causes related to the nature of training. The researchers recommend the necessity of providing the means of hospitalization and physiotherapy (massage, cold and ice compresses, sprays) and using them immediately when injuries occur among new students. Pages 289 to 317

Social Support to Reduce Disease-Related Stigma:  Lesson Learned from Corona Virus Disease-19

Marizka Khairunnisaa, Cati Martiyanab, Diah Yunitawatic, Leny Latifahd, Yusi Dwi Nurcahyanie,a,b,c,d,e Magelang Health Research and Development Center, Ministry of Health, Indonesia; Email: marizkakhairunnisa@gmail.com

Stigma associated with COVID-19 is intense. One of the factors that can help in reducing stigma is social support. This research aims to explore stigma, efforts to deal with stigma, and support for people diagnosed with COVID-19. The research design is qualitative research using phenomenological approach and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Data collection was carried out in July-August 2020 through telephone interviews with eleven positive COVID-19 informants. Of the eleven informants who were COVID-19 positive, eight of them experienced stigma. Nonetheless, both stigmatized and non-stigmatized informants received social support. Friends and family are the main sources of support for stigmatized informants. Meanwhile, for non-stigmatized informants, the main support was obtained from the community. The results showed that social support can reduce or even eliminate stigma. The social support that comes from the community is the most influential in reducing stigma. From this research, public support is more efficient compared to individual support. When the community provides support together, the risk of stigma can be reduced. The results of this study can be used to prevent stigmatizing behavior by strengthening social support, especially community support. Pages 318 to 331

The Relationship Between Malnutrition and Tuberculosis (TB) At The Age Group More Than 18 Years Old In Indonesia (Analysis Of The Basic Health Research 2018)

Kristina L.Tobing1, Olwin Nainggolan1,  Faika Rachmawati1, Helper Sahat P Manalu1 , Ratna Dilliana Sagala2, Ina Kusrini3, 1Researcher at the Research and Development Center for Public Health Efforts Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2Epidemiolog at the Directorate General Disease Prevention and Control Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 3Researcher at the Research and Development Unit in Magelang Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia,

The study aimed to determine the relationship between nutritional status based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Tuberculosis (TB) in the age group >18 years. This study further analyzes the 2018 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2018), a cross-sectional study conducted in all city districts in 34 provinces of Indonesia. Unit samples of this study are population-based in the age group >18 years. The determination of having had TB is if the respondent answered yes to the question: "Has a doctor ever been diagnosed with TB by a period of ≤1 year". Nutritional status based on BMI value by calculating height per body weight. Nutritional status was classified as: underweight: BMI <18.5; normal: BMI ≥18.5 - <25.0; Overweight: BMI ≥25.0 - <27.0; obesity: BMI ≥27.0. The total sample was 624,562. The number of TB sufferers 3,220 (0.5%). The number of underweight respondents 62,456 (9.4%), normal respondents 344,941 (55.2%), overweight and obese respondents 221,021 (35.4%). There is a relationship between nutritional status and TB after controlling for confounding variables such as gender, education, type of work, residence, DM risk factors, and smoking behavior. Underweight has a risk of 7.67 (CI 6.40-9.20) of getting TB compared to overweight/obesity, while normal weight has a risk of 2.55 (CI 2.18-2.98) of getting TB compared to overweight/ obesity after controlled confounding variables. Underweight people have 7.67 times the risk of getting TB, and normal weight has 2.55 times have the prevalence ratio getting TB than obese people. The Additional food program for TB patients whose weight is thin in the age group >18 years. Pages 332 to 348

Students’ and Instructors’ Perceptions of the Use and Impact of Smart Mobile Learning at the UAE University

Dr. Abdurrahman Ghaleb Almekhlafi, Dr. Mohamad Sadeg Shaban, United Arab Emirates University, Email: almekhlafi@uaeu.ac.ae, mshaban@uaeu.ac.ae

Teaching and learning are challenging and demanding tasks for both teachers and students. Teachers put a lot of effort into teaching content to students while helping them understand it. At the same time, students need to work hard and have a positive attitude toward learning and teaching, especially in technology-enhanced classrooms where smart mobile learning (SML) occurs. This study explored students’ and faculty members’ perceptions regarding the use and impact of SML on teaching and learning. A questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used with 401 students and instructors at the United Arab Emirates University. Results showed very high positive perceptions toward samrt mobile learning (SML) by both students and instructors. Additionally, students reported numerous advantages for SML as regards learning content and interacting with others. Pages 349 to 367

Analysis of Fuzzy Delphi Method on Preacher’s Criteria of Thinking, Writing and Wasatiyyah Practice

Mohammad Zulkifli Abdul Ghani1, Nur Nazira Rahim1, Muhamad Faisal Ashaari1, Rosmawati Mohamad Rasit1, Abu Dardaa Mohamad1, & *Mohd Izwan Mahmud2, 1Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, *Corresponding email: izwan@ukm.edu.my

Extremism and radicalism usually correlate with religious people who carry out the task of da’wah. The spread of this ideology that is contradictory to Islam prompted anxiety and distress among the general public. Nevertheless, preachers who understand the concept of wasatiyyah can recognise such issues and situations openly, practice patience and also not hasty in making decisions. Preacher’s wasatiyyah is the foundation of the balance of thinking, writing and practice so that the da’wah performed is relevant to the situation and target of da’wah. Thus, this research aimed to obtain expert consensus on the criteria of thinking, writing and practice of preacher’s wasatiyyah employing the application of Fuzzy Delphi method. Fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDM) was utilised to obtain expert consensus by distributing to 15 experts from various fields. The instrument of this study contained three elements that included 20 items to achieve expert consensus. The conclusions of the study revealed that the experts reached a consensus agreeing on 20 study items with an average value and the expert evaluation was less than the threshold value (d) ≤ 0.2. The percentage of expert consensus also indicated that the 20 items were above 95%. Items that gained expert consensus were sorted by priority. These criteria must be based on the delivery and implementation of the preacher. It is imminent so that the approach adopted is relevant to ensure that the da’wah is on the valid track and does not deviate. Follow-up studies need focus on to identify three criteria on preacher’s wasatiyyah, thinking, and writing related to impact of the comunity. Pages 368 to 389

Innovative Zakat Distribution Practices of Malaysian State Zakat Institutions and Their Socio-Economic Impact During the COVID-19 Pandemic

1*Rosnia Masruki, 2 Maliah Sulaiman, 3 Hafiz-Majdi Ab. Majid, 1Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, 2,3International Islamic University Malaysia, email: rosnia@usim.edu.my  

Malaysia has declared three stages of COVID-19 Movement Control Order (MCO): preventive, conditional and recovery. Stage I, preventive, comprised four phases from 18 March to 3 May; stage II, conditional, from 4 May to 9 June; and stage III, recovery, from 10 June to 31 December. Zakat (alms) institutions are urged to play a more significant role in helping those affected by the MCO, especially the indigent and needy. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected many people, increasing the number of aṣnāf, including ibn al-sabīl (wayfarers stranded during a journey), al-ghārimīn (debtors), and al-riqāb (the emancipated slave). To date, Malaysian zakat institutions have distributed zakat funds to eligible recipients beyond the existing aṣnāf to mitigate the repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic and for their socio-economic sustainability. The Malaysian government has also allocated a special grant to all zakat institutions since the first MCO. The study examines the zakat distribution practice of zakat institutions throughout Malaysia during the pandemic. Using secondary data, this study showed that the pandemic has affected the zakat distribution approaches, necessitating rapid, efficient, and fair distribution of zakat to various recipients, including the indigent and needy, those who lost income, COVID-19 frontline workers, hospitals, affected students, and COVID-19 taskforces. It is therefore, essential to introduce innovative zakat distribution practices to those affected by the pandemic effectively for better socio-economic impact. Future studies could suggest new strategies to boost zakat collection, so that zakat institutions may contribute more innovatively and significantly for the socio-economic sustainability of the aṣnāf during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Pages 390 to 408

Visual Rhetoric: Framing the Methodology for Truck Visuals Through Visual Rhetoric Theory and Rhetorical Appeals

Fatima Zahra, Department of Fine Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Bahauddin Zakariya University, Pakistan, Email:  fzahra@student.usm.my

Truck art has a long and illustrious tradition in South Asia. It is, above all, one of most popular and globally recognised art forms. The visual representation of civilizations is one of the reasons for this art form's appeal. As a result, truck art has evolved into a means of expressing many cultural ideas via the appealing quality of its images. Such images emphasize the significance of the location or place from where the vehicle comes. Furthermore, the truck's graphics are not only appealing but also effective communicators. This article aimed to establish the technique that will be used for visual persuasion and to explain how the visual components are used in the interpretation. Based on a rhetorical study, this visual-based research is aimed at the creation of visual meanings. By combining Sonja K. Foss'  theory of visual rhetoric as artefact with Aristotle's appeals of rhetorical, a qualitative method can be developed to investigate the characteristics, features, and persuasions of these truck visuals.  The findings revealed the suggested technique is developed or produced in such a way that the visuals are described as rhetorical visuals with the capacity to interact with the audience. Future recommendations include using the method developed by merging two rhetorical theories to discover and analyse more images in order to enhance the trustworthiness and credibility of interpretations and persuasions. Pages 409 to 418

Product Success Through Market and Human Knowledge

Mariam Ibrahim Hamood Al Karaawi, University of Kufa, School of Administration and Economics, Najaf, IQ, Mariama.hamood@uokufa.edu.iq

This research sheds light on the effect of market knowledge and human knowledge on product success. Most Enterprises do not appreciate knowledge management and do not fully perceive its importance to Enterprise success. To address this indifference, we market knowledge and human knowledge in Product success. Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to several Industrial Enterprise in China. When providing products to the market, the products should meet customer needs through product success. The design should be identical to the specifications accredited by knowledge management. Achieving competitive advantage cannot be successful without effective product design, which requires knowledge of the qualities and characteristics of products. Results indicate that Product design success is important to achieve competitive advantage by meeting customer requirements. Without realizing market, human knowledge in Product success, companies cannot provide products that meet customer requirements and achieve satisfaction. Knowledge management positively affects product success. The direct effects of market and human knowledge on Product design success have been clarified. How these classifications affect on knowledge management itself, which in turn affects Product success, has not been explained. Product design success does not only comprise product and operations management or simple management's participation. The foundation of Product design success is valuable knowledge. Pages 419 to 434

Impact of Knowledge Management Process on Product Innovation in Manufacturing Firms

Waliu, Mulero Adegbite, Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: adegbitewaliu@gmail.com

The current study seeks to investigate the relationship between the dimensions of the knowledge management process and product innovation in manufacturing firms. Specifically, the study examines the autonomous effect of knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge application on product innovation. 361 copies of questionnaire were sent out, with a 97.2% response rate.  Using PLS-SEM, the survey data were checked for common error variance, validity, and reliability. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothetical framework. Results demonstrate empirical support for the model. Findings indicate a positive relationship between the knowledge management process (acquisition, sharing, and application) and product innovation in the manufacturing plants sampled. Therefore, each dimension of the knowledge management process plays a crucial role in product development and innovation. These findings serve as a useful guide for managers in designing and mainstreaming the knowledge management process into administrative action for better innovation performance. Pages 435 to 453

Examining the Tax Compliance of Small Businesses

Alexander Oluka1, Nyashadzashe Chiwawa2 and Abdulla Kader3, 1,3 Department of Entrepreneurial Studies and Management, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 2 School of Management, IT and Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Email: 1olukaam@gmail.com, 2nyasha263@yahoo.com, 3kadera@ukzn.ac.za

Despite the call for businesses to pay their taxes voluntarily, many are still reluctant to comply with the tax laws. This research therefore sought to establish the perception of small businesses towards tax compliance as well as the benefits associated with tax compliance for small businesses. This research was conducted in Ugu district in KwaZulu-Natal. The study used a qualitative research approach which employed interviews on a sample of 20 small business owners. The study observed that complicated tax laws, corruption, the cost of tax compliance significantly discourages tax compliance by small business owners. However, as a benefit, it was noted that tax compliance was one of the major factors for qualifying a small business to receive government contracts. When small business owners perceive government officials to be involved in corruption, they may be encouraged to evade tax. In a corrupt society, taxpayers would rather evade paying taxes by paying a small bribe to a tax official. Trust in the government is a major driver of tax morale and tax compliance. In addition, the government should consider writing simpler tax codes which may decrease the unintentional tax noncompliance. Pages 454 to 468

Wage Policy in Indonesia Based on Government Regulation Number 36 of 2021 and its Economic Aspects

Suryadi a,  Yeni Nuraeni b,  Emi Syarif c,  Yuniarti Tri Suwadji d,  Ardhian Kurniawati e,  Ari Yuliastuti f, Nurlia Rahmatika g, Hennigusnia h, Faizal Amir P. Nasution i, Nur Siti Annazah j, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j Pusat Pengembangan Kebijakan Ketenagakerjaan, Jl. Jenderal Gatot Subroto Kavling 51

Wages are an important element in the employment relationship. In 2021, The Indonesian government has issued Government Regulation Number 36 of 2021 on Wage Policy. The purpose of this wage policy review is to compare the wage provision between Government Regulation Number 78 of 2015 and Government Regulation Number 36 of 2021. The novelty of this study is to find differences in term of wage rules between the previous regulation and the latest ones, and also to examine all of those differences based on both legal and economic aspects; so that, the government will get more complete understanding in carrying out wage policy. Furthermore, the wage policy produced by the government hopefully can creates a positive impact on workers and employers. Pages 469 to 485
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