On Some Features of Expressing Simultaneity Relations in the English Economic Discourse

Olga A. Kocherginaa, Irina S. Oblovab, a,bAssoc. Prof. Saint Petersburg Mining University, Department of Foreign Languages, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Email: aKochergina_OA@pers.spmi.ru, bOblova_IS@pers.spmi.ru

This article deals with the main structural and semantic features of simultaneity relations implemented in the economic discourse. The simultaneity relationship under study can be seen in the very essence of economic science and economic concepts, therefore it is bound to manifest itself and to be expressed in the language and linguistic categories forming the economic content. Thus, a large group of abstract names having predominantly deverbal nature can be distinguished. Such substantives are able to designate a situation synchronous with that represented by the main part of the sentence in a reduced form, which allows considering sentences with abstract names to be a specific form of expressing the taxis relation of simultaneity, characterised by its own specific features. Linguistic structures of the economic discourse in which the taxis meaning of simultaneity is implemented include sentences with homogeneous predicates, with participial, gerundial and other phrases, compound sentences, as well as simple sentences and sequences of independent sentences. Specific features of the material under study also include convergence of semantic meanings in a complex sentence: conditional and temporal meanings, concession and time, and reason and time. Taxis cannot be considered irrespective of the complicating semantic elements mentioned above. Pages 1 to 21




Problems of Implementation of Arabic Language E-Curriculum in Amman’s Schools

Dr. Issa Khalil Alhasanat, Arab Open University/Jordan, Email: I_hasanat@aou.edu.jo

This study aims to explore the problems that exist in the challenges of implementation of Arabic language e-curriculum in Amman’s Schools. The researcher designed a questionnaire to identify these problems. The most prominent problems that confronted Arabic language teachers while applying e-curricula for the subject included technical problems in computer devices or communication networks, the scarcity of devices, inadequate class time allotted to the computerized subject, shortage of support personnel in school administration, the deficiency in teachers' perception of level as to what their role entails in this process, and the negative attitudes some of them have towards applying technology in education. The study suggests some recommendations based on the findings such as review and refine the training programs in order to better prepare and certify Arabic language teachers in effective Arabic e-curricula application; or offer a greater quantity of courses catering to the variable levels of teacher expertise. The results of the study showed no differences between males and females in estimating the problems of applying Arabic language e-curricula in Jordanian schools. Pages 22 to 49




Development and Validation of the Korean Simple Integrated Creativity Test (K-ICT-S)

Kyunghwa Lee, Soongsil University, Seoul Korea, Email: khlee@ssu.ac.kr

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an integrated creativity test that can easily measure college students’ creativity (creative ability, creative personality). The Simple Integrated Creativity Test (ICT-S), designed to facilitate group online testing with greater ease of scoring on the basis of previous studies, was reconstructed the K-ICT (Lee, 2014) into an object-type instrument, and validated as measuring creative ability and creative personality in an integrated method. Creative ability was measured in terms of fluency, elaboration, imagination, sensitive thinking, and originality through five activities in the language and drawing domains. Creative personality was scored on a 5-point Likert scale along the dimensions of curiosity, sensitivity, task commitment, humor, and independence. The participants were 775 college students, and the collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, correlation, reliability verification, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. Overall reliability was shown by Cronbach’s α.= 877, and the internal consistency of the items was good, as were the factor coefficient, fit, and correlation coefficient according to tests of validity. Thus, the K-ICT-S was confirmed as a tool with proved reliability and validity for measurements of creativity integrating college students’ creative ability and creative personality. Pages 50 to 70




Investigating relationship of Multiple Intelligences with English Language Teaching Strategies at secondary level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan

Dr. Fazli Khaliq1*, Dr. Muhammad Nadeem2*, Dr. Irfana Rasul3*  Dr. Said Saeed4*,  Dr. Maksal Minaz5*, Ghazala Naheed Baig6* Dr. Amir Zaman7* Dr. Abdul Ghaffar8* Dr. Sajjad Hussain9*, Dr. Imtiaz Ali10*, 1*Lecturer National College of Physical Education Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 2*Principal Officer, Mines & Minerals Department Punjab, 3*Assistant Professor, University of Management & Technology Lahore, Pakistan,  4*Principal, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan,   5,6*Lecturer, Department of Education AWKUM, 7,8*Associate Professor, Department of Education, AWKUM, 9*Assistant professor, Deputy Director QEC, University of Swat, 10*SST, Elementary & Secondary Education Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,  Email: 1*khaliq78@yahoo.com, 2*mnadeem439@gmail.com, 3*irfana.omar1@gmail.com,   4*syedsaeed54@gmail.com,   5*maksalminaz@awkum.edu.pk, 6*ghazala@awkum.edu.pk, 7*amirzaman69@yahoo.com,8*abdulghafar@awkum.edu.pk, 9*sajjadhussain@uswat.edu.pk, 10*imtiazali1120@gmail.com,

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of Common Multiple Intelligences (CMIs) and preferred English Language Teaching Strategies (PELTS) of English Language Teachers, compare their gender differences, and ascertain their relationship, working in government schools of Zone 3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A sample of 300 [n=150 female+150 male] English language teachers was chosen employing stratified and purposive sampling techniques. Two questionnaires were developed by adapting Armstrong’s Multiple Intelligences Inventory-MII (2009) and Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL). Data were analyzed through means, STD, independent sample t-test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r-value) with SPSS (V-26). A strong relationship r = 0.531 was found between PELTS (Memory Strategies) and CMIs (Verbal-Linguistic Intelligences) among English language teachers. These findings imply that language teachers do not take into account their multiple intelligences (MIs) while designing or selecting English language teaching strategies (TS). It is suggested that the teachers must be aware of their own intelligence strengths to be better able to select good TS to help the young minds in achieving their learning goals. The awareness of personal MIs strengths and learning styles is also commended for learners. The study attempts to provide a framework for English language teachers to improve their teaching through adopting a more practical approach of utilizing their MIs in the selection and development of TS. The findings can be helpful for all stakeholders in designing lessons, materials, and teaching-learning strategies and conducting further research for the professional and academic development of both teachers and students. Pages 71 to 86




Computer-Adaptive-Testing Performance for Postgraduate Certification in Education as Innovative Assessment

Jumoke I. Oladele, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: jumokeo@uj.ac.za

Learning in higher institutions of learning has moved online in a bid to keep students engaged amidst the lockdown. It becomes necessary to engage innovation-driven assessment solutions in ascertain the extent to which learning outcomes are being achieved. Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT), as an innovative assessment format has been empirically proven to hold a number of attractive advantages such as reduction in test length, the promise of an increase in precision and security extensively utilised by developed countries for certification and licensing. While a global adoption is expected, feasibility studies are needed to determine its workability for particular testing programmes. This study is a simulation of CAT for Postgraduate Certification in Education (PGCE), a consecutive route to teacher professionalisation. Monte-Carlo simulation was employed as a powerful research method that enables researchers to project future outcomes in terms of assessment performance for use at the higher education level. Utilising CAT can be adopted for educational assessment to compliment online teaching and learning for ensuring quality crop of teachers produced for senior schools. This study gives a clear direction on moving the African continent to the second of four generations of computer-adaptive testing in aligning to current trends in educational assessment. Pages 87 to 101




Technology Innovation, Trade Openness and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach

K. A. Sanusia, Y. O. Akinwaleb, J. H. Eitac, aCollege of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, bCollege of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, cUniversity of Johannesburg, South Africa, Email:  asanusikazeemabimbola@yahoo.com,akazeems@uj.ac.za, byoakinwale@iau.edu.sa, cjeita@uj.ac.za,

Technology innovation and trade openness have been playing strategic roles towards economic development in emerging and developing economies in recent time. This study explores the dynamic relationships between technological innovation, trade openness and GDP in Saudi Arabia between 1989 and 2019. The study used autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and the results show that GDP is cointegrated with technology innovation and trade openness, which signifies long run association among the variables. Moreso, using error correction model technology innovation and trade openness have short run impacts on economic growth. Furthermore, Pairwise Granger causality indicates a causality running from each of technology innovation and trade openness to GDP growth with no feedback. This supports an innovation-led and trade liberalisation economy. This result therefore suggests a more strategic opening of the Saudi Arabia’s economy to external trade and a massive investment in research and development and technology innovation by the Saudi government for the achievement of a strong, steady and sustainable economic growth by year 2030 and beyond. Pages 102 to 116




Arab Patriarchy and Human Relationships in Fadia Faqir's Pillars of Salt, Diana Abu-Jaber's Arabian Jazz, and Laila Halaby's West of the Jordan

Rund Ja’far Sabah, Jadara University

This is a socio-cultural study of three novels: Pillars of Salt, Arabian Jazz, and West of the Jordan by Fadia Faqir, Diana Abu-Jaber, and Laila Halaby respectively by using socio-culturalism and by using feminism theory exclusively applied on Pillars of Salt. It explains the cultural aspects and social traditions of the Arab societies, like how the Arab men ask girls’ hand for marriage and how these traditions could be different in the three novels. It is worth mentioning that the three novels share some similarities, such as all families are Jordanian so they somehow share the same thoughts like the appropriate marriage age for girls and the age of reaching spinsterhood. The three novels are set in different spheres and different cultures but all of them talk about cultural issues like women's social position. The analysis shows how a patriarchal society is portrayed in Pillars of Salt, the nature of Arab relationships, like Arab family reputation, family members' relationships, the way that America affects Arab families and Individuals in both novels, West of the Jordan and Arabian Jazz, and Arab marriage age, wedding traditions, the way that brides meet grooms, and the wife’s role in West of the Jordan, Arabian Jazz, and Pillars of Salt.   The first section unveils women suffering, physical assaults, and oppression because of patriarchy and because of applying falsified Islamic rules in Pillars of Salt by Fadia Faqir. It discusses female stigmatization, prohibiting women from inheritance and education as examples of women's oppression. The second section tackles West of the Jordan and Arabian Jazz novels from a socio-cultural perspective talking about Arab women's reputation, about family relationships, and America's effects of both family relations and individuals, and about Arab conservatism. The third section compares the three novels dealing with marriage age, marriage traditions, some ways of meeting whether they are traditional or modern, and the Arab traditional wife’s role. Pages 117 to 140




Supervision of Curriculum in the Era of Covid-19 in Primary Schools: School Management Teams’ Experiences

Dumisani Wilfred Mncubea, Thandiwe Nonkululeko Ngemab, Mncedisi Christian Maphalalac, aUniversity of Zululand, Faculty of Education, Department of Social Science Education, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5566-2288, bUniversity of Zululand, Faculty of Education, Department of Arts and Language Education, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5915-5619, cNorth West University, School of Professional Studies in Education Studies, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1078-1985, Email: aMncubeD@unizulu.ac.za, bthandingema@gmail.com, c25787810@nwu.ac.za

This article sought to explore the School Management Team’s experiences in the supervision of curriculum during the Covid-19 pandemic in rural primary schools. In the South African context, all schools have been partially opened for teaching and learning as a precautionary measure to protect learners and teachers from contracting coronavirus. The paper adopted a qualitative approach to generate and analyse data to answer the main research question and is underpinned by two theories namely: Democratic Human Supervision and Fiedler's Contingency Theories. Three SMT members from three rural schools in the KwaDlangezwa area, one SMT member from a private school in Empangeni, two SMT members from two ex-model C schools in Richardsbay, and two SMT members two sub-urban from two primary schools in Esikhaleni participated in the data generation process. All the primary schools operate under King Cetshwayo District. These participants were purposively selected to participate in virtual semi-structured interviews as part of the data generation process, through WhatsApp and Zoom platforms. We analysed data using an inductive thematic framework following Braun and Clarke’s (2006) approach. The following themes emerged from the analysis: supervising curriculum in an abnormal rural situation, online learning and the digital divide, teacher resilience, and adaptation to new normal and the needed support for teachers. Pages 141 to 158




A Two-Staged SEM-Neural Network Approach for Predicting the Determinants of Mobile Government Service Quality

Fakhar Shahzada, Zeeshan Ahmadb, Nadir Munir Hassanc, Muhammad Rafiqd, aDepartment of Business Administration, ILMA University, Karachi, Pakistan, b,cDepartment of Business Administration, Air University Multan, Pakistan, dDepartment of Economics and Business Administration, University of Education, Lahore, Vehari Campus, Email: afshahzad51@yahoo.com, bzeeshan.ahmad@aumc.edu.pk, cnadir.magsi@aumc.edu.pk, dm.rafiq@ue.edu.pk

Rapid advances in technology have transformed the world, forcing governments worldwide to move from electronic government to mobile government (m-Govt) in delivering quality services. The m-Govt service quality (mGSQ) is an arrogant concept, but so far, it has been relatively rare in this growing field. Thus, this research intends to explore the most critical factors predicting mGSQ, especially overseas citizens’ cognition of the mGSQ. The online survey was conducted to collect data on overseas Pakistanis living in mainland China. A multi-analytic approach verified the valid responses of 345 overseas users of m-Govt services. The structural equation model (SEM) was used as the input of the artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the main factors influencing mGSQ. The outcomes revealed that infrastructure quality is the most important strength of m-Govt’s quality of service. The outcomes of this investigation provide an aerial perspective for government and practice to improve mGSQ. Pages 159 to 185



Function of Production, Capital, Labor and Government Policy in The Coal Mining Sector - Case Study of an Indonesian Coal Mining Company

Suryadia, Yeni Nuraenib, Ivan Lilin Suryonoc, Yuniarti Tri Suwadjid, Hennigusniae, Nur Siti Annazahf, Zelius Ragilliawang, a,b,c,d,e,f,gPolicy Development Center, Ministry of Manpower, Email: asuryadi.value@gmail.com, byeninur@hotmail.com, civanlilins@gmail.com, dyuniartits85@gmail.com, ehenigusnia@alumni.ui.ac.id, fanazah.siti@gmail.com, gzellius.ragiliawan@gmail.com

This study aims to determine the effect of labor, capital, and government policies on coal output and the scale of coal business results of PT Indo Tambangraya Megah Tbk. The new thing from this research is the Cobb-Douglas production function which usually uses labor and capital variables, but in this study, it has been expanded by adding policy variable in the form of Law No. 4 of 2009 regarding Mineral and Coal Mining, which is not yet present in other studies. The research method is linear regression using the Cobb-Douglas model function. The results showed that labor did not significantly influence coal production. Capital has a significant effect on model 2 and policy has a significant effect on model 3. The coal mining business of PT Indo Tambangraya Megah Tbk is in decreasing return to scale because if the three variables are combined, it will be worth -0.24. This condition occurs because the additional output produced is smaller than the additional input (δ% output <δ% input). Pages 186 to 199

Exploring the Challenges of Teaching and Learning of Scarce Skill Subjects in Selected South African High Schools

Siduduzo Cyprian Dlamini, Bongani T. Gamede, Oluwatoyin Ayodele Ajani, Department of Social Sciences Education, University of Zululand, Email: oaajani@gmail.com

This study explored the perspectives of teachers on learners’ performance in scarce skill subjects. A qualitative approach was used to investigate the challenges of teaching and learning scarce skill subjects in King Cetshwayo District. Bronfenbrenner’ theory of ecological systems theory was adopted as the theoretical framework to underpin the phenomenon. The theory enables the researchers to understand human development in various social, legal, economic, political and technological environments. A semi-structured interview guide was used for the data collection for the study. Data from the face-to-face individual interviews were thematically analysed to present interpretive findings for discussions. Findings revealed that several factors such as overcrowded classrooms, inadequate infrastructure, and inadequate appointments of teachers contributed to learners’ poor academic performance in scarce skill subjects. Seemingly, inadequate necessary support from stakeholders affects the teaching and learning of these subjects in South African high schools. The study recommends collaborative effort among all stakeholders through regular evaluation of teaching to enhance learners’ academic performance. Pages 200 to 217

KYC and Blockchain Onboarding Process for Banks

Abdelmageed Algamdi, Department of Computer and Information Systems, college of community. University of BISHA. Bisha. Saudi Arabia, Email: amofrh@ub.edu.sa

Interest in blockchain technology has grown significantly over the last decade, both technical and due to the many uses of this potentially revolutionary technology. This study examines the status of the much-discussed use of Blockchain technology in the context of client preparation and Know Your Customer (KYC) for banks. This systematic assessment acknowledges the emergence of technology and the critical role in reimagining KYC procedures for banks worldwide. This study presents a federation-based solution in response to the current growth in high-risk market situations, such as reconnaissance and security breaches affecting client data privacy. Yearly funds for KYC have increased, as have annual updates for high-risk customers. Regulators have also strengthened compliance checks beginning with client onboarding procedures and continuing with a slew of additional compliance standards to execute KYC. The importance of anti-money laundering investigation at the macroeconomic level, according to rules such as the Patriot Act and the Bank Secrecy Act, and at the microeconomic level via credit performance and operational risk management. The strict KYC requirements guarantee that banks comply with the need that each client establishes their legitimacy via evidence of identity and address and supporting documentation for the source of money. This article covers how to determine if banks really demand Blockchain for KYC and then analyses the benefits of using the technology if they do. Pages 218 to 229

Meta-Analysis on Green Human Resource Management Practices and Retaining Employees in Hotel Industry

Adeyefa Adedayo Emmanuel1,2, Zuraina Dato’ Mansor1, Abdul Rashid Abdullah1, 1Department of Management and Marketing, School of Business and Economics, Universiti Putra Malaysia.43400UPM. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Department of Hospitality and Tourism, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta Nigeria.                                                           

Employee turnover is considered one of the endemic issues for the hospitality industry around the globe. At the same time, this industry is strongly capitalizing on its human resources to gain its competitive advantage. A lot of studies on human resource practices mostly focused on the universal interest in the minds of practitioners and researchers, but not many have been conducted in the hotel especially in a less developed country such as Nigeria, what more with the effect of green human resource management (GHRM) in influencing retention of employees. GHRM initiatives have found to be helping organizations find alternate ways to reduce costs without losing their skilled and highly placed talent and encourage sustainable business practices. GHRM also teaches the workforce and society to be aware and utilize natural resources more economically and enhance eco-friendly products. This paper review and discuss past studies on GHRM and retention in Hotel industry as a meta-analysis paper for guiding the future studies in this theme. At the same time, it is hoped that this paper can raise the interest and awareness of GHRM activities and the reasons why it should be adopted as a solution for retaining employees, specifically in Nigeria. Pages 230 to 246

Comparison Structure of Life-Form Hard Corals at Aquaculture and Non-Aquaculture Sites as Biomonitoring at Karimunjawa Islands, Indonesia

Sapto P. Putro1*, M. Fajrin Ramadhon2, Widowati3, Satryo Adhy4, 1Center of Marine Ecology and Biomonitoring for Sustainable Aquaculture (Ce-MEBSA), Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, 3Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia, 4Department of Informatics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia; Corresponding Author Email: 1*saptoputro@live.undip.ac.id.com

This study on hard coral life-forms in relation to anthropogenic activities was carried at the marine utilization zone near Menjangan Besar, Karimunjawa Islands National Park, Central Java, during July 2019. The goal was to assess the structure of corals at aquaculture and non-aquaculture coastal areas of Menjangan Besar Island. Sampling was carried out using the Line Intercept Transect (LIT) method at two underwater aquaculture stations at 10 m deep. The coordinates of Station I (Aquaculture) and Station II (Non-Aquaculture Waters) were 5° 52’54,3 “LS 110° 25’41.29” EL and 5° 52’26,22 “LS 110° 25’12,10 “BT respectively. The coral classification was based on the form of growth (life-form). Observations were made with tools in the form of a SCUBA set and a 50 m transect tape stretched over the coral reef cover. The transect position was parallel to the shoreline on the left side of the transect and was at a constant depth. The observation data of coral cover were analyzed using the in situ proportion approach to live coral cover. The biotic cover of coral reefs at Station I was dominated by Dead Coral with Algae (37.5%), Non-Acropora Foliose (30.5%), Acropora Branching (12.2%), Non-Acropora Encrusting (11.0%). Meanwhile, the diversity of coral reef biotic cover at Station II was dominated by Non-Acropora Foliose (17.3%), Acropora Branching (19.2%), Acropora Encrusting (13.2%), and Acropora Digitate (16.0%). Life-form corals found in the non-aquaculture site were slightly higher when those in the aquaculture siteThe ordinates on the PCA-graph of environmental conditions of the aquaculture and non-aquaculture zone are discussed. Further analysis indicated that soluble phosphate concentration and water clarity (p=0.771, BIOENV) as the strongest abiotic factors influencing the abundance of life-form corals. Pages 247 to 260

The Rewards for Accusers of Corruption by Vietnamese Law

Cao Vu Minh, PhD, Ho Chi Minh city University of law, Vietnam, Email: cvminh@hcmulaw.edu.vn

Currently, corruption is a serious problem in Vietnam. It is believed that a large number of government officials and civil servants corrupt, and many have been accused of guilty and fined or prisoned. In order to detect and promptly handle acts of corruption, Vietnamese laws allow and encourage every citizen to exercise their right to denounce acts of corruption. One of the important points that encourages individuals to denounce corruption is a reward regime. However, Vietnamese legal regulations on rewarding denouncers of corruption have shortcomings. This article analyzes these shortcomings and proposes some solutions to improve them. Pages 261 to 276

The Influence of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) And Self Efficacy on Vocational High School Teachers’ Innovativeness

Ahmad Tirmizia, Joni Rokhmatb, Sukardic, aPostgraduate Educational Administration Study Program, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia, bFaculty of Teacher Training and Education & Postgraduate, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia. cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education & Postgraduate, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia. Email: csukardi@unram.ac.id 

Building relationship of a good quality between principals and teachers (LMX) and increasing self-confidence through teachers’ self-efficacy are the most crucial indicators of teachers’ innovativeness. In order to maintain the teachers’ motivation in innovating in modern learning, LMX and self-efficacy are highly required. Thus, this study aims to determine the effect of LMX and Self-Efficacy on the innovativeness of teachers in Vocational High Schools. To meet this objective, the study uses analytical descriptive quantitative approach with surveys. The sample of this study consists of 89 teachers from 14 Vocational High Schools in West Lombok Regency, that are chosen using simple random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using simple regression, multiple regression, Pearson Product Moment correlation, and multiple correlation. The results of the study showed that: 1) LMX influences teachers’ innovativeness, 2) self-efficacy influences teachers’ innovativeness, and 3) LMX and self-efficacy have positive influences on teachers’ innovativeness by contributing as much as 50.8%. From these results, it was thus concluded that, in order to increase teachers’ innovativeness, LMX and self-efficacy of a high quality are required from the teachers. Pages 277 to 288

Common Sport Injuries in the Closed Basic Cycle and Causes among the New Students at Al-Istqlal University - Palestine (Analytical Study)

Ismail Zakarneha, Abdallah Ghannamb, Muath Ghanimc, aAssistant Professor - head of the military sports training department / Diploma College for Security Studies, Email: aismailzk@pass.ps, bAbdallahghannam1@gmail.com, cMoadghanem1990@hotmail.com

The study aimed to identify the common sports injuries in the closed foundation course and their causes among new students at Al-Istiqlal University. To achieve this, the researchers used the descriptive method, in its survey style, for its suitability and the nature of the study. The study population consisted of 360 male and female students, and the sample consisted of 190 students who represented 53% of the study population, and after analyzing the data, the researchers concluded that the most common injuries in males were joint pain, then fleshy nails, and muscle spasms, while in females it was muscle spasms, sprains, and bruises. According to the most important causes of injuries, represented by the failure to use immediate treatment methods (massage, cold and ice compresses, sprays), high effort and overload in training, imposing penalties upon failure to perform exercises, and the results showed statistically significant differences in sex and the academic program and in favor of diploma students. Males stated that the most common causes of injuries were due to factors related to the nature of training and the nature of the environment and capabilities, while there were no differences between males and females in the causes related to the nature of nutrition and physical health. The results also showed that there are statistically significant differences between practicing and non-practicing students and in favor of practitioners that most of the causes of injuries were due to factors related to the nature of the environment and capabilities and came due to factors related to the nature of nutrition and physical health in favor of non-practitioners. However, there were no statistically significant differences between practitioners and non-practitioners in the causes related to the nature of training. The researchers recommend the necessity of providing the means of hospitalization and physiotherapy (massage, cold and ice compresses, sprays) and using them immediately when injuries occur among new students. Pages 289 to 317

Social Support to Reduce Disease-Related Stigma:  Lesson Learned from Corona Virus Disease-19

Marizka Khairunnisaa, Cati Martiyanab, Diah Yunitawatic, Leny Latifahd, Yusi Dwi Nurcahyanie,a,b,c,d,e Magelang Health Research and Development Center, Ministry of Health, Indonesia; Email: marizkakhairunnisa@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15942

Stigma associated with COVID-19 is intense. One of the factors that can help in reducing stigma is social support. This research aims to explore stigma, efforts to deal with stigma, and support for people diagnosed with COVID-19. The research design is qualitative research using phenomenological approach and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Data collection was carried out in July-August 2020 through telephone interviews with eleven positive COVID-19 informants. Of the eleven informants who were COVID-19 positive, eight of them experienced stigma. Nonetheless, both stigmatized and non-stigmatized informants received social support. Friends and family are the main sources of support for stigmatized informants. Meanwhile, for non-stigmatized informants, the main support was obtained from the community. The results showed that social support can reduce or even eliminate stigma. The social support that comes from the community is the most influential in reducing stigma. From this research, public support is more efficient compared to individual support. When the community provides support together, the risk of stigma can be reduced. The results of this study can be used to prevent stigmatizing behavior by strengthening social support, especially community support. Pages 318 to 331

The Relationship Between Malnutrition and Tuberculosis (TB) At The Age Group More Than 18 Years Old In Indonesia (Analysis Of The Basic Health Research 2018)

Kristina L.Tobing1, Olwin Nainggolan1,  Faika Rachmawati1, Helper Sahat P Manalu1 , Ratna Dilliana Sagala2, Ina Kusrini3, 1Researcher at the Research and Development Center for Public Health Efforts Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 2Epidemiolog at the Directorate General Disease Prevention and Control Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia, 3Researcher at the Research and Development Unit in Magelang Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia,

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15941

The study aimed to determine the relationship between nutritional status based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and Tuberculosis (TB) in the age group >18 years. This study further analyzes the 2018 Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2018), a cross-sectional study conducted in all city districts in 34 provinces of Indonesia. Unit samples of this study are population-based in the age group >18 years. The determination of having had TB is if the respondent answered yes to the question: "Has a doctor ever been diagnosed with TB by a period of ≤1 year". Nutritional status based on BMI value by calculating height per body weight. Nutritional status was classified as: underweight: BMI <18.5; normal: BMI ≥18.5 - <25.0; Overweight: BMI ≥25.0 - <27.0; obesity: BMI ≥27.0. The total sample was 624,562. The number of TB sufferers 3,220 (0.5%). The number of underweight respondents 62,456 (9.4%), normal respondents 344,941 (55.2%), overweight and obese respondents 221,021 (35.4%). There is a relationship between nutritional status and TB after controlling for confounding variables such as gender, education, type of work, residence, DM risk factors, and smoking behavior. Underweight has a risk of 7.67 (CI 6.40-9.20) of getting TB compared to overweight/obesity, while normal weight has a risk of 2.55 (CI 2.18-2.98) of getting TB compared to overweight/ obesity after controlled confounding variables. Underweight people have 7.67 times the risk of getting TB, and normal weight has 2.55 times have the prevalence ratio getting TB than obese people. The Additional food program for TB patients whose weight is thin in the age group >18 years. Pages 332 to 348

Students’ and Instructors’ Perceptions of the Use and Impact of Smart Mobile Learning at the UAE University

Dr. Abdurrahman Ghaleb Almekhlafi, Dr. Mohamad Sadeg Shaban, United Arab Emirates University, Email: almekhlafi@uaeu.ac.ae, mshaban@uaeu.ac.ae

Teaching and learning are challenging and demanding tasks for both teachers and students. Teachers put a lot of effort into teaching content to students while helping them understand it. At the same time, students need to work hard and have a positive attitude toward learning and teaching, especially in technology-enhanced classrooms where smart mobile learning (SML) occurs. This study explored students’ and faculty members’ perceptions regarding the use and impact of SML on teaching and learning. A questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used with 401 students and instructors at the United Arab Emirates University. Results showed very high positive perceptions toward samrt mobile learning (SML) by both students and instructors. Additionally, students reported numerous advantages for SML as regards learning content and interacting with others. Pages 349 to 367

Analysis of Fuzzy Delphi Method on Preacher’s Criteria of Thinking, Writing and Wasatiyyah Practice

Mohammad Zulkifli Abdul Ghani1, Nur Nazira Rahim1, Muhamad Faisal Ashaari1, Rosmawati Mohamad Rasit1, Abu Dardaa Mohamad1, & *Mohd Izwan Mahmud2, 1Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, *Corresponding email: izwan@ukm.edu.my

Extremism and radicalism usually correlate with religious people who carry out the task of da’wah. The spread of this ideology that is contradictory to Islam prompted anxiety and distress among the general public. Nevertheless, preachers who understand the concept of wasatiyyah can recognise such issues and situations openly, practice patience and also not hasty in making decisions. Preacher’s wasatiyyah is the foundation of the balance of thinking, writing and practice so that the da’wah performed is relevant to the situation and target of da’wah. Thus, this research aimed to obtain expert consensus on the criteria of thinking, writing and practice of preacher’s wasatiyyah employing the application of Fuzzy Delphi method. Fuzzy Delphi Technique (FDM) was utilised to obtain expert consensus by distributing to 15 experts from various fields. The instrument of this study contained three elements that included 20 items to achieve expert consensus. The conclusions of the study revealed that the experts reached a consensus agreeing on 20 study items with an average value and the expert evaluation was less than the threshold value (d) ≤ 0.2. The percentage of expert consensus also indicated that the 20 items were above 95%. Items that gained expert consensus were sorted by priority. These criteria must be based on the delivery and implementation of the preacher. It is imminent so that the approach adopted is relevant to ensure that the da’wah is on the valid track and does not deviate. Follow-up studies need focus on to identify three criteria on preacher’s wasatiyyah, thinking, and writing related to impact of the comunity. Pages 368 to 389

Innovative Zakat Distribution Practices of Malaysian State Zakat Institutions and Their Socio-Economic Impact During the COVID-19 Pandemic

1*Rosnia Masruki, 2 Maliah Sulaiman, 3 Hafiz-Majdi Ab. Majid, 1Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, 2,3International Islamic University Malaysia, email: rosnia@usim.edu.my  

Malaysia has declared three stages of COVID-19 Movement Control Order (MCO): preventive, conditional and recovery. Stage I, preventive, comprised four phases from 18 March to 3 May; stage II, conditional, from 4 May to 9 June; and stage III, recovery, from 10 June to 31 December. Zakat (alms) institutions are urged to play a more significant role in helping those affected by the MCO, especially the indigent and needy. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected many people, increasing the number of aṣnāf, including ibn al-sabīl (wayfarers stranded during a journey), al-ghārimīn (debtors), and al-riqāb (the emancipated slave). To date, Malaysian zakat institutions have distributed zakat funds to eligible recipients beyond the existing aṣnāf to mitigate the repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic and for their socio-economic sustainability. The Malaysian government has also allocated a special grant to all zakat institutions since the first MCO. The study examines the zakat distribution practice of zakat institutions throughout Malaysia during the pandemic. Using secondary data, this study showed that the pandemic has affected the zakat distribution approaches, necessitating rapid, efficient, and fair distribution of zakat to various recipients, including the indigent and needy, those who lost income, COVID-19 frontline workers, hospitals, affected students, and COVID-19 taskforces. It is therefore, essential to introduce innovative zakat distribution practices to those affected by the pandemic effectively for better socio-economic impact. Future studies could suggest new strategies to boost zakat collection, so that zakat institutions may contribute more innovatively and significantly for the socio-economic sustainability of the aṣnāf during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Pages 390 to 408

Visual Rhetoric: Framing the Methodology for Truck Visuals Through Visual Rhetoric Theory and Rhetorical Appeals

Fatima Zahra, Department of Fine Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Bahauddin Zakariya University, Pakistan, Email:  fzahra@student.usm.my

Truck art has a long and illustrious tradition in South Asia. It is, above all, one of most popular and globally recognised art forms. The visual representation of civilizations is one of the reasons for this art form's appeal. As a result, truck art has evolved into a means of expressing many cultural ideas via the appealing quality of its images. Such images emphasize the significance of the location or place from where the vehicle comes. Furthermore, the truck's graphics are not only appealing but also effective communicators. This article aimed to establish the technique that will be used for visual persuasion and to explain how the visual components are used in the interpretation. Based on a rhetorical study, this visual-based research is aimed at the creation of visual meanings. By combining Sonja K. Foss'  theory of visual rhetoric as artefact with Aristotle's appeals of rhetorical, a qualitative method can be developed to investigate the characteristics, features, and persuasions of these truck visuals.  The findings revealed the suggested technique is developed or produced in such a way that the visuals are described as rhetorical visuals with the capacity to interact with the audience. Future recommendations include using the method developed by merging two rhetorical theories to discover and analyse more images in order to enhance the trustworthiness and credibility of interpretations and persuasions. Pages 409 to 418

Product Success Through Market and Human Knowledge

Mariam Ibrahim Hamood Al Karaawi, University of Kufa, School of Administration and Economics, Najaf, IQ, Mariama.hamood@uokufa.edu.iq

This research sheds light on the effect of market knowledge and human knowledge on product success. Most Enterprises do not appreciate knowledge management and do not fully perceive its importance to Enterprise success. To address this indifference, we market knowledge and human knowledge in Product success. Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed to several Industrial Enterprise in China. When providing products to the market, the products should meet customer needs through product success. The design should be identical to the specifications accredited by knowledge management. Achieving competitive advantage cannot be successful without effective product design, which requires knowledge of the qualities and characteristics of products. Results indicate that Product design success is important to achieve competitive advantage by meeting customer requirements. Without realizing market, human knowledge in Product success, companies cannot provide products that meet customer requirements and achieve satisfaction. Knowledge management positively affects product success. The direct effects of market and human knowledge on Product design success have been clarified. How these classifications affect on knowledge management itself, which in turn affects Product success, has not been explained. Product design success does not only comprise product and operations management or simple management's participation. The foundation of Product design success is valuable knowledge. Pages 419 to 434

Impact of Knowledge Management Process on Product Innovation in Manufacturing Firms

Waliu, Mulero Adegbite, Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: adegbitewaliu@gmail.com

The current study seeks to investigate the relationship between the dimensions of the knowledge management process and product innovation in manufacturing firms. Specifically, the study examines the autonomous effect of knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge application on product innovation. 361 copies of questionnaire were sent out, with a 97.2% response rate.  Using PLS-SEM, the survey data were checked for common error variance, validity, and reliability. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothetical framework. Results demonstrate empirical support for the model. Findings indicate a positive relationship between the knowledge management process (acquisition, sharing, and application) and product innovation in the manufacturing plants sampled. Therefore, each dimension of the knowledge management process plays a crucial role in product development and innovation. These findings serve as a useful guide for managers in designing and mainstreaming the knowledge management process into administrative action for better innovation performance. Pages 435 to 453

Examining the Tax Compliance of Small Businesses

Alexander Oluka1, Nyashadzashe Chiwawa2 and Abdulla Kader3, 1,3 Department of Entrepreneurial Studies and Management, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, 2 School of Management, IT and Governance, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Email: 1olukaam@gmail.com, 2nyasha263@yahoo.com, 3kadera@ukzn.ac.za

Despite the call for businesses to pay their taxes voluntarily, many are still reluctant to comply with the tax laws. This research therefore sought to establish the perception of small businesses towards tax compliance as well as the benefits associated with tax compliance for small businesses. This research was conducted in Ugu district in KwaZulu-Natal. The study used a qualitative research approach which employed interviews on a sample of 20 small business owners. The study observed that complicated tax laws, corruption, the cost of tax compliance significantly discourages tax compliance by small business owners. However, as a benefit, it was noted that tax compliance was one of the major factors for qualifying a small business to receive government contracts. When small business owners perceive government officials to be involved in corruption, they may be encouraged to evade tax. In a corrupt society, taxpayers would rather evade paying taxes by paying a small bribe to a tax official. Trust in the government is a major driver of tax morale and tax compliance. In addition, the government should consider writing simpler tax codes which may decrease the unintentional tax noncompliance. Pages 454 to 468

Wage Policy in Indonesia Based on Government Regulation Number 36 of 2021 and its Economic Aspects

Suryadi a,  Yeni Nuraeni b,  Emi Syarif c,  Yuniarti Tri Suwadji d,  Ardhian Kurniawati e,  Ari Yuliastuti f, Nurlia Rahmatika g, Hennigusnia h, Faizal Amir P. Nasution i, Nur Siti Annazah j, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j Pusat Pengembangan Kebijakan Ketenagakerjaan, Jl. Jenderal Gatot Subroto Kavling 51

Wages are an important element in the employment relationship. In 2021, The Indonesian government has issued Government Regulation Number 36 of 2021 on Wage Policy. The purpose of this wage policy review is to compare the wage provision between Government Regulation Number 78 of 2015 and Government Regulation Number 36 of 2021. The novelty of this study is to find differences in term of wage rules between the previous regulation and the latest ones, and also to examine all of those differences based on both legal and economic aspects; so that, the government will get more complete understanding in carrying out wage policy. Furthermore, the wage policy produced by the government hopefully can creates a positive impact on workers and employers. Pages 469 to 485

The Influence of Organizational Justice on Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction - An Applied Study of Ain Shams University Hospitals

Yassin Sherif Nazmy El Sayed1*, Mary Rafik Boshra Wadie2; Mennatallah Ossama El Koussy3 1,2,3Assistant Professor of Finance Department, Modern university for technology and information, Egypt. Email: 1yassinnazmy@gmail.com, 1yassinnazmy2@gmail.com 2Maryrafik@yahoo.com, 3Signorina_nouna@hotmail.com

This study aims to explore the impact of Organizational Justice (namely, distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice) on Organizational Commitment (namely, affective commitment, normative commitment, continuance commitment) and Job Satisfaction in Ain Shams University Hospitals. To test the degree of impact, the researchers undertook The Multiple Regression Analysis. This study’s results show that Organizational Justice has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Commitment, and that Organizational Justice has an immediate and significant effect on Job Satisfaction. Pages 486 to 503

The Analysis of Missing Cases on the Treatment of Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis

Oster Suriani Simarmata1*, Dina Bisara Lolong1, Kristina L Tobing1, Nikson Sitorus1, Novianti1, Ina Kusrini2, Dian Perwitasari1, Lamria Pangaribuan1, 1Researcher of National Institute of Health Research Development (NIHRD), Ministry of Health, Indonesia, 2Researcher of National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD), Unit in Magelang, Ministry of Health, Email: *oster_suriani@yahoo.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15951

To describe the follow-up treatment of Resistant Rifampicin in health care facilities based on the results of the gene-Xpert examination. The study design was cross-sectional using data from "Evaluation study of detection of TB cases with the rapid molecular test in Indonesia in 2018". The data resources were from 42 hospitals and two primary health care facilities having conducted the gene-Xpert examination at least six months in 42 districts, 26 provinces in Indonesia. The number of TB diagnoses with gene-Xpert from health facilities was 33,630 cases, 31.6% of those cases were TB positive, namely rifampicin sensitivity of 89% (9,456) and rifampicin-resistant of 11% (1,171). 29% of resistant rifampicin tuberculosis cases were missing cases consisting of the untreated and unknown follow-up treatment of 18% and 11%, respectively. Missing cases were mostly found in males of 66.1%. Based on the age, 76.9% of the missing cases were in productive age, such as 15 to 54 years. Moreover, according to the TB treatment history and origin of the case, missing cases were found in new cases, 54.4%, and the existing health facility 51.2%. The most reason for missing the RR-TB case in the follow-up treatment was the refusal of treatment 40.3%. The high non-compliance to TB treatment was caused by inadequate general knowledge about TB, lack of social support, medication side effects, and long treatment period, which were posed as barriers to adherence to treatment. Pages 504 to 514

Sufficiency Economy Philosophy towards Personnel Living of Local Administration Organization in Eastern Region of Thailand in 2019

Ekkawit Maneethorn, Faculty of Political Science and Law, Burapha University, 169 Long-Hard Bangsaen Rd, Saensuk Sub-district, Mueang District, Chon Buri Province, Thailand 20131, Email: ekwmnt@yahoo.co.th

The objectives of this research are to (1) study on the levels of sufficiency economy philosophy in the local administration organization in eastern region of Thailand in 2019, (2) study on the personnel living of the local administration organization in eastern region of Thailand in 2019, (3) study on the influences of the sufficiency economy philosophy on the personnel living in the local administration organization in eastern region of Thailand in 2019 and (4) study on the suggestions. The populations in this study were the personnel in the local administration organization in eastern region of Thailand. Sample groups in this study were 400 of personnel in the local administration organization in eastern region of Thailand. The convenience sampling method was adopted where the interviews and questionnaire were used as the research instruments. The statistics used for data analysis were frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, correlation coefficient and multiple regression. As results, it was found by the study that most of the samples were single female aged between 25 – 34 years old. They graduated with Bachelor degree and monthly income between 10,001 – 20,000 baht per month. The sufficiency economy philosophy in the local administration organization in eastern region of Thailand was found at the highest level. The highest score was on the aspect of morality, second by good self-immunity, rationality, knowledge and modesty, respectively. The levels of sufficiency economy philosophy towards the personnel living in the local administration organization in eastern region of Thailand was found at high level. The highest score was on the aspect of social and culture, second by psychological, natural resources and environment, economic and technology, respectively. The influences of sufficiency economy philosophy towards the personnel living in the local administration organization in eastern region of Thailand were on the aspect of morality, rationality, good self-immunity and modesty, while in the aspect of knowledge, sufficiency economy philosophy showed no influence on the personnel living in the local administration organization in eastern region of Thailand. Pages 515 to 531

Future Scenario for Participatory Management in Vocational Training Centers in the Southern Border Area of Thailand (2018-2027)

Wittaya Katechooa, Kanchana Boonphakb, Malai Tawisookc, aAuthor, bAdvisor, cCo-advisor, a,b,cFaculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Ladkrabang, Bangkok, 10520, Thailand. Email: a57603014@kmitl.ac.th, bkanchanaka67@gmail.com, ckqmalai@yahoo.com

Economic and identity conflicts have long plagued the southern border areas of Thailand. To ease tensions and problems affecting not only the local population but the unity of the nation, it is necessary to introduce measures to develop these areas while preserving their independence and cultural identity. Vocational training centers can help improve livelihood of this community by developing the skills and marketability of the workforce, but their number and the scope remains inadequate. This research uses the Ethnographic Delphi Futures Research technique to study future scenarios of participatory management for vocational training centers in this region. Findings show that collaboration and communication between local and federal agencies, as along with adequate decentralization of authority and responsibilities and inclusive participation in decision-making, are necessary for successful participatory management in vocational training centers in the southern border provinces of Thailand and in turn increase motivation for local stakeholders and establish appropriate and relevant policies. Pages 532 to 547

Investigating the Effects of Implementation of Reading Strategies as Intervention on Comprehension Levels of Students of Grade 5 & 8 in an American Curriculum School in Qatar

Saba Batoola, Dr. Ibtasam Thakurb*, Dr. Moafia Naderc, Dr. Asmaa Azeemd, aPrincipal Alshoumoukh Int.Academy, Qatar, b,cAssistant Professor, Department of Elementary and Teacher Education, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan. dAssistant professor, University of Management and Technology, *Corresponding Author, Email: asabaabid3030@yahoo.com, bIbtasam.thakur@lcwu.edu.pk, cvividmofia@gmail.com, dasmee.nouman@umt.edu.pk

This Study aims at investigating results of interventions introduced in order to elevate the reading comprehensions levels of students in grade 5 and grade 8 studying in American curriculum school in Qatar. This study suggested exposing students to a variety of text from different genres by introducing changes in curriculum for reading. Teachers should be provided with more professional development workshops and trainings on teaching Common Core State Standard for literacy. This study can be considered a valuable addition in understanding challenges in reading comprehension levels. Pages 548 to 559

Developing Determinant Factors for Product Commercialization and Innovation in Malaysia

Shaladdin Mudaa, Mohd Zulkifli Mokhtarb, Wan A. Aziz Mohd Aminc, Abi Sofian Abdul Halimd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia. Email: ashaladdin@umt.edu.my, bzulkifli@umt.edu.my, caziz.amin@uniza.edu.my, dabisofian@umt.edu.my

Although many inventions and innovations have been done in Malaysian universities, the innovations' marketing is still low compared to the research output. A statement by the Malaysian Ministry of Education claimed that, out of RM1.152 billion research grants disbursed, only 20 completed research projects were successfully commercialized, while income is only 3.2 percent, with only RM7.6 million revenues generated. The objective of the study is to develop commercialization guidelines that can be implemented at the Malaysian University. Several problems have been identified from studies such as lack of entrepreneurship skills among researchers; no cooperation between universities, industry, and government; the weak IP awareness; and no uniformity on commercialization policy. A sample of 300 researchers from various disciplines was taken as respondents from 20 public universities. From the result, the researcher’s attitude, technology transfer office, rules and policy, university’s role, three-way relationship, a spin-off company, government’s role, intellectual properties, and center of excellence role showed the significant relationship towards commercialization’s successfulness. However, when innovation acts as a moderator, some elements are not significant. This situation must receive attention from all parties involved to increase the number of successfully commercialized products. Pages 560 to 576

Reflection on Academic Interventions to Improve Academic Performance of Accounting Students in South Africa

Matsolo Claurina Mokhampanyanea, Motalenyane Alfred Modiseb, a,bFaculty of Humanities, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa. Email: mmokhamp@cut.ac.za, mamodise@cut.ac.za

This study investigated the effectiveness of intervention programmes for first year Accounting students at Central University of Technology in South Africa. Data regarding intervention programmes for first years Accounting students were collected from 5 lecturers (Blacks: 40%, Whites: 60%), using semi-structured individual interviews. The data was thematically analysed and achieved through the process of open-coding. The study indicated that students are not attending their usual classes as specified in the timetable. In the circumstances, intervention programmes are not useful or necessary for Accounting students. The study also indicated that students do not honour other academic interventions such as supplemental instruction (SI). The results further showed that students do not value these interventions programmes organised by the Institution and a great deal of resources are wasted on these programmes because students do not take them seriously.  Providing students with access to University, whilst being necessary, is not sufficient to ensure academic success in Higher Institutions in South Africa. The Universities must devise innovative strategies to attract students to attend and to create more interest in the interventions programmes. Pages 577 to 592

Time Effectiveness of the COVID-19 State Emergency Decree: Evidence from the Non-Experimental Design and the Interrupted-Time Series Analysis

Warawut Ruankhama, Phoommhiphat Pongpruttikulb, Wang Daomingc, aLecturer and researcher, Office of Border Economy and Logistics Studies (OBELS), School of Management, Mae Fah Luang University, bResearch and Development Specialist, Research Development and Innovation (RDI), Dhurakij Pundit University, cResearch and Development Specialist, Research Development and Innovation (RDI), Dhurakij Pundit University,  Email: awarawut.rua@mfu.ac.th, bphoommhiphat.min@dpu.ac.th, cdaoming.wan@dpu.ac.th

COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most severe epidemics that depress the regional and the global economy. The government of many countries has implemented a wide range of COVID-19 containment policies to enclose the spread of the virus, particularly the state emergency decree. The state emergency consists of multiple measurements that affect economic activities, for instance, lockdown, curfew, social distancing, and information censoring. Since the policy maintains costs and benefits, thus this study aimed to answer whether the COVID-19 state emergency decree of Thailand and China was time-effective. The study was designed to find the pre-post mean variation of the interested group after being affected by the policy intervention. The experimental design was based on the non-experimental approach, together with the Interrupted-Time Series (ITS) analysis. Our estimation based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and the Prais-Winsten estimation. Empirical results found a significant policy effect of the COVID-19 state emergency decree in both Thailand and China. Evidence from the Prais-Winsten estimation exhibited a longer policy delay time relative to OLS. This paper suggested that the faster policy implemented, the shorter policy-delay time. Pages 593 to 605

The Determinant for Choice of Delivery Method in Indonesia 2018

Hadi Ashar1, Ina Kusrini1, Ika Puspita Asturiningtyas1, Noviati Fuada1 dan Arita Murwani2, 1Health Research and Development Magelang, 2Stikes Surya Global Yogyakarta, Email: hdi.gaki@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/15961

Pregnancy complications become one of the considerations in choosing a delivery method. Choosing the appropriate delivery method will save the mother and baby from mortality threat. This analysis is aimed to know how the relationship between the maternal characteristics with pregnancy complication and the choice of delivery method, such as caesarean section surgery procedure. This study is an advanced analysis of Riskesdas data 2018, using married women of childbearing age between 10 – 54 years old as the population, while the sample is whom they gave birth and became the Riskesdas sample in 2018 as much as 78,736. The chosen variables for this study are the maternal characteristics and the pregnancy complications as the independent variables, and the choice of delivery method as the dependent variable. This study shows that the maternal characteristics such as age, education, occupation and pregnancy complications also the source of labor cost related to the choice of delivery method with p-value 0.00. Mothers who have a pregnancy complication tend to do a caesarean section delivery process 9.4 bigger than who do not have any. Based on the result, it can be concluded that the maternal characteristics such as age, education, occupation, source of labor cost and the pregnancy complication are related to the choice of the delivery method in Indonesia in 2018. Pages 606 to 616

Application and Challenges of National Teachers Professional Standards in Secondary Schools in Pakistan (Secondary School Teachers perspectives)

Hakim Ullaha*, Chen Xiaoduanb, Chen Yuc, a*Assistant Professor, Qurtuba University, bProfessor of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, cPhD Candidate, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China. Email: a*hakimullahkhan14@gmail.com, bchenxiaoduan@snnu.edu.cn, ccycrooner@163.com

This descriptive qualitative study aimed at to explore secondary schools’ teachers’ perception, knowledge challenges in application of National Teacher Professional standards in the schools.  Qualitative approach was used in this study. Data from 10 secondary school teachers were collected through semi-structured interviews protocol. Five themes were developed while analyzing the data. National Professional Teacher Standard need assessment for and improvement, the relevance of teaching standards to modern day Pakistan, support for implementation, and assurance in implementing teaching standards, providing continuous training opportunities for regarding the standards. Mostly, participant suggested that all teachers agreed that professional standards were sufficient to include a professional body of information that ideally provided the guideline and structure to help teachers incorporate productive teaching practices in their classrooms. The same participants also disclosed that due to different implementation difficulties, the incorporation of such standards in teacher education programs was still to be attained. The article addresses the need to implement the Professional Standards into existing teacher training programs for teachers while being sensitive to contextual facilities. Pages 617 to 635

Addressing Gaps in Drinking Water Partnership: A Study on Umbulan Springs, Indonesia

Hermawana*, Ikmal Putrab,, Andy Fefta Wijayac, a,b,cDepartment of Public Administration, Faculty of Administrative Science, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia, Email; hermawanfia@ub.ac.id

Drinking water management using a partnership system has brought such optimism. However, the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum (SPAM) Umbulan (official groundbreaking was on July 20, 2017), East Java, Indonesia, has not been optimal. This study aimed at analyzing the partnership quality that included planning, efficacy, responsiveness, and effectiveness in managing springs. It also aimed to reveal the partnership gap and find solutions that supported the management of drinking water sources. This study employed a qualitative method with a phenomenology approach. Data were collected through participant observations and in-depth interviews related to the knowledge and attitudes of key informants. Findings confirmed the partnership gap in the management of SPAM Umbulan. We concluded that there was a fundamental assumption and fundamental presumption with the partnership system—the activities were merely pseudo-skills and business behavior, not a long-term learning process. The study would be vital for the local government within the partnership management context. We recommend revitalizing PPP through instruments with readiness criteria, such as Self-Assessment Toolkit and Business Plan Revision agreed by all stakeholders to achieve the long-term partnership goals. Pages 636 to 653

Improving Performance, Competitiveness, and Well-being in the Creative Industry Based on Local Wisdom

Siti Aliyati Albushairia, Nuril Hudab, Ahmad Alim Bachric, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, cProfessor of Economics, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia, Email: asaabushairi@ulm.ac.id, bnurilhuda@ulm.ac.id, caalimbachri@ulm.ac.id

Creative industries based on local wisdom have a good potential to be developed in South Kalimantan. The area has available natural resources, culture, and customs that they have been living in all this time. This inspires the wisdom of the people. This study investigates the effect of product differentiation, local wisdom, value creation, creativity, digital marketing, green entrepreneurial, green innovation on performance, competitiveness, and well-being. This study was conducted in the city of Banjarmasin, North Hulu Sungai district, South Hulu Sungai district, South Kalimantan Province. This study focused on 190 respondents. Data were collected through observation and interviews using a questionnaire. This research uses Partial Least Square. The results show that creativity, digital marketing, and green innovation affect performance. Value creation and performance affect competitiveness. Competitiveness affects well-being. Creativity, digital marketing, and green innovation can improve performance. Value creation and performance play a role in increasing competitiveness. Competitiveness can improve well-being. To improve performance, competitiveness, and well-being, SMEs need to empower women, diversify products, and business partnerships. Pages 654 to 672

Science, Technology, Innovation Management for Industrial Development in South Africa: Implications for The Fourth Industrial Revolution

Oluseye Jegede and Caroline Ncube, South African Research Chair in Intellectual Property, Innovation and Development, Faculty of Law, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Despite South Africa's strong interest in making sure it takes a global position as a contributor to the implementation of the fourth industrial revolution, literature shows that very little has been done to examine South Africa's readiness. The present study critically explores the opportunities for South Africa to promote technology and economic activities in the context of the fourth industrial revolution. It weighs South Africa's readiness by examining the quality and quantity of the knowledge from both the demand and supply sides. Hence, science, technology & innovation (STI) as the main driver of the fourth industrial revolution was explored by analyzing South Africa’s S&T Policy, Innovation System, Knowledge Systems, and Industrial Policy. The study concludes that despite South Africa's numerous challenges, it can significantly contribute to the fourth industrial revolution. However, this will require strong synergy/coordination among its financial, human, natural, and physical resources. Proven strategies that South Africa may adopt for the buildup of capabilities for the fourth industrial revolution include foreign direct investment inflows, trade of technology-intensive products, acquisition of external technologies, reserve engineering, and R&D consortia. Pages 673 to 695

Motivation of SME adopt Digital Marketing

Agus Suroso1, Ascaryan Rafinda1,2, 1Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Indonesia, 2University of Debrecen, Károly Ihrig Doctoral School of Management and Business, Hungary, Corresponding Author Email: ascaryan.rafinda@unsoed.ac.id

This research aims to identify the complexity of digital marketing adoption behaviour among micro and small business. TAM and DIY model has been used to understand the phenomenon beyond the technology adoption. The data collection using online and offline questionnaire. Total 41 question has been spread using convenience method. Several social media and online chatting application have been used to spread the link of the questionnaire. The offline questionnaire has been collected door to door to the business place in Indonesia. Total 229 participant valid as a data of this research. This research propose five hypotheses. The result shows that three out of five hypotheses are supported by the data. Two of the hypotheses comes from TAM and one hypothesis from DIY model. Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and perceived economic benefit scale found have a positive significant impact on intention using digital marketing. People adoption to the new technology cannot investigate comprehensively by using TAM, it needs more than one model to understand people decision making. The DIY model especially perceived lack of product quality and perceived product availability only relevant for the service or product that were not mature. The adoption of digital marketing in business, in the beginning, could be explained by the DIY model, but more people nowadays provide digital marketing services. People already have a choice and understand the quality of the digital marketing service and consultant that they could hire for their business. Pages 696 to 710

Online Social Media (OSMS) Assimilation in Firm Supply Chain Performance During Covid-19

Sami Saeed Mohammed Munassar, Business school, University of International Business and Economic (UIBE), Beijing. Email: sami_saed13@yahoo.com

Due to coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, the business environment has changed and supply chains around the world wreak havoc seriously. Online social media (OSMs) have become an increasingly essential form of ICT enabled services and touched every aspect of human being and business organization. Among fortune 500 organizations about 70% uses Twitter, Facebook and YouTube for marketing and Business and Forty-five percent supply chain professionals believe that social networks will make supply chain processes more efficient, responsive, and cost effective within 5 years. This study aims to explore the assimilation of OSMs supply chain network in order to boost up supply chain performance to tackle the disruption in supply chain caused from COVID-19. 210 data collected from supply chain professionals of travel, manufacturing, hospitality, fashion and media industries in gulf countries using online structured questionnaires. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used for data analysis. A research model was developed based on diffusion innovation and use and gratification theory, institutional theory and transaction cost theory. The research model performs better and satisfies all necessary criteria for model fitness. The overall findings of the study indicated that the supply chain professionals assimilate and use the online social media to enhance supply chain performance to tackle the supply and demand disruptions caused by a major epidemic or pandemic outbreak like COVID-19.  Technological feature (e.g., relative advantage), utilitarian features (e.g., supply chain visibility), institutional pressures and cost benefit dimension are significant direct features of online social media on assimilation in supply chain network. Pages 711 to 732

The Effect of Controlling Individual’s Health Behavior on their Awareness Level to Limit the Spread of COVID-19 Pandemic

Prof. Ghada Abdul Rahman Alturifa, Dr. Hessa Al-Sanadb  a,bDepartment of Social Planning, College of Social Work, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Email: agaaltarif@pnu.edu.sa, bhassanad@pnu.edu.sa

This study aims to identify the effect of controlling people health behavior on their awareness level in order to limit the spread of Covid 19. This study is one of the descriptive studies that rely on questionnaire as a tool for collecting data from sample of 414. The target participants were students’ families in certain Saudi universities. The study found participants have an increase health awareness level and there is a statistically significant relationship between participants health awareness level and controlling healthy behavior, which indicates that participants who have a higher health awareness level are following up the health behavior at a higher level according to the for personal variables, gender, marital status, and economic level. The study recommends the importance of raising the level of health awareness through education and training on the internal health behavior control to convert the health knowledge into behavioral practices that support the health aspect and contribute to its development. Pages 733 to 749


Collaboration of Policy Handling Citarum Harum in Bandung Distric

Yaya Mulyana Abdul Aziz1, Yayan Andri2, 1Administration Science and Public Policy, Pasundan University, Bandung, Indonesia, 2Administration Science and Public Policy, Pasundan University, Bandung, Indonesia. Corresponding Author: mulyana_yaya@unpas.ac.id

This research is based on the magnitude of the losses suffered due to the pollution of the C River for decades. Starting from the damage in the Upper Citarum watershed (DAS) to industrial waste pollution and domestic waste. Not to mention, flood disasters due to river overflows and sedimentation that often occur in the Bandung Basin, especially in Baleendah and Dayeuhkolot.  The main problem in this research is the Collaboration of Policy Handling that has been rolled back by the government, namely the Harum Citarum Program which involves many parties in handling problems that occur in the Citarum River. So that the collaboration of this program can solve problems on the Citarum River optimally. The research method used in this research is descriptive analysis with this type of research is qualitative. The qualitative approach was chosen with the consideration that this method is expected to obtain real data and be able to study research problems in depth so that the expected results can be obtained. The use of this qualitative research approach is felt to be very appropriate in the study of public administration. Based on the results of collaborative research in handling the Citarum Harum policy carried out by the West Java Province Environmental Service, Bandung Regency Environmental Service, Sector 6 Citarum Harum, the Shining Garbage Bank Private Party, Telkom University Academics, Walhi West Java Environmental Activists, Community Leaders RW 21 and the community have been running well, although not optimally based on the framework of the Collaboration process put forward by Ansell and Gash. Then the appropriate collaboration model to be applied in handling Citarum Harum policies is based on a frame of mind that leads to changes in mindset and behavior as a whole, taking steps to handle it collaboratively. Pages 750 to 764

Understanding the Needs of the Hikmah (Wisdom) Pedagogy Module in the Fields of Akhlak and Sirah of Primary and Secondary Schools - Hikmah (Wisdom) Pedagogy

Hafizhah Zulkiflia*, Nor Alniza Azmanb, aUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, 0000-0001-8522-3390, bInstitute of Teacher Education, Malaysia, 0000-0002-8933-0422 *Corresponding Author, Email: a*hafizhah_zulkifli@ukm.edu.my

The COVID-19 pandemic situation gives a new norm in the national education system where online learning becomes a channel for imparting knowledge to students. Therefore, this study aims to understand the needs that are required to be in the Hikmah (Wisdom) Pedagogy module in the fields of Akhlak and Sirah of primary and secondary schools and explore the problems faced by the teachers of Islamic Education throughout the COVID-19 scenario. This study is a developmental study and design that uses the ADDIE framework, that is, analysis, design, construction, implementation and evaluation. In this study, the researcher will discuss on the aspects of needs analysis with three primary school teachers and three secondary school teachers. These informants were selected based on purposeful sampling and willingness to be interviewed. Data were collected and analysed using thematic analysis. The findings show that there are six themes for the analysis of primary school needs, namely student-centred, 21st century learning, oral questioning, interactive stimulus materials, attract interest and limitation of self while there are also six themes for secondary school, namely thinking skills, current issues, integration of scientific knowledge and revelation, interactive teaching aids, facilitators and application of manners. This study is beneficial to Islamic Education teachers as a guide in carrying out teaching and learning of Akhlak and Sirah in this new norm, which can enhance the professional development of Islamic Education teachers. Pages 765 to 785

The Innovation of Gastronomy Tourism Management based on Tai-Dam's Ethnic Local Identities of Thailand

Thirachaya Chaigasem1*, Nattakhan Tunming2, 1Director of Center for
Asia-Pacific Tourism (CAPTOUR), Head of Ph.D. Program in Tourism, MICE and Hospitality Innovation Management, Faculty of Business Administration and Accountancy, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. 2Student, Doctor of Philosophy Program in Tourism and Hospitality Innovation Management, Faculty of Business Administration and Accountancy, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Corresponding author: thirachaya@kku.ac.th

This study aims to 1) study the tourist expectations of gastronomy tourism management of Tai-Dam’s ethnic in Thailand and 2) propose the innovation of gastronomy tourism management based on Tai-Dam's ethnic local identities of Thailand. The study was conducted by mixed-method research, using two types of data collection tools which were in-dept interviews for government sector, private sector and local peoples related to gastronomy tourism and questionnaires for the 1,000 tourists in Tai-Dam’s gastronomy tourism. This was followed analyzing data by using content analysis and descriptive statistics with a computer program. The study found that 1) overall and subcategory results regarding tourist expectation of this study as relate to the tourist expectations of gastronomy tourism management of Tai-Dam’s ethnic in Thailand were ranked high overall. In terms of how each component of expectation measured up, administration management had the highest rankings, and 2) the gastronomy tourism management of Tai-Dam’s ethnic included finance management, administrative management, personnel management, material management, method management and included tourism products innovation, tourism service innovation and tourism process innovation. Pages 786 to 803

Distance Leader and Instant Leader Towards Millennial Leadership Effectiveness Related on Young People

Azib Asroi1, Rusman Frendika2, 1,2Universitas Islam Bandung, Email: 1azib@unisba.ac.id, 2rusman@unisba.ac.id

In the future, there are no official limit guidelines on social media, using social media for every second, every time, and each day is associated with poorer languages skills, communication skills, and interaction skills. The novelty in this study is that more over young people as future generation and future leader become millennial leader. The aim of this research is to measure between distance leader and instant leader towards millennial leadership effectiveness related to young people and social media. Quantitative methods were selected to analyse the data generated from the questionnaire study and 132 respondents from 33 provinces in Indonesia. The subjected to analysis using SPSS v.25 to analyze the influence of distance leader and instant leader in millennials leadership effectiveness. These results indicate that both distance leaders and instant leaders on average are not differ significantly influence on millennials leadership. And young people in the future are highly dependent on social media, so their perception that millennial leadership effectiveness is nor influenced by distance leaders and instant leaders. Pages 804 to 813

The Knowledge Creation, Capture, Sharing and Transfer - To what extent they are interrelated in Higher Education Institutions?

Araby Madboulya, Sameh Reyadb, Vinay Guptac, aDepartment of Business and Accounting, Muscat College, Sultanate of Oman, bCollege of Business and Finance, Ahlia University, Manama, Bahrain, cInfo beans Ltd, India

The effectiveness of knowledge management in any institution depends on having strong interrelations between each of its components with the others [(Knowledge creation (KC), Knowledge capture and storage (KCS), knowledge sharing (KS) and knowledge dissemination/ transfer (KD)]. The purpose of this research is to investigate the interrelationship between each of these components with the others in Higher Education Institutions. Quantitative research method is implemented using survey approach via questionnaire technique. The regression analysis is used to assess the impact of each component of the KM on other components. It was found that KD has the biggest impact on all the other three components of KM. The KC, which is considered the core process of KM, is well interrelated with both the KCS and KD. Finally, two-side linkage was found between KS and KD, while no significant linkage was found between KS and KC or KS and KCS. This study is expected to streamline the KM activities in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to improve their overall performance in teaching, research and community engagement. Therefore, this research is contributing toward the theoretical advancement in this field. The findings may be helpful for policymakers and the top management in HEIs, as it sheds the light on some mechanisms may improve the KM in the HEIs and, in turn, foster its’ role in achieve the sustainable development. Pages 814 to 834

Mediating Customer Equity in the Relationship Between Social Media Activities and Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Study on Customers of Saudi Arabia’s Mobile Service

Mohamed M. Elmetwalya, Mohamed A. Aminb, Amira S. Elshorbagyc, a,cMarketing Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Business Administration, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, aORCID 0000-0002-9482-5016, bORCID 0000-0001-8435-1171, cORCID 0000-0001-6701-9441. Email: ammelmetwaly@iau.edu.sa, bmoaaahmed@iau.edu.sa, caselshorbagy@iau.edu.sa

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between social media activities and customer loyalty through the mediation of customer equity. This study was carried out on customers of mobile service in Saudi Arabia. A Structural Equation Modelling Approach was used to identify this relationship. To analyze the study data, the analysis moment of structure (AMOS) was adopted.  The sample size was 384 and the correct responses were 319. The results of the study showed a significant positive correlation between social media activities, customer equity, and customer loyalty. There is also a significant positive effect of social media activities on both customer equity and customer loyalty. It was also found that there is a significant positive impact of customer equity on customer loyalty. This study did conclude, however, that customer equity significantly mediates the relationship between social media activities and customer loyalty. Pages 835 to 852

The Detrimental Effects of Apartheid on Education: Effect on Current Accounting Teachers in South Africa

Motalenyane Alfred Modise, Assistant Dean, Research and Innovation Faculty of Education, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa, Email: mamodise@cut.ac.za

This study investigates the teaching and learning of the Cash Flow Statement in secondary schools in South Africa and proposes solutions to the problems. Six secondary schools in the Free State Province in Lejweleputswa District were chosen to participate in the study. From the chosen schools, twelve teachers were selected to participate. Respondents comprised of 60% female and 40% male; all were teachers teaching Accounting to Grade 12. The qualitative research method was used to collect the data from the teachers by means of questionnaires and in-depth individual interviews as the main data collection methods. The results highlight lack a of training for teachers and the attitude of teachers and learners. Old policies of the apartheid government contributed towards problems teaching the cash flow statement. Poor foundation regarding subject content caused a negative attitude towards the cash flow statement. Lastly, the language of learning is a problem for most learners. The study recommends that learners should be taught the basics of Accounting in lower grades and that teachers must be empowered. Pages 853 to 865
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