STEM: Design, Implement and Evaluate

Dr Deborah Trevallion1, Ms Talysa Trevallion2, 1The University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia, 2Strategic Communications Consultant, Sydney, Australia

This paper explains the importance of STEM education. It describes the STEM variations being offered – STEAM, STEMM and D-STEM – and evaluates their role in the STEM curriculum in secondary education. The research methodology involved an action research project where the newly-created STEM process was implemented in secondary schools with classes from the key learning areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Each student experienced the STEM process twice with a range of different problems to solve. Both teachers and students kept reflective journals and a purposeful sample were interviewed about their reflections on experiences, problem-based learning (PBL) and assessment of their STEM process and solution. The practicalities of implementing various STEM programs in secondary schools are discussed and the paper then goes on to seek coherency through a conceptual framework for integrating STEM education in schools. This paper suggests that the STEM process helps students solve problems throughout their life. It includes: 1. STEM skills, 2. Ideation and investigation, 3. Research, 4. Communicate, 5. Prototyping, 6. Evaluate, and 7. Manufacturing the final solution. A discussion ensues that explains how secondary students learn best in a STEM environment. This constructivist method of learning allows students to work in teams to solve problems, foster the development of skills such as self-initiative, cooperation, and learn to take a critical viewpoint. STEM students learn beyond technical knowledge, integrating project and problem-solving learning with an appreciation of the interplay between theory and practice. Suggestions for assessment of STEM learning are included. The future for STEM education is challenging and exciting for both students and their teachers. The introduction of STEM in schools has resulted in an increase in student engagement in STEM subjects and teachers are seeing the benefits of implementing a STEM curriculum that is applicable and relevant to students. STEM education enhances a student’s learning experience through tapphelication of general principles and practices. When incorporated it will inspire creativity, inquisitive thinking, and teamwork. Pages 1 to 29



How TQM Mediates JIT in Improving Operational Performance of Industrial Companies

Niken Sulistyowatia , Miftakul Hudab, Irawati Nursaningsihc, a,cMagister Management Program of Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia, bUniversitas Pelita Bangsa, Bekasi, Indonesia. 

Email: anikensulistyowati@mercubuana.ac.id, anikensulistyowati@yahoo.combmiftakulhuda@pelitabangsa.ac.id, cirawati.nursa@gmail.com

Indonesian industries face difficult challenges. Companies are required to be able to increase competitive excellence, both in domestic and global markets. The companies are trying to implement various management systems, including Just in Time (JIT) and Total Quality Management (TQM) in improving Operational Performance (OP). This research aims to determine and analyze the effect of JIT on TQM and operational performance. This research type is causal associative by applying primary data with interval measurement scales. The sampling used non-probability sampling category with purposive sampling technique. The number of samples used were 270 and processed by applying AMOS program. The research results are able to prove the presence of correlation between JIT and TQM in improving operational performance. The implementation of TQM makes JIT implementation to be more optimal in improving operational performance. The implication is that JIT and TQM implementation policies prioritizing flexible workforce, improvement, and cost effectiveness are the right choices in facing world-class competition. Pages 30 to 51

Model of Tax Compliance Based on Intention to Pay Tax

Sumarno Manrejoa*, Moeljadib, Surachmanc, Sudjatnod, a*,b,c,dProgram Doctoral of Management, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia, a*Faculty of Economics and Business, Perbanas Institute, Jakarta, Email: a*sumarno.manrejo@perbanas.id

The problem of tax compliance is considered one of the causes of the low tax ratio. This means that the tax revenue target for the government does not get achieved. This study purpose to develop a tax compliance model based on the intention to pay taxes, which is influenced by the planned behavior of the taxpayer, through a case study in Indonesia. This empirical study uses a quantitative approach, from 100 valid samples from surveys, processed using smartPLS software. The main results of the development of this research model prove that the intention to pay taxes has a significant role in mediating the impact of planned behavior of taxpayers towards tax compliance. An increase in tax compliance based on the intention to pay taxes will have an impact on increasing the tax ratio and supporting the achievement of the realization of the government's revenue target in the Indonesia taxation sector. Pages 52 to 70

Drawee’s Omission to Honour a Valid Cheque: Legalisation vs. Criminalisation Under the Jordanian and United Arab Emirates Laws

Dr. Abdullah Mohammed Khanjar Ahjilaa, Prof. Mouaid Al Qudahb*, aCriminal Law Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Yarmouk University, Jordan. bCriminal Law Professor, Faculty of Law, United Arab Emirates University; Faculty Member, Faculty of Law, Yarmouk University, Jordan. Email: aa.ehjelah@yahoo.com, b*mouaidalqudah@uaeu.ac.ae

A cheque is a negotiable instrument that serves as cash money in everyday dealings, and thus the Jordanian and United Arab Emirates (UAE) legislation ensure its credibility by criminalising the drawer’s failure to honour a valid cheque. To establish trust among all parties involved in cheque transactions, the UAE legislation, contrary to the Jordanian law expanded the circle of criminal protection for such trust by considering the drawee’s failure to honour a valid cheque an offence punishable by law pursuant to Article 641/B of Commercial Transactions Law.  The drawee bank is also criminally liable for such an offence, when committed by representatives acting in its name or favour (Article 65 of the UAE Penal Code). No similar rules exist in the Jordanian law leaving all parties involved in cheque transactions exposed to the drawee’s mischief. This position needs reform and, arguably, could be informed by the UAE laws. Pages 71 to 90

Leadership Structure and Practices in Organizations and the Development of a New Leadership Sustainable Model

Dr. Alex Jones, Roozbeh Shideh, College of Business Administration, American University in the Emirates, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Leadership has become the center of attention of organizations across the world. The studies of leadership have emerged and were developed progressively by business practitioners and social scientists. It’s become an essential element in almost every single field of study. There are even, nowadays, specialized degrees in leadership, bachelors, and masters as well as doctorate studies. With that end, we intend to provide an analysis of leadership backed by in-depth research of leadership studies in the 1990s with an in-depth analysis. The study highlights the significance of leadership, structure of leadership, and practices of leadership in a selected century of studies. All of which has resulted in the development of a sustainable model of leadership that is beneficial for today’s organizations that are search towards sustainable ways of doing business locally, regionally, and globally. Pages 91 to 102

Persistent Critical Incidents During Practice-Teaching of Filipino Pre-Service Physical Educators

Josephine Luz S. de Leon-Pinedaa, Julius Ceazar G. Tolentinob, Mercy D. Pinedac, aPhD, Don Honorio Ventura State University, Philippines, bMPES, Don Honorio Ventura State University, Philippines,cMPE, Don Honorio Ventura State University, Philippines, Email: ajlsdeleon@dhvsu.edu.ph

Critical incidents are unanticipated challenges experienced in the context of practice-teaching, by teacher-interns which are turning points for prospective improvements later on in the profession. With this in mind, the researchers aimed to identify the common persistent critical incidents experienced by pre-service physical educators (PSPEs) from a certain Philippine higher education institution during their off-campus teaching. One hundred and fifty-eight (158) pre-service physical educators from a teacher education institution in Pampanga, Philippines composed the pool of prospective key informants. From this, they were streamlined to ten (10) to participate in a focus group discussion; particularly those with extreme cases. The transcriptions were analyzed using content analysis and trustworthiness of data was also ensured. The emerging critical incidents dealt within the challenges encountered in terms of instruction, the students, and their cooperating-teachers. However, their coping strategies in managing these incidents included their self-determination, acceptance, motivation; behavior management; and professional guidance. It is of significance that these incidents be explored to improve the delivery of experiential learning courses relevant to the ever-changing educational mainstream. Pages 103 to 117

Supervisor Role Mediated by Meaningful Work Facilitates Employee Engagement of Female Workers: Evidence from the Banking Sector in Pakistan

1Dr. Khurram Shakir, 2Mr. Ibrahim Noorani, 3Dr. Nazia Abdul Rehman, 4Dr. Sara Khurram, 1Lecturer, Benazir School of Business, 2Lecturer, Department of Public Administration, 3Benazir School of Business, 1,2,3Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Lyari Karachi, 4Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Iqra University, Karachi, Email: 1khurram.shakir@bbsul.edu.pk, 2ibrahim.noorani@bbsul.edu.pk, 3nzshakir@gmail.com, 4khurramsara@yahoo.com

Employee engagement has been a topic of significant interest for researchers for over 20 years now. However, engagement of female employees in particular is an area which still requires considerable investigation. The present study attempts to analyse how a supervisor role, when mediated by meaningful work, is significant in harnessing the engagement of female employees in particular in the Pakistani corporate environment. A comprehensive survey of 250 female employees within the banking sector was conducted through purposive convenience sampling, and smart PLS was used for data analysis. Drawing conclusions from our examination, it is revealed that with partial mediation from meaningful work, a supervisor role is positively related with encouraging engagement amongst working women in banks. However, this study only accommodates data from the banking industry. It would be beneficial to provide grounds for further research, extended to other sectors as well. Pages 118 to 131

The Balinese Palaces in Gianyar: Representing Authority Power and Creating Territorial Identity

I Dewa Gede Agung Diasana Putraa, Ida Bagus Gde Wirawibawab, a,bDepartment of Architecture, Udayana University, Bukit Jimbaran, Indonesia, Email: adiasanaputra@unud.ac.id, bIb_wirawibawa@unud.ac.id

Architectural productions have been important records of civilisation history as they demonstrate the identity of the present socio-cultural, economic and political circumstances. Via symbolic functions, built forms and the interrelationship between social changes of everyday life, the translation can be seen as a connection between political agenda and architectural production, including the long history of political agenda in Gianyar, especially in the 17th - 18th centuries. Over the 17th - 18th centuries, Gianyar played an important role in the history of Bali. An area with many palaces, known as puris, Gianyar had a variety of architectural styles of puri, including its traditional gate called kori agung that was uniquely different from those of other regions. The kori agungs were chosen in this paper since the kori agung is the main entrance and first image of the Balinese palaces. In order to study these characteristics, this paper explores the kori agung of many palaces in Gianyar and analyses their historical architectural production. The character and historical process have been necessary to investigate the diversity and character of architectural styles under the Gianyar region's political authorities. Pages 132 to 150

A Cybergogy Model for Promoting Financial Literacy among Secondary School Students

Khoo Yin Yina, Rohaila Yusofb,  Zainizam Zakariyac,  a,b,cUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris

The younger generation has not yet realised the importance of financial literacy and most of them are materialistic. An integration of technology into teaching financial literacy can promote students’ learning interest. The aim of this study is to develop a financial literacy cybergogy model to promote human values, practices and accountability among secondary school students. This study employed survey design and consisted of two stages: 1. develop the questionnaire; 2. develop and examine the construct of the model. The confirmatory factor analysis measurement model 1 with four latent variables, accountability, decision making, human value and practices was constructed with 24 items. The FLC measurement model 1 did not meet threshold, a revision was needed. The revised FLC measurement model 2 presented Chi-square/df=2.186, GFI=.936, AGFI=.903, CFI=.900, RMSEA =.060, and all the values fitted within the acceptable value. This indicated an acceptable model fit.  After producing a good fit FLC measurement model, a second order CFA was conducted.  All the values met the required threshold. Students’ with good financial planning will experience well-being until their retirement. A comparative study with other countries will become the future direction of this research. Pages 151 to 164

The Positive and Negative Affect of Authoritarian Personality among Female University Students

Reem Khamees Mahdia, Athraa Esmail Zaidanb, a,bUniversity of Baghdad - Women's Studies Center, areem.m@wsc.uobaghdad.edu.iq, bdr.athraaesmail2020@gmail.com

The purpose of the study is to determine whether positive and negative affect are related to a type of authoritarian personality. Participants (N = 150) were female university students in Baghdad. The authors applied IN-PANAS scale to measure the positive and negative affect, and F scale to measure the authoritarian personality. Results: first, the sample had a positive affect on the authoritarian personality, but not a negative affect, second, there is a significant weak correlation between PA, NA, and authoritarian personality. Conclusion: The cognition affects on authoritarian personality more than the emotions do. In light of the new scientific challenges; this type of personality requires more research to reach a clear explanation for this personality in the future.  Pages 165 to 177

Correlation Between Organisational Climate and Administrative Creativity of Secondary School Leaders in Dammam From Teachers' Perspective

Ahmed Ben Sulaiman Bani Murtada, Department of educational administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

This study aimed at detecting the correlation between the organisational climate in the secondary schools in Dammam and the level of administrative creativity of school leaders from teachers' perspectives. The sample of the study consisted of 150 teachers in the secondary schools of Dammam during the academic year 2018/2019. To achieve the objectives of the study, two survey questionnaires were used. The first was the organisational climate questionnaire which consisted of 61 items divided into two domains, and each domain included 4 dimensions. The second was the administrative creativity questionnaire including 51 paragraphs with three domains. The study unveiled the following findings; The teachers conceived the "level of the organisational climate" in the secondary schools in the city of Dammam at a medium degree. They also rated the level of the organisational climate as a whole in medium degree - the "focusing on production" domain topped the perceptions of teachers whilst the "familiarity" domain was at the bottom; The teachers, also, conceived the "administrative innovation" in the secondary schools in the city of Dammam at medium degree. They also rated the "administrative innovation" as a whole in medium degree - the "encouragement of creativity" domain topped the perceptions of teachers whilst the "desire to develop and change" domain was at the bottom. There existed a statistically significant positive correlation between the degree of the level of the organisational climate and the level of the administrative innovation among teachers' perceptions. Based on the results, the study recommends the need for creating a set of standards and benchmarks for the creative educational leaders' behavior, and the opportunity be given for the more experienced and professional school leaders for offering creative ideas which should be adopted by their senior leaders of the Department of Education in Dammam. Pages 178 to 199

Factors Affecting Employee Motivation at Commercial Banks in Vietnam

Pham Thi Ha Ana, Le Hoang Anhb, Vo Van Tuanc, aFaculty of Finance and Banking, Van Lang University, 45 Nguyen Khac Nhu street, Co Giang ward, District 1, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. bInstitute for Research Science and Banking Technology, Banking University Ho Chi Minh City, 39 Ham Nghi street, District 1, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. cVan Lang University, 45 Nguyen Khac Nhu street, Co Giang ward, District 1, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. Email: aphamthihaan@vanlanguni.edu.vn, banhlh_vnc@buh.edu.vn, cvovantuan@vanlanguni.edu.vn

Employee motivation is an important dimension of organisational performance. Building on previous research, this study aims to identify those factors affecting employee motivation at commercial banks in Vietnam. Data for the research was collected through questionnaires sent to 300 bank employees directly or indirectly via email, of which 240 qualified for data entry and analysis. Using the Exploratory Factor Analysis method combined with Bayesian Linear Regression, research findings indicate that the empowerment of workers has an important positive influence on employee motivation. The results indicate that employee training and teamwork also have positive effects on employee motivation. We make connections with theory and related studies on the basis of research findings. At the same time, the policy implications for regulators are also discussed. Pages 200 to 220

Natural Motif of Batik Kimono as A Leading Commodity of Batik Arrangements in Surakarta – Indonesia

Theresia Widiastuti1, Sahid Teguh Widodo2, Tiwi Bina Affanti3, Kundharu Saddono4, &Andri Nur Cahyo5,1Faculty of Arts and Design, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, 2Faculty of Cultural Science, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, 3Faculty of Arts and Design, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, 4Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, 5Faculty of Arts and Design, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: 1institut.javanologi.uns@gmail.com, 2sahidteguhwidodo@yahoo.com, 3Tiwi.affanti@gmail.com, 4Kundharu.uns@gmail.com, 5andrinc.an@gmail.com

The research is an in-depth study of the development of Batik Kimono production by focusing on three main objectives, namely: (1) Knowing for certain the opportunity of Batik Kimono with natural motifs, (2) Finding Batik Kimono motifs that are suitable for four seasons in Japan, (3) Knowing the marketing opportunities of Batik Kimono for international consumption. This is a qualitative research based on the characteristics of the research problem, data sources, and research data. This research was conducted in Surakarta City, Central Java. Data in this study were collected and analysed using the interactive workings of three components, namely data reduction, data presentation, and verification. This study uses a single case study strategy that will be dealt with in a multi-perspective. The findings in this study include: (1) Batik Kimono has enough opportunities to become the leading product of batik artisans in Surakarta. (2) This study found batik patterns for the four seasons. (3) Batik kimono has the opportunity to become a superior product in the international market by utilising seven strategies such as market control, product variation, promotion in the heart of the city, familiarity with consumers, strengthening the network, and strengthening the promotion system. Pages 221 to 236

The Psychometric Efficiency of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in the Age of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Study between the Saudi and the Egyptian Societies

Asmaa Mostafa Ali El-Shokheby1,2, 1Assistant Professor, Educational Psychology (Cognitive Psychology), of Education-Dilam College, Psychology Department, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. 2Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology (Cognitive psychology), Faculty of Arts, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Egypt Email: a.elshokheby@psau.edu.sa. a.elshokheby@institution.edu

This research study aimed to verify the psychometric efficiency of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) scale in the age of COVID -19. It is a comparative study between the Saudi society and the Egyptian one, conducted by the researcher to a sample of 802 participants (357 Saudis and 445 Egyptians from both countryside and urban areas). The sample is divided into 555 females and 247 males. The participants aged (18-29), (30-39), (40 -49), and (50 years and over). The participants are with different educational levels: non-university, Bachelor, Master, and Doctorate. This research study was conducted from April 2020 to June 2020. The study adopted the descriptive approach to attain its goals. The questionnaires were conducted electronically and the data were collected using appropriate statistical methods. The results of the study can be summed up in the following points. (1) There are five factors with a square root bigger than one. (2) There were statistically significant differences in ASD due to the gender variable in favor of females. (3) There were statistically significant differences in ASD attributed to the variable of educational level. (4) There were statistically significant differences in ASD due to the nationality variable in favor of Egyptian nationality. (5) There were statistically significant differences in ASD due to age. (6) There were no statistically significant differences in ASD due to the variable of compliance with home quarantine. (7) There were no statistically significant differences in ASD due to the place of residence. (8) There were statistically significant differences in ASD due to the daily use of the Internet. Pages 237 to 261


The Power of the Lecturer’s Organizational Commitment in Indonesian Private Higher Education

Irvandi Gustaria and Widodo Widodob*,  aLecturer in Doctoral Program in Economics, Postgraduate School, Pancasila University, Jakarta, Indonesia, bFaculty of Education and Social Sciences of Indraprasta PGRI University, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: b*widmag@gmail.com

This study analyses the empirical effect of organizational commitment on job performance mediating by innovative behavior, organizational citizenship (OCB), and job involvement.  The research data was collected by a questionnaire through the survey method. The sample of this research is 245 lecturers selected by purposive sampling. Data analysis uses path analysis supported by descriptive statistics. The results revealed that organizational commitment had a significant effect on job performance, both direct and indirect effects mediating by innovative behavior, OCB, and job involvement. Thus, the lecturer’s job performance can be improved through organizational commitment, innovative behavior, OCB, and job involvement. Besides, this research also found a fit research model about the effect of organizational commitment on job performance mediating by innovative behavior, OCB, and job involvement. This model can discuss as a reference or discourses among researchers and practitioners in developing job performance models in various contexts and organizations. Pages 262 to 277


A Collaborative Model of Citizen and Local Government on The New Public Service Concept

Apirat Sudthongkonga, Krish Rugchatjaroenb, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Mahidol University, 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, 73170, Email address: aapirat.sudthongkong@gmail.com, bkrishphd@live.com

This research aimed at studying a model of the collaboration of the public sector and local government organisations in terms of how they are able to organize a new public service concept with regard to natural resources and environmental management. The research results are: (1) the participatory process and citizenship of society with supportive leaders both have a positive influence on the collaboration in administration under good governance, the good characteristics of citizenship, and strengthening the role of citizens in a democratic society; (2) the participatory process and citizenship of society with supportive leaders both have no direct positive influence on policy implementation by engaging and collaborating with all sectors to develop the organisation, but there is an indirect influence through the collaboration in administration under good governance; (3) the collaboration in administration under good governance has a positive influence between the good characteristics of citizenship and  citizens in a democratic society; (4) the collaboration in administration under good governance has a direct positive influence on policy implementation by engaging and collaborating with all sectors to develop the organisation; and (5) the good characteristics of citizenship have a positive influence on strengthening the role of citizens in a democratic society. Pages 278 to 294

Impact of Social Media and Political Participation on Political Efficacy of Political Science Students of Al al-Bayt University

Abdullah Alarqan, Bayt Al- Hekmah Institute, Al al-Bayt University, Jordan, Email: abdalah.alarqan@aabu.edu.jo

In this study, the main aim is to investigate the relationships between social media, political efficacy, and political participation. The study employed a quantitative method, with data gathered from 495 political students studying in Al al-bayt University, via questionnaires, after which data analysis was conducted using SPSS 25. The study findings supported the direct relationship between social media, political participation and political efficacy. This study is significant owing to its implications for researcher, political and policy-making circles that are responsible for assessing and reaching decisions as to the phenomenon that brings about the relationship among the variables. This study is unique as it addresses social media, political efficacy, and political participation connection in a comprehensive manner and compared the results with prior results in literature. Pages 295 to 307

Prediction and Protection of Car Driving Accident in Urban Zone

Niyom Sutthaluanga, Somchai Prakancharoenb, aFaculty of science, ChandrakasemRajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. bFaculty of applied science, KingMongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Thailand. Email: aniyom.s@chandra.ac.th,bsomchai-prakan@hotmail.com

Car driving accidents are unsatisfying incidents that should not be occurring. According to accident statistics of Thailand car accidents are occurring in higher population proportion than many countries. Two thousand and four hundred participants were asked to answer a questionnaire about their experience of car accidents during 2018-2019. An accidental occurring pattern was calculated with Rough Set and Structural Equation Modelling. These patterns were used to predict accident damage for any observation which does not known about the accident damage. Since there were many rules the calculation of Euclidean distance consumed too much retrieval time. The performance of matched rule retrieval computing time was enhanced with weighted Euclidean dissimilarity retrieval computing time. It could decrease weighted, normalised Euclidean distance by about 7.5%. The accuracy of cross validation testing was about 85.91%. Prediction and protection of car accident web application were developed especially on high and highest damage magnitude level. One hundred Chandrakasem Rajabhat University student volunteers participated in the road accident testing. This group of students was pre-tested on vehicle driving. Records were kept on the accident and its damage magnitude that were occurring during the pre-testing.. After that, this group of students was assigned to learn about twenty important causes of road accidents, such as weather, road situation, traffic signals and driver’s condition. After that, all of them were secondly assigned to drive a car on a particular testing route. Paired t-test technique result showed that the average road accident, after accident prevention program training, was significantly less than those who did not join the training on accident prevention program. Pages 308 to 336

Computational Thinking Skills of Middle School Students: Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Wassana Chachiyoa, Paitoon Pimdeeb, Aukkapong Sukkamatc , a,b,cFaculty of Industrial Education and Technology,  King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Email: awassana.y@pkru.ac.th,   bpaitoon.pi@kmitl.ac.th,   caukkapong.su@kmitl.ac.th

The objective of this research was to examine the congruence model for computational thinking skills among middle school students. Data was collected from 1,011 technology teachers at middle schools using a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire that had an Index of Item-Objective Congruence (IOC) of 1.0 and a reliability of 0.97. The obtained data was analysed using second-order confirmatory factor analysis. The results showed that the middle school students’ computational thinking skills were comprised of four factors: applying computational concepts for problem-solving; applying computational concepts for mathematical problems; applying computational concepts to solve problems with a computer program; and digital design and creation. The model’s goodness of fit was good and consistent with the empirical data. The factor loading was 0.82-0.90. Pages 337 to 350

Does Leadership Matter in Managing the Village-Owned Enterprise? 

Kumba Digdowiseisoa*, Heru Dian Setiawanb, Eko Sugiyantoc, aSenior Lecture, Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of National, Jakarta, Indonesia, bLecture, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of National, Jakarta, Indonesia, cProfessor, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Social and Political Science, University of National, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*kdigdowiseiso@gmail.com, bheru.dian.setiawan@civitas.unas.ac.id, cekos@civitas.unas.ac.id

This study examines the leadership of the village head in the management of the Village-Owned Enterprise (VoE). Specifically, it determines the factors that influence the village head’s leadership. We implemented a qualitative methodology where we gathered a triangulation approach through interviews, observations, and documentation at Gisting Bawah village. Our approach of the study was guided by the theoretical framework from Northhouse (2013). This study found that both task and relationship behaviour were two important factors to achieve success in managing VoE in Indonesia. Based on the results, a village head must always: (1). act as a strong role model for VoE managers; (2). convey high expectations to the managers of VoE and to inspire them through motivation to be loyal and be part of a shared vision in the organisation; (3). stimulate the VoE managers to be creative and innovative, as well as to elevate the beliefs and values ​​of the VoE managers; and (4). provide a supportive climate, where the village head listens carefully to the needs of each VoE manager. Pages 351 to 362

Art Therapy Module in Male Adolescent Anger Management

Nor Shafrin Ahmad1, ShamshulAzura Md Yusof2, Rahimi Che Aman3, 1,3Associate Professor at School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, 2District Education Office, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Email: 1sham@usm.my

This study aims to examine the effect of Art Therapy Module in the management of anger among male adolescents. This is a pilot study representative of eight male students involved. A purposive sampling technique was used to select only students with a high level of anger.  The instrument used to assess anger was STAXI-2 C/A by Brunner and Spielberger (2009) along with the Art Therapy Module. The Art Therapy Module consisted of eight sessions. Session 1 focused on introduction, relationship building and information on the ethics of group counselling. Session 2 included aspects of anger identification, effects of anger and anger expressions. Sessions 3 and 4 provided in-depth focus on expressions of anger. In sessions 5 to 7 the emphasis was on the healing processes to reduce adolescents’ intensity of anger. Session 8 was on the termination process. Results showed that Art Therapy Module effectively reduced anger.  These findings have contributed to the acquisition of new anger management skills using creative therapy, in particular using drawing, clay and plasticine to express and manage anger among male adolescents. Pages 363 to 372

Subconscious Kingdom - Implications of a Suggested Macro-economic Model

Yassin Eltahir, King Khalid University(KSA) -  Business College, Email: yeltahir@kku.edu.sa

The study focuses on examining the concepts of knowledge, freedom, and subconscious and the interrelation between them. The study uses the results of two economic studies by addressing their implications to the field of knowledge and their connection with freedom and consciousness. The main objective of the study is examining the relationship between the way of generating knowledge and human mood. The study assumes two ways of obtaining knowledge, the first called " bottom to top approach" which seeks the first roots that affect the phenomena i.e upward method. The second one is top to bottom approach which seeks to highlight the maximum potency of the phenomena i.e downward method. The study concluded by assuring that the way by which knowledge is formed hence a respective mood is created which is responsible for our feeling free or less free. The ultimate conclusion of the study the prevailing of the subconscious and hence the individual is free to choose but not free to do. Pages 373 to 382

Using Twitter for Trip Planning in a Saudi Arabian Context

Mona H.T. Saleha, Manal M. El mekebbatyb, aAssistant Professor, Marketing Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Al-Dammam, Saudi Arabia, bAssistant Professor, Business Administration Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Al-Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Email: amhsaleh@iau.edu.sa, bmmaelmekabba@iau.edu.sa

The study aims to examine the influence of perceived ease of use, usefulness, and trustworthiness on the attitude and usage intention of Twitter as a social media tool for trip planning among travellers in Saudi Arabia. The study tested the proposed model with a sample of 241 Twitter users, using Warp-PLS 7 to analyse the data using structural equation modeling. The study revealed that perceived usefulness is the most effective determinant followed by trustworthiness on attitude and intentions to use in context. Alternatively, ease-of-use had no significant effect on the travellers' attitudes and intentions to use Twitter for trip planning. The results contribute to previous research on the technology acceptance model (TAM) in the tourism and travel industry. Also, this research provides meaningful insights for managers to better understand the factors affecting travellers' decisions when depending on social media, considering the increasing importance of social media platforms and the tourism sector in Saudi Arabia. Pages 383 to 400

A Model of Government Intervention upon a Technology Transfer Program for the Product Innovation Improvement of Food Micro-Small Enterprises

Agnes Irwanti1*, Marimin2, Purwiyatno Hariyadi3, Eriyatno4 and L.T. Handoko5, 1,2,3,4School of Business, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, West Java – Indonesia, 5Indonesia Institute of Sciences, DKI Jakarta – Indonesia, *Corresponding author, Email: agnes.irwanti@gmail.com,  agnes.irwanti@ieee.org

Many food micro-small enterprises (F-MSEs) were forced to close their businesses due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Only recently, they have been able to reopen with strict safety measures. Subsequently, F-MSEs have had to become creative and innovative to keep the business alive, and government intervention is urgently needed. Research Division for Natural Product Technology - Indonesia Institute of Sciences, a state-owned research institute, has a track record in technology transfer programs to escalate product innovation. This study investigates the government intervention conducted by the aforementioned institution to F-MSEs and aims to build a conceptual model of government intervention upon a technology transfer program to promote product innovation. A mix method was employed in this research, which was comprised of: a soft system methodology to identify complex and unstructured problems; interpretive structural modelling to analyse the interaction issues on the elements correlating with the program; strategic assumption surfacing and testing that helped to answer the critical assumptions, as also the requirement for running the model; and a business model canvas to map the desirable and feasible change. A conceptual model resulted from this research, which is the institutional model. Cross institutional collaboration plays a significant role in maximising the program. And, the most fitting program is thematic intervention, the technology transfer that is given according to the needs and capability of each cluster formed. Pages 401 to 420

A Descriptive Analysis of the Critical Thinking and Argumentation Skills of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Students

Aldrin D. Parico, MAEa, Eddiebal P. Layco, Ph.Db, a,bDon Honorio Ventura State University, Email: aadparico@dhvsu.edu.ph, beplayco@dhvsu.edu.ph

This study primarily aims to analyse the critical thinking and argumentation skills of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students. The study also intends to determine the possible relationship of the two skills by using a descriptive correlational method. A total of 105 senior high school students of the Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University were selected using a stratified proportional random sampling technique to participate as the repondents of this study. The skill of critical thinking was measured using a multiple-choice critical thinking test, while the argumentation skill was measured through argumentative writing. The data obtained from the sample indicates that the respondents are considered ‘practising thinkers’ in terms of critical thinking, but ‘competent thinkers’ in regards to argumentation. Based on the findings, the study concludes that their skills in critical thinking and argumentation have a weak positive correlation. However, the relationship is still considered significant, which implies that students’ performance in a multiple-choice critical thinking test could be associated with their performance in argumentative writing. This concludes that students who have higher level of critical thinking are most likely effective in argumentation. Likewise, students who write effective argumentative essays manifest better results in a multiple choice critical thinking test. Pages 422 to 438

Discerning the Intervening Roles of Students Mathematical Resilience and Academic Emotions between the Relationship of Home-School Ecological Structures and Achievement

Eddiebal P. Layco, Ph.D. Planning and Development Director, Don Honorio Ventura State University, Philippines, Faculty, Senior High School and Graduate School, DHVSU, Philippines

Email: eplayco@dhvsu.edu.ph

This study is mainly anchored on the theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner, surrounding ecological theory assumptions regarding the effect of different environmental structures upon achievement. The intervening role of students’ mathematical resilience, and academic emotions upon the link between ecological system structures, and mathematics achievement was examined among 850 selected junior high school students in the Province of Pampanga. The Academic Emotions Questionnaire (Pekrun, Goetz, & Frenzel, 2005), and the Mathematical Resilience Scale (Janice Kooken, 2015) were used to assess how the resiliency of the students, and their positive and negative emotions mediated the effect of the ecological structures, and mathematics achievement. The results showed that the students’ home environment, and their relationship with their parents under the home microsystem, predicts their achievement. Further, their teachers’ instructional competence, mathematics learning environment, attitude towards school, positive affect, and self-perceived competence under the school microsystem structures are associated to their performance. The dimensions under the home-school mesosystem structure showed no impact upon students’ achievement. Moreover, mathematical resilience, and positive academic emotions (enjoyment, hope, and pride) have a significant relationship to achievement, but negative emotions (anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom) were negatively correlated with achievement. The students’ mathematical resilience, and academic emotions partially and completely mediated the effects of the link of several ecological structures upon achievement. Pages 439 to 469

Omnibus Law Reformulation in the Establishment of Regulations

aMuhammad Junaidi and bA. Heru Nuswanto, a b lecturer at Universitas Semarang, the address at Soekarno Hatta Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia.

aemail : institut.junaidi@gmail.com, bheru.nuswanto@usm.ac.id

The existence of hyperegulation from both the central and local governments has had serious implications for the State process. Indonesia, as a rule of law, and through hyperegulation, will have a serious impact on the creation of instability in the national progress. The President of the Republic of Indonesia responded to this by drafting an idea to submit to the House of Representatives in the process of forming legislation, namely, by submitting three draft omnibus laws in the 2020 National Legislation Program. This was polemic in the society, considering that the concept of omnibus law is a new idea in Indonesia. The following questions are raised: to what extent are the consequences of omnibus law? What are the positive implications of this, which will later be generated by the omnibus law bill? These questions shall be examined in a normative juridical research approach. Pages 470 to 479

Blame Attribution versus Responsibility Assignment in the Metaphors of Health Reporting: A Case Study of COVID 19

Fedaa Mohamed Abdel Aziz, Assistant Professor of Journalism, Faculty of Mass Communication, Ahram Canadian University

This study seeks to understand how health reporting provided by the newspapers in China and America during Covid-19 portrayed either the newspaper responsibility assignment or the blame attribution for the happenings. This study investigates the use of metaphors of the Covid-19 Virus in the health reporting news and how these metaphors helped to construct the concept of a pandemic in the reporting. Metaphors of diseases and illness are a prominent tool in the discourse in the news. The data was extracted from news from the Washington Post and The China Daily Newspapers from January 2020 to May 2020 when the disease was at its peak. Pages 480 to 492

Building the Concept of Energizing Professional Networks: Implications for the Fashion Industry in Indonesia

Sisno Riyoko*,*PhD Student, Dept of Management Faculty of Economic Universitas Islam Sultan Agung Semarang, Indonesia,  and *Universitas Islam Nahdlatul Ulama Jepara, Indonesia, Email: sisno@unisnu.ac.id

This article aims to explore a new concept model, which is designed to energise the underlying professional networks in an effort to support a more concise literature. This research forms part of a dissertation study, which is applied to the analysis unit of the Muslim fashion industry. The new concept developed is the result of a synthesis of dynamic marketing capabilities and achievement goal theory. The parameters of energising the professional network includes: a commitment to improve marketing coordination skills, develop marketing relationships, and understand customers and internal communication. The existing literature reveals that, so far, no research has captured the holistic view of energising the professional networks. The previous articles conducted on this topic tend to focus more on networks in the manufacturing industry. Thus, this article is considered to provide a unique and significant contribution to the literature. Pages 493 to 504

Organisational Encouragement and Obstacles for Creativity: The Mediating Role of Creative Self-Efficacy and the Moderating Role of Job Autonomy

1Sajeela Rabbani; 2Muhammad Qaiser Shafi; 3Seema Gul; 4Nida Kamal; 5Mubashir Ahmad; 1,2Riphah International University Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 3Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 4Bahria Business School, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 5 Northern University, Nowshera, Pakistan

Email: rabbani_210@hotmail.com1, qaiser.shafi@riphah.edu.pk2, sgul@psu.edu.sa3, nidakamal.buic@bahria.edu.pk4, mubashir@northern.edu.pk5,

The present study aims at examining the mediating impact of creative self-efficacy between the organisational factors as encouragement and obstacles in enhancing the creativity of employees in the presence of job autonomy, as a moderating element. A time-lag study has been undertaken to assess the dyadic relationship between the boss, and subordinates. A total sample size of 408 respondents was taken from research and development (R&D) employees within the information technology (IT) sector of Pakistan. The data was gathered through adapted structured questionnaires and was analysed through the Partial Least Squares, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) by using the SMART PLS 3.2 software. The findings reflect the positive role of organisational encouragement and job autonomy, while self-efficacy also positively mediates the relationship between the variables to enhance employees’ creativity, except for the organisational obstacles. The implications and future areas of research have been proposed for researchers and managers, particularly those associated with the IT sector. Pages 505 to 526

The Concept, Types and Sources of Legal Regulation of International Commercial Arbitration in the Republic of Iraq

Forqan Ali Hussein Al-Khafajia, Hind Faez Ahmed Al-Hasoonb, aM.S.C, bAssistant lecturer, University of Babylon, College of Law, Email: aforqanali@yahoo.com, bhind_fah @yahoo.com

The subject of the article research is the concept, types and sources of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in the Republic of Iraq, the methodological basis of the article research is the dialectical approach to the problem under consideration using general and private methods of scientific knowledge, formal legal, and logical, socio-psychological, system analysis. In the process of research the achievements of the sciences of civil, private international, Iraqi law, and civil procedure. This study is divided into two parts: the first part presents the concept and types of international commercial arbitration in the Republic of Iraq, and the second part presents the sources of legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in the republic of Iraq. Pages 527 to 549

The Effect of Board Composition and Ownership Structure on Dividend Policy: Evidence from Jordan

Prof. Mishiel Said Suwaidana, Dr. Lubna Sameer Khalafb,

aDepartment of Accounting, Yarmouk University, bFinance and Economics department, Taibah University, Email: amsuwaidan@yu.edu.jo, blkhalaf@taibahu.edu.sa

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of board composition and ownership structure on the dividends pay-out policies employed by a sample of manufacturing companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) for the period of 2013–2015. The study used the size of the board, board independence, gender (percentage of females in the board), and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) duality to represent the board composition. Meanwhile, managerial ownership, institutional ownership, and foreign ownership were used to represent the ownership structure. In addition, several control variables were used, such as Return on Assets (ROA) firm’s age, firm’s size, and financial leverage. The dividend per share, representing the company’s dividends pay-out policy, served as the dependent variable of the study. The results of the multiple regression analysis identified the board size, duality, institutional ownership, and earnings per share to be significantly associated with the variation in dividends per share at, at least, the five per cent level. There was the exception of the duality variable, which had a negative coefficient, contrary to the prediction, and the other variables indicated a positive relationship with the dividends per share. However, among these variables, the earnings per share was found to be the most powerful explanatory variable in the regression model, which was measured by their respective standardized coefficients (Beta) weights. Pages 550 to 567

Relationship Between University Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence and their Teaching Effectiveness

Shumaila Shahzad1, Shafqat Rasool2, Muhammad Arshad3, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. 2Lecturer, Department of Education, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. 3SST Science, School Education Department, Government Fazilka Islamia Model High School Pakpattan, Punjab-Pakistan, E-mail: 3marshadzakki@gmail.com. 3ORCID iD https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2030-6851

To improve the effectiveness of teachers, it is very important to have a thorough understanding of their Emotional intelligence (EI) which is a very imperative psychological construct. In Pakistan, this chief aspect could not catch the attention of researchers. Current policy for teacher’s hiring and firing puts an emphasis on content expertise only. The passionate or emotive face of teaching is still being disregarded. So, it was an ultimate goal of the study to explore the association between EI and university teachers’ teaching effectiveness in the Punjab, Pakistan. Asample of the study was selected in two phases. In the first phase, from six private universities and seven public universities, 879 teachers were conveniently selected as a sample. In the second phase 170 teachers were selected as a sample on the basis of their raw mean EI score. Pupils of the following 170 teachers (n= 3551) gave data about the teaching effectiveness of their respective teachers. For the purpose of data collection, Bar-On EQ-i: Short and teaching effectiveness scale were used. It is exposed that the emotional and social capacity among the teachers in higher education sector is somewhat unformed and low, and needs improvement. It is concluded that teachers’ EI has a positive but moderate relationship with their teaching effectiveness. Teachers’ EI and all of its sub-factors are positively correlated with their teaching effectiveness including all its sub factors. Current study endows with an observed fact that EI skills contribute a lot in teaching effectiveness. It might be helpful in shifting their overemphasis on EQ rather than IQ. Pages 568 to 585

The Role of Internal Control in Fraud Prevention and Detection in Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Jordan

Dr. Khalil S. M. Abu Saleema*, Ibrahim M. Oleimatb, aAssociate professor in accounting. The World Islamic Sciences & Education University (W.I.S.E), Amman, Jordan. Faculty of Business & Finance, bPhD Candidate Student of Accounting Department, Email: a*kalilabosaleem@yahoo.com, bi.oleimat@gmail.com

This study was conducted to identify the role of internal control in fraud prevention and detection in non-governmental organisations (NGOs). A six random sample of NGOs sector was selected and the sample consisted of (73) NGOs employees who are working in the managerial control and financial positions, had been randomly recruited to fill the questionnaire (which consisted of three axes for measuring the questions of the study). The results indicated that internal control in NGOs plays a significant role in fraud prevention and detection and ensures that all transactions comply with the internal guidelines and manuals. In addition to that, the study recommends the researchers pay more attention towards internal control in NGOs in Jordan since NGOs have an important role in the Jordanian society, and the researchers of this study will conduct more research on this topic in the future due to the importance of this sector in Jordan. Pages 586 to 596

The Creation and Re-creation of the Adat Village in West Sumatra, Indonesia

Adri Febriantoa, Semiarto A. Purwantob*, a Department of Sociology and Anthropology Education, Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia,       bDepartment of Anthropology, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia. *corresponding author: semiarto.aji09@ui.ac.id

Over time, village governance in Indonesia has undergone many changes. In the pre-colonial era, villages were organised according to the local customary law called ‘adat’, and today, those same villages are part of the modern state. Suharto’s centralised New Order regime led to dramatic changes in village governance, as all villages were arranged uniformly in a system called ‘desa’. Changes to the law after Suharto left office were marked by regional autonomy, which allowed local governments to manage their own territories in accordance with local conditions. Some desa chose to return to an adat village system. The village dynamics have, more recently, been heightened with the passing of the Village Law, which allocates funds to villages to manage independently. This has resulted in the subdivision of villages, in order to acquire more funds. In this paper, we argue that the trend in village splitting is not necessarily related to changes in the law or political events. Based on ethnographic research conducted in a village in West Sumatra, this paper concludes that the dynamics of returning to the customary order, and the decisions to divide villages are influenced by factors of history, tradition and local culture, and by a momentum not previously experienced. Pages 597 to 613

Community Development: Social Capital in Women’s Empowerment in the Dieng Highlands of Indonesia

Najmu Tsaqib Akhdaa, F. Trisakti Haryadib, Siti Andarwatic, aExtension and Development Communication Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. b,cFaculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia

Women’s empowerment needs to be the main goal of community development activities. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of social capital in empowering women in the Dieng highlands, Wonosobo Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The results showed that the behavioural characteristics of women in the Dieng highland was able to emerge trust which was used as social capital in every activity related to women empowerment. Women in Dieng highland have unique behavioural characteristics like solidarity, religiosity, and openness which can increase social bonds between them. A high level of trust can drive entrepreneurial activities of agricultural groups facilitated by various stakeholders. This social capital makes it easier for various stakeholders to succeed in community development programs. A qualitative approach is used in this study. Pages 614 to 625

Economic Empowerment towards Business Independence in Coastal Business Groups

Arie Frits Kawulura*, Tinneke Evie Meggy Sumualb, Merry Natalia Rumagitc, Ramon Arthur Ferry Tumiwad, abcdUniversitas Negeri Manado, Indonesia.,

Email: a*ariekawulur@unima.ac.id

The purpose of this research is to increase independent entrepreneurs through the empowerment of human resources quality, product quality, production technology, and markets for coastal communities, as tourism objects. The research method is an experimental method by conducting training to four business groups in the North Minahasa Regency. A different test was deployed as the analysis technique to examine before and after the training and proceeded with the bivariate and multivariate influence test. The results exhibited that there were differences before and after training upon the quality of human resources, quality of products, technology of production, and markets towards independent entrepreneurs. The results also presented that there was a bivariate and significant influence of the quality of human resources, the quality of products, the technology of production, and markets on independent entrepreneurs, respectively. Similarly, there was a multivariate up contribution of the quality of human resources, the quality of products, technology of production, and markets towards independent entrepreneurs. Pages 626 to 643

Creating Meaning from Chaos:  Cha's Dictée and the Recovering of the Lost Voice of Women in the Age of Post-modernism

Dr Imad Mohammad Khawaldeh1, Dr Baker Mohammad bani-Khair2, Dr Nisreen Naji Al-Khawaldeh3, Dr Abdullah Fawaz hamed Al-Badarneh4

1Assistant Professor, Department of English – The Hashemite University, Jordan, 2Associate Professor, Department of English –The Hashemite University, Jordan, 3 Associate Professor and Head of the Department of English – The Hashemite University, Jordan, 4Assistant Professor, Department of English – The Hashemite University, Jordan

As an experimental work of art, Theresa Hak Cha's Dictée (1982) leaves the reader struggling to find a way out of a very perplexing linguistic and visual maze. The experience of reading through this fragmentary and (sometimes) amorphous text and its paratext might frustrate the reader who is looking for a unifying thread around which the thematic "texture" of the whole book is interwoven.  The difficulty of reading this  book stems from the fact that we are reading a postmodern work of art that counteracts the idea of traditional narrative techniques. Yet, despite the apparent lack of coherence, we believe that the whole book is unified around one pivotal thematic axis that makes the incoherent parts of this experimental work look more integrated, seamless, and sensible. The present study is intended to prove that to the contrary of what many scholars and critics suggest about the plotlessness of Dictée, Cha's book does have a unifying theme, a climax, and a resolution after all. To this end, we conduct a close reading of the textual and paratextual examples present throughout Dictée and reach the conclusion that despite the apparent non-linear order of the contents of the book, the book is unified as both an anticolonial and a feminine call for enabling the Korean woman to speak. We discuss how Cha's whole book revolves around the power of words and how language can contribute to guaranteeing women a notable place among their communities. Cha's primary intention, we believe, is not merely to revive a forgotten history or resurrect a sense of nationhood. Rather, she uses these literary modes as a means through which she achieves her ultimate gender-related goals – to enable her diasporic female Korean peers to have their own feminine voice and to find for herself a respectful place within the American male-dominated literary canon. Pages 644 to 662

Winning the Hearts of the Malays: The Perspective of the Author of Syair Tuan Hampris Towards the Colonialists

Rahimah Hamdana, Arba’ie Sujudb,

a,bDepartment of Malay Language, Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Email: arahimahh@upm.edu.my

This study was aimed at identifying the author’s perspective of the colonialists, and to analyse her relationship with one of them in her poem. The British colonisation of the Malay world in the nineteenth century gave rise to various reactions and attitudes among the indigenous communities, the majority of whom were opposed to colonisation, as recorded in traditional Malay literary works. Most of these works expressed the anxiety and hardships they encountered in life under the colonial government. Therefore, it would have been disturbing if any Malay writer were to heap praises on the British colonialists, more so if the writer happened to be a female, as according to the patriarchal system that dominated the conventional Malay literary world, women should be ‘silent’. Nevertheless, this tradition was broken by Hajah Wok Aisyah Nik Idris from Terengganu with her writing of Syair Tuan Hampris, in the early twentieth century. Ironically, in her poem, the author appears to have forgotten the miserable state of the Malays in the other states under the British administration. As such, did Hajah Wok Aisyah have her own reasons for writing the way she did? Was the author of Syair Tuan Hampris captivated by the British administrator? Did the British administrator, J. L. Humphreys, succeed in winning the hearts of the Malays in Terengganu? The method of text analysis was employed in this study, guided by the eight ways proposed by the first British Resident General of the Federation of Malaya, Sir Frank Swettenham, to Syair Tuan Hampris. This study found that Syair Tuan Hampris invites its readers to savour the unique spectrum of relationships that existed between the colonised people, and the colonialists. The colonialists are no longer regarded as individuals who brought ruin and destruction to the local community, but instead, all their actions are held as being honourable. Thus, the author, being a woman, was able to perfectly explain her closeness to one such colonialist in the verses of her poem. In conclusion, Syair Tuan Hampris is a strong and direct proof that women had a voice in the community at that time, even though they had to go against the conventions of Malay literature. Pages 663 to 680

Reduction of Training Preparation time for Employees using Lean Six Sigma Methodology

Sahar Mohamed Alhosani1 Dr. Muhammad Usman Tariq2, 1,2Abu Dhabi School of Management, Email: 1304sahar@gmail.com, 2usmankazi100@gmail.com

Lean Six Sigma is one of the widely used methodologies for process improvement. Various industries have utilized it to improve the processes and reduce costs. The current paper focuses on using the Lean Six Sigma DMAIC approach to reduce the training preparation time for the employees. The paper aimed to achieve a minimum 70% reduction in training time preparation.  The study examines the impact of Six Sigma on resource allocation for training, top management commitment to training, employee involvement at all organizational levels, and continuous learning and identification of training gaps. The data collection included 300 employees from HR, Finance, and Customer services departments of different organizations. A stratified sampling technique was utilized, which subdivided the respondents into top management, middle level, and operational level staff. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a regression model used to estimate the relationship. The study results indicate that employee training success outcomes are increased by 72% with the implementation of Lean Six Sigma. Pages 681 to 702

Protection of Salt Farmers from the Impact of Marine Pollution (Victimology Perspective)

Bagiyo Suwasonoa, Dewi Setyowatib, , Rini Nurahajuc, Moeherionod, a,b,c,dUniversity of Hang Tuah, Email:abagiyo.suwasono@hangtuah.ac.id

This article reports that even though Indonesia is a maritime country, there efforts to increase salt production have been limited, including efforts to improve its quality. Salt is a complement to food needs and is a source of electrolytes in the human body. On the other hand, to get good quality salt we have imported from abroad, especially iodized salt for consumption as well as industrial salt. The productivity of the Indonesian salt business has not yet made a significant contribution to the fulfillment of domestic salt. This descriptive study aims to describe some of the obstacles of salt farmers in increasing their production including reviewing protection from marine pollution and regulating salt imports. Protection is very important so as to make it easy for salt farmers to carry out their production activities. This can also support the achievement of the salt self-sufficiency program. The results showed that the policy settings contained in Law No. 7 Year 2016 concerning Protection and Empowerment of Fishermen, Fish Cultivators, and Salt Farmers as the umbrella act were not optimal because of overlapping and contradictory rules, therefore they did not provide protection and welfare for salt farmers. Pages 703 to 715

Content Analysis on Research Trends of English as Public Speaking Skills in China

Chen Cheng1, Florence Kuek2, 1Guilin University of Technology at Nanning, China, 2The Education Faculty in SEGI University, Malaysia.

English public speech skills have become a new area for linguistic researchers and language lecturers in recent years in China where related studies also have begun to attract more attention. However, rare content analysis has been conducted so far. This study aims to fill this gap by systematically reviewing the relevant literature from 2010- 2019, aiming to identify the major themes and trends in this field with a hope that the findings can contribute to provide a picture of studies on public speaking conducted in China for past ten years and offer some insights for Chinese practitioners. Themes’ analysis reports that the current levels of EPS for college students have seldom been measured. Thus, the public speaking level of ordinary college students is still a black box to the outsiders. Pages 716 to 731

Cognitive Dialectical Development of Anti-Bribery Attitude: A Model of Legal Culture in Lampung

Slamet Haryadia ,Didiek R. Mawardib, Nurlaili Husnac, aLaw and Social Science Faculty of Universitas Muhammadiyah Kotabumi, cLaw and Social Science Faculty of Lampung University, Email: aslamet.haryadi@umko.ac.id, bdidiekm85@gmail.com, cnurlailiharyadi@gmail.com

The Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia and the judicial body underneath is trying to change the image and perception of the people who already do not trust the court by building a zone of integrity (ZI), the court as a Corruption-Free Zone (WBK) and Clean and Serving Bureaucracy Zone (WBBM). The question is, how does the High Court, as an extension of the Supreme Court, develop a corruption-free attitude that supports the establishment of the court as a Clean and Serving Bureaucracy Zone. Substantial and structural reforms have been carried out by the Supreme Court and the judiciary under it, but the improvement and renewal of the culture of bureaucratic law centred on judges has lagged behind. Therefore, the Supreme Court has reaffirmed the importance of applying the principles of clean government and good governance which is believed to be the principle needed to provide excellent service to the community. Bribery as a legal matter is important to be reflected back. During this time the judge reflected on bribery as a matter of veiled habits. Placing the legal mindset on bribery allows judges to prevent and reduce or even stop bribery that has become an internal habit. If a judge does an act that is good and in accordance with his legal actions, is consistent, honest and trustworthy, sooner or later his actions will get a positive response from the community. Judges' cognition requires legal knowledge and integrity to be able to control their thinking, and more than that, so that the judge does not get lost in the way of thinking and get lost by the results of his thoughts. The judges' legal actions will appear as a valuable product of thought, if the results of the thought are in the form of legal decisions that result in decisions which reflect the legal considerations that are true and fair. The cognitive dialectical model of bribery prevention can be interpreted as a legal cultural concept of a judge that places the mindset in the cognitive structure of the judge as a subject of change. Starting from the mental activity of the judge to direct, return and control the mind for all positive and open things to do and leave things that are negative and not commendable. Pages 732 to 748

The Ambiguous Feasibility of Borobudur Temple

Irmawati Marwoto1, Mandala Manurung2 1Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Indonesia, 2Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Indonesia

This study used secondary economic data to evaluate the financial and economic feasibility of the construction of Borobudur temple in the context of 9th century civilisation. The study used high-level theory based on the post-processual paradigm to apply social criticism to an ancient society, and it implements a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to extend this archaeological study and make it more flexible in the context of managing collective life. Financial illustrations are demonstrated from simple CBA simulations covering the 100 years following the temple’s construction, which demonstrate a negative net cash flow. The results indicated that the construction of the Borobudur temple was not economically feasible. Although the existence of Borobudur Temple offered non-financial benefits such as strengthening social cohesion and instilling pride and admiration in the people, it reflected the sufferings borne by the community; particularly the tax burdens and the negative impacts of slavery and associated shima practices. Pages 749 to 766

Beach Border Violations in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

I Dewa Nyoman Agung Dharma Wijaya1, Gatot Dwi Hendro2, Widodo Dwi Putro3, Amiruddin4, 1Doctor of Law Study Program, University of Mataram, Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia,

The purpose of this study is to identify violations of coastal spatial law, and reveal its causal roots in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. This research utilises a social-legal research method. To investigate the ineffectiveness of the structural components, substances, and culture, the researchers conducted observation, and interview methods. The results showed that the invisible component that caused the ineffectiveness of the law was the capital that dictated the structural, content, and cultural components, so that they did not work effectively. In this regard, the following is recommended. Firstly, change the paradigm in a transformative way. These changes must be fundamental to the philosophical aspects, such as the values ​​and perspectives, which underlie the spatial legal paradigm. Secondly, the paradigm shift must be dialectical; the coastal border previously considered that the public space — such as passive public space/inanimate objects/objects — becomes the public sphere, in which active subjects speak. Thus, the public space is not only passive in physicality, but also in public opinion and control over spatial planning. Pages 767 to 778

Community Potential Capital Development Strategies to Promote Self-Reliance Community for Ban Don Doo, Na Tal Sub District, Na Tal District, Ubonratchathani Province in Thailand

Utis Tahom, Assistant Professor, Social Development Program, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Buriram Rajabhat University, Thailand, Email: utittahom@gmail.com

This study aims to investigate community potential development and self-reliance knowledge and to find community potential development strategies in order to promote self-reliance in the community for Ban Don Doo, Na Tal Sub District, Na Tal District, Ubonratchathani Province. The research methodology is participatory action research (PAR). Data collection tools are relevant documents, in-depth interview, group discussion, brainstorming to develop the community potential. The findings reveal that the community potential development of Ban Don Doo can be divided in four stages: 1) community capital potential in community establishment age, 2) community capital potential in middle age, 3) community capital potential in changing age, and 4) community capital potential in present age. Furthermore, the community has two types of self-reliance knowledges: 1) self-reliance knowledge for the four necessities and 2) self-reliance knowledge from pounded unripe rice cooking. Four community potential capital development strategies are also found to promote self-reliance community for Ban Don Doo as the followings: 1) economic self-reliance strategy, 2) social self-reliance strategy, 3) cultural self-reliance strategy, and 4) natural self-reliance strategy. All these four strategies are means to promote self-reliance community in the future. Pages 779 to 798
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