Volume 6, Issue 4.  ISSN 2201-1323

 

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Factors Affecting Libyan Citizens Satisfaction with E-Government Services

*Omar Bin Musaa, Fauzia Abuwdnb, Iznora Aini Binti Zolkiflyc, Abdullah Almasrid, a,b,c,dFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, Malaysia,

*Corresponding Author Email: omarm@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

E-government services have become the main interface between governments and their citizens. To ensure that citizens are satisfied with these services is priority government currently, as technology introduces a new feature every day in this digital world. This research paper will examine relevant factors of citizen Adoption and Use of and Satisfaction with E-Government among Libyan citizens. Pages 1 to 23

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Exploring the Use of Social Networking Technologies among College Students and Its Impact; a Case Study

William Chee Khai Weia, *May May Graceb, Sharliana Che Anic, Nik Evina Nik Roselid, Samihah Mahamude, Mohd Azim Bin Sharimf, a,b,c,d,e,fUNITAR International University, Malaysia,

*Corresponding author, grace@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ,

The rapid advancement of media technology has had a great impact on the way people communicate daily. It is undeniable that social networking among students has become more popular as part of the means of staying connected to their communities as well as within the campus or school. Based on the reviewed literature, social networking has more negative compared to positive impacts on students’ academic performance. Due to this, researchers probed to find out a significance effect on students’ grades measured by how much time spent on social networking. The study was then also focused on the main purpose of using social networking, the effects on lifestyle and the impacts on the undergraduates’ academic performance. The findings of this study however revealed the contrary to the problem statement, in which social networking has indeed more great impact towards students’ lifestyle and academic performance. It is hoped that higher institutions will have more insight in delivering different varieties of lecturing methods, sharing learning materials and utilizing social networking as a medium of exchanging ideas and such with other institutions. Pages 24 to 41

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Influence of Perceived Risk on Consumer Attitude and Repurchase Intention among Gen Y Online Shoppers in Malaysian

*Siti Nor Bayaah Ahmada, Aida Shaarib, Habrizah Hussinc, Misyer Mohamed Tajudind, Simranpreet kaur Hansarame, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, Malaysia, *Corresponding Author Email: ctnor11@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Consumer purchasing behavior has shifted from the physical store to online stores in recent years. With the rapid development of the internet, conveniences and cost saving; these factors have encouraged a greater number of online shoppers among Malaysian consumers. With more online business available in the e-commerce setting, the online operators are facing difficulty in retaining their customers. Apart from the non-physical stores as one of the challenges faced by the operators, the risk factor of buying online is also an important one that needs attention. Past studies have shown that perceived risks such as product risk, financial risk, non-delivery risk and convenience risk were some of the challenges that hinder consumers online shopping. The influence of consumer’s perceived risks on online consumer’s repurchase intention has not been examined in depth in the context of Malaysia’s e-commerce industry. Hence, the present study is designed to investigate the influence of perceived risks namely Perceived Product Risk, Perceived Financial Risk, Perceived Convenience Risk and Perceived Non-Delivery Risk on online consumer’s repurchase intention. An online survey hyperlink was distributed to 200 online shoppers from a fan page group of online shoppers on Facebook. Results indicated that Perceived Non-Delivery Risk and Perceived Financial Risk had an influence on Malaysian online consumer’s attitude and the result also revealed that there was a strong influence between online consumer’s attitude and repurchase intention. Pages 42 to 54

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Assessing user Perception of Intention to use Customer Relationship Management (CRM) System for Future Adoption in Firms

*Omar Bin Musaa, Noor Raihan Abdul Hamidb, Siti Harrijah Binti Mohammadc, Normaiza Mohamadd, a,c,dFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, bVice Chancellor Office, UNITAR International University,

*Corresponding Author Email: omarm@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

This study uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to investigate potential users regarding their intention to use the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system for future adoption in their firm. The aims are to examine determinant factors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and external variables such as attitude toward changes and computer self-efficacy that may affect the intention to use CRM. Simple Linear Regression analysis was conducted to determine the direct relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward changes and computer self-efficacy with intention to use. Multiple Regression analysis was carried out to test for the indirect relationship between attitude toward changes, and computer self-efficacy with intention to use mediated by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Based on the results, it was confirmed that all direct relationships among variables are significant. All indirect relationships are also significant indicating a full mediation effect in which perceived usefulness has a stronger effect as a mediator than perceived ease of use. Pages 55 to 90

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Sustainable Tourism Product Development in Hulu Selangor

*Munira Saaidina, Dahlia Abd Azizb, Azrin Bin Abdul Razakc, Nur Juliana Azharid, a,cFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, bPoliteknik Sabak Bernam, dSchool of Culinary Arts, UNITAR International University,

*Corresponding Author Email: munira@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Sustainable tourism had become a progressively and increasingly more popular field of research since the 1980s. This paper examines the condition of the various resources in the Hulu Selangor with the aimed of finding out the possible tourism products that could be developed or suggested for further enhancement. It outlines qualitative research in three study areas which used in-depth interviews and discussion groups to engage with tourism providers to explore five issues to be addressed which were: the conditions of resources in the area, the tourism development in the area, the involvement of local communities with the development of their areas, the designated areas targeted for the development, and the possible impacts on the different communities if tourism was to be developed. The six resources to be examined in Hulu Selangor were: natural resources, cultural resources, site analysis, community analysis, environment assessment, and tourism services and facilities. The research process was divided into four phases. There were: analysis of resources, analysis of community and site, identification of potential tourism products and tourists and assessment of potential impacts. There were 18 tourism activities that were identified, and they were unique - culinary, waterfall, hot spring, jungle tracking, traditional spa, adventure, sightseeing, scenic view, entertainment, mountain and jungle tracking, entertainment, fishing, scenic drive through Peretak to Fraser’s Hill, visit to Orang Asli settlement, picnic, and visiting historical sites. Pages 91 to 115

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An Exploration of Community-Based Tourism in Kampung Baru Nelayan, Pekan Sungai Besar, Selangor

*Syed Munir Barakbah Syed Faozi Barakbaha, Ambigai Pariasamyb, Mohd Rafie Mohd Taibc, Mohd Shahril Mat Yusofd, abFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, cSchool of Culinary Arts, UNITAR International University, dUNITAR College,

*Corresponding Author Email: syedmunir@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

The purpose of this study was to explore the community and its activities which could be enhanced as a community-based tourism product. Thus, the main theme of this research project was community-based tourism which included detailed examination of factors such as cultural resources, financial resources, community activities and natural resources. The selected site to explore the variables was the community in Kampung Baru Nelayan which is in Pekan Sungai Besar, a sub-district of Sabak Bernam, in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Information was collected via observation on the on-going community activities at specific times on the days of the study, and through unstructured interviews with the local community. The findings from this research indicate that Kampung Baru Nelayan had a vast community-based tourism product that could be further developed and enhanced to be made attractive for both domestic and international tourists. Pages 116 to 131

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The Relationship between Job Training and Job Satisfaction: A Case Study of Royal Malaysian Air Force Firefighters

*Nasyra Ab. Jamila, Nor Asiah Mahmoodb, Syed Ahmad Hilmi Bin Syed Abdullahc, Khairil Hariss Bin Haji Khairuddind, Norhasram Binti Mohd Muharamie, Farah Damia Md Nasirf, Ikmal Malikg, a,b,f,gFaculty Education & Humanities, c,d,eBusiness & Technology, UNITAR International University,

*Corresponding Author Email: nasyra@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

The knowledge and skills developed during training are essential to maintain safety at actual emergency scenes. Indirectly, this can lead to enhanced job satisfaction among employees due to self-confidence on their safety. Thus, this study examined the relationship between job training (on- and off-the-job training) with job satisfaction for employees of the Royal Malaysia Air Force. Normal training covers potential hazards that look into the necessary steps, skill and outlines to avoid injury when faced with actual situations, and the employees rely on initial and ongoing job training. 200 surveys were distributed to the Royal Malaysian Air Force firefighters. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the demographic profile of the respondents, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used for relationship variables. The results show that there was a significant relationship between on- and off-the-job training and job satisfaction. The Malaysian Air Force needs to enhance employees’ training and development practices for on- and off-the-job training. With appropriate training, the employees felt secure, satisfied and motivated to work harder to their best level of performance. Pages 132 to 141

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Theoretical Framework for Human Resource Functions on Development of a Competent Workforce in the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN): Moderated by Job Satisfaction

*Nor Asiah Mahmooda, Syed Ahmad Hilmi Bin Syed Abdullahb, Khairil Hariss Bin Haji Khairuddinc, Norhasram Binti Mohd Muharamid, Farah Damia Md Nasire, Nasyra Ab. Jamilf, Ikmal Malikg, a,e,f,gFaculty Education & Humanities, b,c,dBusiness & Technology, UNITAR International University,

*Corresponding Author Email: nor.asiah@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

The focus of this paper is to address the issues with a theoretical framework for human resource functions on the development of a competent workforce in the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN), mediated by job satisfaction. Human resource management functions are now critically focusing on competency in the workforce. There is a challenge faced by human resources to measure a workforce with the right competencies and determine the most critical functions for the current environment. Having a competent workforce relates closely to individual job satisfaction. Based on that, the number one focus for this study is to look at and to explore the theories related to human resource functions on the workforce in RMN and to propose a theoretical framework for factors relating to human resource functions when developing a competent workforce. Theory and theoretical framework found through an extensive review of literature call for further study on the relationship between human resource functions and the development of a competent workforce in RMN. The finding of this study was that the theoretical framework that best fit this context consisted of two independent variables (IVs), which were training and development and performance appraisal towards the dependent variable (DV), which was job satisfaction. These findings will help the employer to highlight which factors lead to individual job satisfaction. Pages 142 to 150

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The Relationship of Reward System, Working Environment and Organization Commitment to Job Satisfaction: Generational Difference

*Roslan Mohd Rosea, Khairatun Hisan Idris Shazalib, Mohd NoorAdzwan Adamc, See Hooi Need, Imratul Najwa Abdul Latife, a,b,c,dFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, eUNITAR Foundation School, UNITAR International University,

*Corresponding Author Email: roslan@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship of hygiene factors towards job satisfaction and whether there are differences between generations. This research aims to investigate whether there are differences between Generation X and Generation Y regarding the relationship of reward system, working environment and organization commitment towards job satisfaction. Data were collected from two hundred and one respondents from different industries in Malaysia. The respondents are working in engineering, logistics, banking and IT industries. A quantitative experimental design has been conducted to analyze the differences in the relationship between independent and dependent variables among Generation X and Generation Y. Non-probability sampling designs using convenient sampling were administered. Pearson correlation and independent samples T-Test were conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Based on the analysis, only one hypothesis is accepted. Only organization commitment towards job satisfaction relationship is found to have significant difference in a comparison between Generation X and Generation Y. Thus, this research is useful for the future researcher to have a better understanding of the different perception towards job satisfaction between each generation. This will allow employers to facilitate the difference based on employee needs and motivation accordingly. Pages 151 to 168

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The Dynamism of the Night Market Environment at Bandar Baru Kuala Selangor

*Amri Ahmada, Poh Kok Wengb, Khursiah Abd Azizc, Nor Asmawati Nor Dind, Nurul Auni Hasbullahe, aFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, bFaculty of Hospitality and Tourism Management University Tun Abdul Razak, cKuala Lumpur Metropolitan University College, dSchool of Culinary Arts, UNITAR International University, eUNITAR College,  

*Corresponding Author Email: amri_ahmad@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

This ethnography study focused on factors contributing towards the dynamism of the night market environment at Bandar Baru in the district of Kuala Selangor. The overall night market dynamism was found to be quite vibrant taking into account the combinations of those three factors which found mixed results. The study looked into the night market environment, the variety of traders and products, and the night market atmosphere. Both the exploratory and descriptive method were used to examine the variables. Primary information was derived based on observations of the night market environment and atmosphere by using checklists and also in depth 15 to 20 minutes interview with 15 traders were conducted to determine their characteristics and attributes. The findings provide an understanding of the factors contributing toward the vibrancy of the night market environment and the nature of interactions between the traders and customers and among the traders. Pages 169 to 187

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A Study on the Relationship of Attitude Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioral Control Towards Customer intention to Use Islamic Product in Banking services

Rosalyn Ignatious Francisa, Djasriza Jasinb, Amuthasri A/P Mohanc, aMBA Students, UNITAR International University, bSenior Lecturer, UNITAR International University, cUNITAR International University,

The uniqueness of Islamic banking in Malaysia is seen in the co-existence of Islamic banking operation side by side with conventional banking operations. Instead of establishing many new Islamic banks, Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) introduced a concept of ‘Islamic window’ which allows the existing conventional banks to serve Islamic banking products to customers. The co-existence of both banking styles has brought both positive and negative challenges to Islamic banking. Being a player in a dual market, Islamic banks should be able to recognize the opportunity that influences their growth and market share control. Hence this paper aims to understand the factors that influence customer intention to use Islamic product in banking services. A conceptual framework is constructed based on Ajzen’s theory of Theory Of Planned Behavior (TPB) and research hypotheses are developed in order to focus attention on sets of factors that influence intention to use Islamic product in banking services. A total 300 customers from various races, religions age and income group in the Klang Valley are respondents to the questionnaire. The data was than analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS software version 22). Relationships between the variable were evaluated and the findings show a positive and significant relationship of attitude to behavior and perceived behavioral control on customer intention to use Islamic products in banking service. Pages 188 to 204

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An Analysis of Security Systems for Electronic Information for Establishing Secure Internet

Muneer Sameer Gheni Mansoora,   Mohammed Qasim Dhahirb, Hasanain Abdalridha Abed Alshadoodeec, aMobile Communications and Computing Engineering, University of Information Technology and Communications, The Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Republic of Iraq, bEnglish Language, University of Kufa, The Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Republic of Iraq, cComputer Labs in Geographic, University of Kufa, The Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Republic of Iraq, E-mail: muneer.m@uoitc.edu.iqThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , mohammedq.dhahir@uokufa.edu.iqThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , hasanain.allawi@uokufa.edu.iqThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

The modern integrated world is built on billions of web-servers that support the operation of information systems providing various functions from trading operations to e-government support. This set of systems contains not only personal data but financial information that needs to be secured during its storage, transfer and transformation. The transfer of financial flows from the banking sector and introduction of various payment systems and trading operations, which are concluded remotely, has expanded the circle of potential intruders infringing on these objects. Recent years have been marked by an increase in the number of attacks that target web-servers. Crime in this area has become more organized and has shifted from the actions of hackers, affirmed at the expense of such doubtful success to quite meaningful actions of mass password gathering and financial information theft. Pages 205 to 226

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Investigating the Predominance of Academic Superior on Officer’s Commitment Towards Service Quality in Malaysian Private Universities

*Rozeta Che Omara, Khairun Nisa Mohd Arshadb, Paridah Daudc, Rashidah Mat Ranid, aCenter of Experiencial Learning and Research Excellence, Unitar International University, Malaysia, bStrategic Planning and Monitoring Unit, Yayasan Pahang, Malaysia, cFaculty of Business and Technology, Unitar International University, Malaysia, dHuman Resource Department, AEON Bhd, Malaysia,

Corresponding Author Email: rozeta@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

The primary objective of this inquiry is to examine the connection between transformative leadership approach and the affective commitment towards service quality among the administrative staff at private Malaysian universities. Prior evidence has indicated that one of the critical components in building a robust competitive advantage that will ensure the sustainability of an organization, is excellent service quality. Preceding studies also found that the transformative leadership approach accommodates the employee's motivation towards a higher commitment to the more bureaucratic organization. This investigation employed a quantitative survey method using a structured questionnaire to collect data. The study used disproportionate stratified random sampling, and 310 respondent administrative officers from local private universities in the Klang Valley participated. A total of 1,825 questionnaires were disseminated, yielding 17 percent response rate. The findings indicate that the transformative approach of leadership has a significant association with the affective commitment towards service quality amid the administrative personnel of private Malaysia universities. The study results are used to propose theoretical and managerial implications as well as suggestions for future research. Pages 227 to 242

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Customer Satisfaction towards Online Shopping in Klang Valley

*Sarita Ibrahima, Md. Emon Raihanb, Roslan Mohd Rosec, Yanti Lumatd, Noor Lees Ismaile, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University,

*Corresponding Author Email: sarita@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

According to Internet Word Statistics (2012) about 60.7% of the total population in Malaysia uses the Internet and more than 11 million people are young and adults. This study aims to examine factors that influence customer satisfaction in an online purchase context. A total of 200 responses were collected throughout the Klang Valley. Questionnaire survey method was used to gather data from the respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. In addition, regression analysis was performed to test the hypotheses. Findings show that only Reliability and Quality have effects on Customer Satisfaction. Pages 243 to 257

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A Secure Cloud Storage Link Sharing Mechanism

Shu Yun Lima, Munirah Yusoffb, Paridah Daudc, Alfonso Johand, Noor Azma Binti Ismaile, a,c,eFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, dICT Services, UNITAR International University, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia Ehsan, Malaysia, bOdekan Technologies PLT, Cyberjaya Selangor, Malaysia,

Email: lim_sy@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , munirah.yusoff@team.odekan.techThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , paridah69@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , alfonso.johan@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Cloud storage offers a convenient way of keeping files on an external server and also sharing them with other users publicly. There can be a risk of data leakage when sensitive information is being used without permission. In this untrusted cloud environment, anyone could share documents that are owned by someone else. This problem of loss of data ownership becomes a major hindrance of cloud adoption. This project examined the weaknesses of existing link sharing mechanisms in two cloud storage providers, namely Dropbox and Google Drive. The result shows security weaknesses in each provider may lead to data breaches without user awareness. Hence, a secure cloud storage link sharing mechanism using ticket is proposed to improve the security of link sharing. This secure mechanism is able to resolve existing private-URL sharing and secret-URL sharing security issues. Pages 258 to 267

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Perceived Values and Personal Values: Which one explains the Consumer’s Repurchase Intention of Eco-Friendly Home Appliances Product?

*Siti Nor Bayaah Ahmada, Nabila Mohd Nadzrib, Aida Shaaric, Shaharuddin Yunusd, Normaziah Binti Che Musae, a,b,c,eFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, dSchool of Social Science, Heriot-Watt University Malaysia.

*Corresponding Author Email: ctnor11@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

The focus of the study is to look into two main factors namely perceived value and personal values on consumers’ repurchase intention of eco-friendly home appliances. Perceived values was represented by functional value, social value, financial value, whilst personal values were interpreted as looking into the consumer’s perceived environmental consciousness and health consciousness. The data was collected from users of green home appliances such as air-conditioning, refrigerators and lighting of the brands available in Malaysia. In total 193 respondents’ answers were used for further analysis. Data collected was analysed using PLS-SEM 3.0. The result indicated that only functional value, environmental consciousness, and health consciousness were the constructs that directly influenced the consumer decision to re-purchase green home appliances with (ß=0.533, p=0.00) (ß=0.325, p=0.00) and (ß=0.143, p<0.05) respectively. It is suggested that the idea of stressing and developing the awareness in taking care of the environment should be instilled from a young age and should start at home. Every household should carry out the activities of recycling and reusing items as it plays a big role in reducing unwanted wastage that is harmful to the environment. Thus, effective advertising that uses emotional appeal should be implemented in local TV commercials and printed ads to raise the interest towards green home appliances. Pages 268 to 284

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The Effectiveness of Human Resource Management Practices on Employee Retention at National Hydrographic Centre (NHC)

*Ikmal Malika, Nor Asiah Mahmoodb, Musa Paimanc, Mohd Khairunie Mohammedd, Mohammad Shaiful Suhaimeee, Farah Damia Nasirf, Nasyra Ab. Jamilg, Khaeruddin Sudharminh, a,b,f,gFaculty Education & Humanities, c,d,eBusiness & Technology, UNITAR International University, hChartered Institute of Logistics & Transport CILTM,

*Corresponding Author Email: ikmal@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Human Resource Management (HRM) practices play a crucial role in an organization. HRM practices consist of appropriate tools that need to be analysed and suited to the organization’s objectives. This paper studied employee retention at the National Hydrographic Centre (NHC) and tested how each selected HRM function can meet its goals. The objective of this study was to explore and examine the training, compensation, empowerment and appraisal practices toward NHC’s employee retention. The framework was adopted from Hong, Lam, Kumar, Ramendran and Kadiresan (2012) regarding how to retain the best employees and engage them with the NHC community. Four hypotheses were developed based on this framework, to study the relationship between the four constructs with employee retention. Using Google Form, 251 questionnaires were distributed to NHC personnel from the Sections and Unit under the NHC structure, and 200 questionnaires were returned. Statistical analysis was used to analyse the data. The results showed that all the variables were significant, with β = 0.580 for training, β = 0.452 for appraisal, β = 0.363 for compensation, and β = 0.284 for empowerment. The findings serve as an added value for HRM practitioners and a guideline for future HRM practices to implement new policies an new benefits to the staff welfare and HRM programmes. Pages 285 to 296

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The Impact and Exposure of Changes in Exchange Rate Regime on Firms in Malaysia: Evidence from Stock Return and Foreign Exchange Rate

*Khairatun Hisan Idris Shazalia, Obiyathulla Ismath Bachamb, Mohd Noor Adzwan Bin Adamc, a,cFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, Malaysia, bINCEIF, The Global University of Islamic Finance, Malaysia,

*Corresponding Author Email: khairatun@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

This study is an adaptation and it compliments earlier research that has been conducted in this field. It examines the exposure of the exchange rates of firms in Malaysia between the period starting from 1990 to 2010 and it looks at the extent to which the exchange rate regime has undergone changes. The theoretical foundations are evident, but the empirical evidence is still inconclusive. These issues have been discussed and has become a challenging issue for the past twenty years. A number of firms are significantly exposed to four currencies (USD, SGD, JPY and GBP) especially against USD. However, based on further investigations using the panel data and pooled analysis with random effects (SUR), the results show an interesting dynamic. It was found that the number of firms with significant exposure did not increase from the peg to the de-peg period.

Finally, recent research has placed emphasis on the importance and relevance of measuring firms’ specific exchange rate exposure. Even though in some cases, the incidence is still a puzzle, a more comprehensive picture of the relationship between the firms’ value and the exchange rate fluctuations could be established. Pages 297 to 319

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Ownership Structure and Risk Taking of Malaysian Banking Institutions: A Comparative Measurement Applied in Developed and Emerging Countries

*Nasyra Ab. Jamila, Rasidah Mohd. Saidb, Mohd Fahmi Abdul Hamidc, Teo, Yeong Chind, aFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, bGraduate School of Business, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, cdUNITAR Foundation School, UNITAR International University,

*Corresponding Author Email: nasyra@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

This research aims to investigate the comparative measurement impact of the three ownership structures (government, institutional and family) on bank risk takings measured by Z-Score with capital adequacy ratio as the moderating element towards bank risk taking as measured by Z-Score, along with the five control variables. There are two Z-Score measurement used in this study. The first Z-Score measurement is used to measure risk taking in developed countries, meanwhile the second Z-Score is the formulation that is used and is based on the context that fits for Malaysia as one of the emerging markets. Data from eight Large Domestically-owned Commercial Banks in Malaysia for the period that ran from 2000 to 2012 is used in this research.   Hierarchical moderated multiple regression results suggest that capital adequacy is significant as a moderating factor merely for the second measurement of bank risk. Besides, the interaction between family ownership and capital adequacy are also found to be significant only towards risk taking for the second measurement of the bank risk. Pages 320 to 337

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Adoption of Technology Application Among Employees at Workplace: A Case of Property Development in Malaysia

*Haliza binti Mohd Saida, Siti Nor Amira Baharudinb, Ahmad Feruz bin Izharuddinc, Irena binti Idrisd, Hezrizah binti Othmane, a,b,c,d,eUNITAR International University, Malaysia.

*Corresponding Author Email: hanifahm@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Introduction. Many researchers have highlighted factors that affect people in adopting new applications at the office. Based on past studies, there is a questionable issue of what really effect employees when adopting a system in their daily work activities. The purpose of this research is to identify the behaviour intention among employees in adopting technology applications at work. The specific objective of the research is to identify the relationship between Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Enjoyment and Computer Self-Efficacy towards Behavioural Intention to adopt online technology applications among employees at the workplace. A quantitative research methodology is employed in this research and purposive sampling was used to collect data at the property developer premises. A total of 200 respondents were asked to rate questionnaire using a 5 point Likert-scale instrument. The research findings show that Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Enjoyment and Computer Self-Efficacy have a significant relationship towards the employees’ behavioural intention to use the online technology application at their workplace. Pages 338 to 359

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The Effect of Administrative Service Quality and Lecturer’s Teaching Quality on Students’ Satisfaction in Higher Learning Institutions in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

Terence Boyd Stephena, Nor Zarina Abub, Chong Kim Loyc, Zakariya Belkhamzad, aMBA graduate Unitar International University, b,cLecturer Unitar International University, dFPEP, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia,

The developments of human capital are dependent on the capacity of the national workforce, especially those who graduate from higher learning institutions. Apart from academic qualification, experience and skills are necessity as an added advantage to get a job and to meet with the requirements of the current job market. Students who are satisfied with their higher institutions will have the tendency to perform during their studies and new skills or experiences will be developed. Therefore, there is a need for the higher learning institutions top level management to understand the quality assessment for both administrative staff and academics to provide continuous improvement in service quality. This study investigates the effect of administrative service quality and lecturer’s teaching quality on students’ satisfaction in higher learning institutions. A survey has been conducted and questionnaires have been administered to students in higher learning institutions in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. A sample of 384 students from both public and private institutions has been collected as the sample evidence for this study. Based on the results, both administrative service quality and lecturer’s teaching quality have significant effect on students’ satisfaction. As further analysis has been taken to identify the dimensions of service quality that have effect on students’ satisfaction and it was found that assurance, responsiveness, and tangibility have significance on students’ satisfaction. Empathy and reliability show insignificant result in this study, but it does not mean that both areas of service quality are less important as compared to assurance, responsiveness, and tangibility. Pages 260 to 376

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The Effect of Empowerment and Teamwork on Employee Productivity

Annie Tsue Shui Ghena, Nor Zarina Abub*, Khairatun Hisan Idris Sazalic , Zakariya Belkhamzad, a,b,cFaculty of Business and Technology, Unitar International University, Malaysia, dFPEP, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia,

*Corresponding Author Email: zarinanor@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Ever since the relationship between employee and employer existed, the search for greater performance and productivity has been unrelenting. Superfluous to say, higher productivity, being a major contributing factor of higher profits will ensure the organization’s existence and continuous success. Today, the tougher economic climate due to growing global competition, higher expectations from stakeholders and increasing speed of information have resulted in a work environment which demands more from employees than ever before. This research discusses and measures the effect of empowerment, both in macro (focus on organizational structures, policies, procedures, culture) and micro (psychological and intrinsic motivation individuals and teams) perspectives and the promotion of teamwork on employee productivity. Data pertaining to the demographical characteristics, understanding and perception of empowerment, teamwork and productivity was collected from 138 respondents. Using linear regression, the study found that there is a relationship between empowerment, both in the macro and micro perspective, and teamwork on productivity. Pages 377 to 386

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Leadership Competencies in Driving Organizational Performance in Vuca Environment: Malaysian Perspective

*Roslan Mohd Rosea, Tan Teck Hongb, Rudzi Munapc, Siti Nor Baayah Ahmadd, Norizzati Azudine, Romiza Md. Akhirf, Raihan Ab. Hamidg, Rob Cayzerh, a,b,c,d,e,f,gUNITAR International University, hFrost & Sullivan,

*Corresponding Author Email: roslan@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Leaders play a crucial role in the success of any organizations be they private or public entities, new or mature firms, profit or non-profit organizations. Leaders are expected to lead their people in perilous times where volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity are the general norms. The aim of this research is to identify the competencies expected of future leaders, which comprises of senior managers and middle managers and to explore the framework sought to develop the intended competencies in order to achieve the desired organizational performance and goals. This exploratory research identifies the key competencies from the viewpoint of Malaysian organizational leaders. For this research, an interview approach was employed with the research instrument adopted from Frost & Sullivan. A total of eleven chief executive officers and general managers from the private and public sectors in various industries participated in the study. The findings identified twelve key competencies that leaders must possess and the top four are: strategic thinking, communication skills, technical skills and, coaching and mentoring. However, the importance of the competencies is not the same between private and public sectors. Only two competencies; strategic thinking and networking have similar ranking. There is also a paradigm shift in the mind-set of the public sector where the competency of business acumen is ranked fifth among the twelve competencies identified. This finding will allow organizations to strategize their leadership development program. Pages 387 394

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Students’ Expectations and Experiences in E-Learning: A case study Among Trainees Servicing the Government Agency in Malaysia

Romiza Md Akhira, *Siti Nor Bayaah Binti Ahmadb, Normaziah Che Musac, Paridah Daudd, Rudzi Munape, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Business and Technology, UNITAR International University, Malaysia,

*Corresponding Author Email: ctnor11@unitar.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

This study seeks to explore respondents’ perception and perceived usefulness of e-Learning systems. The study employed the qualitative approach by using focus group. Data was gathered from two groups of respondents, the officers and other ranks who at present are the trainees for one of the government agencies in Malaysia. The process of data collection was conducted in February 2018 and it involved 32 personnel who were then were grouped into three categories (early adopters, moderate access and heavy access). The respondents are the first group among various intakes that were selected to undergo training and classes in a blended learning environment. The results revealed a positive response and perception of the implementation of an e-Learning system. More than 90% of the respondents agreed that the implementation of e-Learning into their training modules had met their expectation. There is also a strong positive effect on the usefulness of e-Learning systems towards the respondent’s daily job routine. With further suggestions and continuous improvement, the present e-Learning system can be more interactive and serve as the point of reference to the trainees. Pages 395 to 405

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The University, Social Networks Media Sites, and Integration of Students’ Most Popular

*Falah Y.H Ahmeda, Khairul Farisb, Muhammad Irsyad Abdullahc, a,b,cFaculty of Information Sciences and Engineering Management and Science University, Malaysia,

*Corresponding Author Email: * falah@msu.edu.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , khairulfaris22@gmail.comThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , irsyad@msu.edu.myThis e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Social Networks Media Sites (SNMS) are becoming prevalent and the number of users is increasing rapidly. Nowadays, SNMS are offering so many features to fulfil the needs of the users. Its users consist of individuals and companies. The university also use SNMS to recruit new potential students. With the increasing number of students enrolled in higher education intuitions every year, universities are starting to realize that their facilities are am important feature and that they need to stand out amongst the crowd, both online and off. They need a strategy to attract and recruit new students in both real and virtual worlds. In the university environment, SNMS can be incredibly useful when it comes to reaching out, and engaging with students. It's a great tool when it comes to interacting with students since it's something they are so familiar with as they are using these sites frequently throughout daily life. This study focuses on the three most popular SNMS in Malaysia, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. In Malaysia, almost all higher education intuitions are equipped with and providing Wi-Fi networks to their students. With many features available on SNMS, their functionality can be leveraged to enhance the academic environment for students. This research focuses on students' most popular activity. Pages 406 to 431