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The Two-Faced Coin of Pride and Honour in Shakespeare's Coriolanus

Enas Mohammed Saleh AL-Darrajia, aEnglish Department, College of Education, University of Samarra, Email: aumyaserdaragi@gmail.com

All roads lead to Rome. No truer is this statement than in Shakespeare's Roman plays: Julius Caesar (1601), Antony and Cleopatra (1608) and Coriolanus (1609). In all these plays, Rome is linked to a repeated word "honour". It is for Rome that Brutus betrayed his friend and by Rome that Antony suffered shame and it is again Rome which becomes the target of Coriolanus’ revenge. Picking a leader (Caesar), a friend (Brutus), a lover (Antony) and a son (Coriolanus), the essential human relationship representing any state, Shakespeare was successful in presenting Rome from different angles. Besides being Romans, these heroes, all the more so, are seeking honour, something most often noticed in all of his dramas, but here with one difference. Honora would be deliberately investigated in Shakespeare's Roman plays, especially the perfect model Coriolanus, to make a point. Here, it is, in value, unlike both Othello and Hamlet's honour which stimulates their passion for revenge, not a means; it is an end by itself. It is considerably only a means in the sense that being accompanied with pride fuses effective strategy with virtue and eventually leads, willingly, to their destruction. So honour and pride are two faces of the same coin. Intentionally, it is a coin  both verbally and virtually, because in a way it is, just like financial coins, the reflection of the identify, uniqueness and the culture of the nation, and in this case, to explain the virtual meaning, it is a combination exclusively reflecting the Roman ideology. Nothing seems to offer a satisfying reason behind this end more than two opposing traits: honour and pride which in many ways, exclusively, combined in a Roman system to be a two-faced coin. Pages 1 to 10

 

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Performance of Iraqi EFL University Learners in Compounding

Estabraq R. Ibraheema, Sundus A. J. Kamilb, Nesaem Mehdic, Email: aestabraq60@yahoo.com, bsundus_kamil@yahoo.com, cNesaem-rose-i@yahoo.com

Everyday innovative words can be enhanced to the terminology of a certain language, and English in particular, via word-formation processes including compounding. Compounding is generating a new word from words already present and of course with meaning derived from its components, which is sometimes much apart from that of the original components. Words, necessarily, are created to satisfy and fit specific purposes. For instance, the word Frigidaire is known as a compound noun by joining the adjective frigid with the noun air. Thus, compounds are written in various ways either with dashes, spaces, or nothing between the individual words. The present study aims to shed light on compounding as a productive process of word-formation processes, and to identify the performance of Iraqi EFL learners in this process. The study is based on a test designed by the researcher, and has been validated by exposure to a jury of experts in the field. Reliability is estimated by adopting the Kurder-Richardson method. The test consists of (20) items to test recognition of the types of compounds and (20) items to test production of the compounds. The test is administered to (30) students selected randomly from second year students at the Department of English in the College of Education/Ibn Rushd for the academic year 2016-2017. The data has been analyzed statistically. Percentage and one way analysis of variances measure the students’ performance in compounding. The results come to reject the null hypothesis and prove positively the students’ recognition and production of compounding. Pages 11 to 23

 

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 The Arab Resistance to Foreign Penetration in Andalusia: "Intellectual Invasion as a Model"

Noor Al-Huda Fayq Muhammed Al-Samarraiea, Israa Sai'di Abood Al-Samarraieb, Wasna'a Sai'di Abood Al-Samarraiec, aDepartment of  History / College of  Art / University of Samarra, bDepartment of History/College of Education //University of Samarra, cMinistry of Education/Directorate of Education Salahalddin / Department of Samarra, Email: adrnooralhoda6@gmail.com, bisraaaboo8@gmail.com, ct.22218@yahoo.com

Muslims have been plagued by this kind of invasion, which may be overlooked by some as a result of the many adversities and hardships experienced by the nation of Islam. Its danger and damage appear in terms of being unfelt by some, in addition to the continuing effects on new generations, a factor in changing the distinctive Islamic identity. Pages 24 to 34

 

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A Semiotic Study of English Commercial Advertisements

Dunya Muhammed Miqdad Ijama, Dhuha Fadhil Abbaasb,a(M.A.) in English Language and linguistics, Collage of Education for Human Science, University of Babylon, bDepartment of English, College of Education for Human Science, University of Babylon, Email: adunya.ijam@gmail.com,bduhaf69@gmail.com

Visual communication is an intricate process, which involves a broad knowledge of semiotics. Semiotics relates to the study of signs and codes. How these signs and codes are inferred is studied underneath semiotics. The aim of semiotics is to acquire and understand the message carried in advertisements. The arrangement of images, words, colours, and slogans must be interpreted by the audience or consumer. This study examined the communicative values of signs in print advertisement copies of selected American magazines from 1990-2010. Throughout this time, the present study compares the differences that influence marketing because of the development, and implications, of such influence on product marketing. The present study introduces one of the most important theories and models of visual social semiotics, namely Kress and van Leeuwen’s grammar of visual design. Meaning of social life are represented in the advertising, passing through social semiotic resources (words, images and colours). Pages 35 to 54

 

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The Aesthetic Dimension of Vector Technique in Design

Noora Abd-allah Alia, Ekhlas Abdul Qader Taherb, aInstitute of Fine Arts-Holy Kadhimiya, bInstitute of Fine Arts for Boys Email; amahmoud_mahdi74@yahoo.com,bsaad.nawkhas@email.com

The current study addressed the aesthetic dimension of vector technique in the design work. Graphics are part of the study and analysis, which dealt with the content of vector technique, including the problem of research and the need for it to highlight the problem of the current study. The researchers asked: What are the mechanics of vector technique? The objective of the study was to identify the aesthetic dimension of vector technique in design. The theoretical framework included the first topic: digital art and the transformations of contemporary thought, and the second topic: the technique of vector and contemporary aesthetic systems, and in the analysis of samples. The researchers followed the descriptive approach. For analytical purposes the sample was based on the results of the literature review of vector technique. It is followed by the most important findings and conclusions. Pages 55 to 73

 

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Using Discussion Method in Art Education and its Prospects for Improving Education

Ali Hussein Khalaf Al-Saadia, aCollege of Fine Art, University of Babylon, Email: aalialssady709@gmail.com

The current research highlights the use of discussion in art education and the improvement of the educational system. It also highlights the fundamental process of building a human being. At the same time all nations are attending greatly to their level of development. It is based on outputs in gaining knowledge and experience, to contribute to the formation and rehabilitation of the learner in all vital aspects, whether spiritual, psychological or aesthetic. The nutrition of learners in their knowledge of educational situations provides an opportunity to practice cooperation and teamwork, and to stimulate the expression of opinion freely. It also provides an opportunity to teach the intellectual tolerance links to the investment of different methods of teaching; a cornerstone of learning in art education. The problem was identified by the following question: Is the use of the discussion method to improve education and raise the level of knowledge of students of the Department of Art Education at the Faculty of Fine Arts? It was followed by the importance, objective and definition of terms. In the intellectual framework, it dealt with the research (the method of discussion and the prospects for improvement) and then the discussion (the use of the discussion and its forms). The research reached a number of results, such as informing them in general; not to mention that it moved and removed from the learners coldness and stagnation in the pursuit of dialogue and discussion and research, which resulted in an improved education. Pages 74 to 92

 

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The Psychological Impact of the Show on the Elderly in Homes for the Aged

Qabas Ibraheem Al shmarya, aDepartment of Art, College of Education, Kufa University, IRAQ, Email: aqa2018ib@gmail.com

There is a close link between art and life throughout history. Since the first human being looked through art for answers to his questions, and tried art in all of his basic activities, to reach something, art has been a way of knowledge about the universe and man, and the world of art is a valuable approach to man. Through it man can understand reality to help him endure and overcome it. Understanding can even increase his determination to make this reality human, as art brings man from rupture and dispersion to unity and integration. The emotions aroused by art and the experiments it conveys are deep, broad and characterized by comprehensiveness. Pages 93 to 112

 

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The Role of the G-20 in Addressing Security Issues (Counter-Financing of Terrorism Model)

Hayder Zuhair Jasima, Aqeel Hussein Abbasb, aCollege of Engineering, University of Baghdad, bDept. of Law, Imam Al-Kadhum College, Baghdad,, Email: azhery_hader@yahoo.com,baqeelhussein@alkadhum_col.edu.iq

The G-20 is an international economic forum for cooperation and consultation on key issues related to the international financial system. It works by studying, reviewing and promoting dialogue among major industrialized countries, with emerging economies and markets, thereby enhancing the stability of the international financial and monetary system. It works to address the issues and crises that concern each of the Group countries through financial, monetary or economic measures, commensurate with the nature of the challenges and crises,  and seeks to develop appropriate solutions to meet them. During the G-20 the major world powers in the group gave priority to make the financial system global "totally hostile to the financing of terrorism". A follower of large-scale financial crime cases addressed in group meetings focused on the terrorist acts that have been exposed to every part of the world as a global scourge that must be fought, and the emphasis on safe environmental elimination for terrorists. Pages 113 to 126

 

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Contemplative Thinking Skills and their Effects on Preparatory Students’ Drawing Performances

Fareeq Abdulazeez Nasera, aFaculty of Fine Arts, University of Babylon, Performing arts, Email: aFine.fareeq.na@uobabylon.edu.iq

This study aims to identify the skills of contemplative thinking and its effects upon preparatory students’ drawing performances. A research sample of 150 randomly selected students from the Al-Hillah Preparatory School for Boys was split into 75 participants for the experimental group and 75 for the control group. The split-half method is followed in Classes A and B which were treated statistically in terms of the following variables: student’s age in months, marks of mid-year art education exams and parents’ academic achievements. A random selection method was employed to acquire participants for the Fifth Class A experimental group, which studies art expression (drawing) according to the skills of contemplative thinking, and for the Fifth Class B control group, which studies applied science and art expression according to the skills of normal thinking. After identifying the nominated subjects, two plans to be taught in the experiment were presented. The researcher prepared such teaching plans and had them verified and amended as needed through a committee of experts. During the experiment’s 12-week period, the test was applied starting from 20/01/2019 to 30/04/2019 after excluding the mid-year vacation.  Statistical analysis was performed through the T-test for two independent samples, the Chi-Squared test and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results reveal a significant difference at a level of 0.05 in the preparatory students’ drawing performances, in which the experimental group students who studied art expression (drawing) according to the skills of contemplative thinking surpassed the control group students who studied the same subject according to the normal thinking. Pages 127 to 140

 

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 Conceptual Metaphorization of Colour Terms

Galina Maximovna Kostyushkinaa, Natalya Nickolaevna Kozlovab, aProfessor of Philology Baikal State University Lenin Street, 11, Irkutsk, 664003, Russia, bAssociate Professor of Philology Transbaikal State University Aleksandro-Zavodskaya Street, 30, Chita, Zabaikalsky Krai 672039, Russia.

This study investigates the cognitive mechanism of the metaphorization of colour terms using the example of “zeloyniy”, or “green”, colourations. This process involves the stages of conceptualisation and categorisation of internal and external human experiences through the lexical system of a language (pertaining to phraseological units with colour terms for the present study). A conceptual metaphor method is utilised for research, which involves the G. Fauconnier and M. Turner’s theory of conceptual integration and A.V. Kolmogorova’s method of discursive analysis. The described model of colour metaphorization allows for an in-depth discussion of how metaphorical images of realistic objects form part of the mental capacity for colour naming. Pages 141 to 152

 

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New Approaches to Assessing Consumer Preferences

Babakaev Sa, Vishnyakova Vb, Patsula Ac, Kulyamina Od, Vinogradov Me, a,c,dInterdisciplinary research laboratory, Russian State Social University, Russia, bDepartment of scientific and technical information, Russian State Social University Russia, eResearch Institute of perspective directions and technologies, Russian State Social University.

The theory of postmodern society considers consumer preferences in the context of a broader social field that goes beyond economic interests. This study proposes an expansion of existing approaches to the study these consumer practices through an interdisciplinary approach that takes into account all emerging aspects of consumer behaviour in the new social reality. The aim of this research is to first to determine the characteristics of consumer preferences in a postmodern society, and to then identify new opportunities that open sociological methods in the understanding, description and interpretation of new consumer practices. Of particular scientific interest in this regard is the problematic emergence of imitation models of consumerism, which are symbolic representations of a form of self-expression, self-identification and self-knowledge rather than a type of economic activity. Within the formation of a new social reality, these aspects of the current study are of interest not only for consumer sociology, but also for marketing and advertising ventures. The research methodology is based on the works of J. Baudriar, J. Deleuze and F. Guattari, T. Veblen, D. Graaf and other theorists of postmodern society. Theoretical propositions and empirical results were obtained during the pilot study of consumer preferences using qualitative and quantitative methods. These results and their subsequent analysis confirmed the necessity to consider new social practices and to find new and valid methods for their explanation which arise from the postmodern theory. Pages 153 to 170

 

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Crime Standard Development Features in the Sphere of Economic Activity within the Modern Criminal Legislation of Russia

Ekaterina I. Gruzinskayaa, Alexander A. Knyazkovb, Oleg G. Solovyevc, aNovorossiysk Institute (branch) Moscow humanitarian and economic university (Russian Federation, Novorossiysk), b,cYaroslavl State University named after P.G. Demidov (Russian Federation, Yaroslavl). E-mail: aromirka@list.ru, balknyazkov@mail.ru, colegsol1961@yandex.ru

When creating a prohibiting criminal law rule, a contradiction always exists between the need for a complete description of offense in disposition and the requirement for presentation brevity, and the “economy” of law. A question of the extent to which elements of criminal law should be described thus presents itself, for example descriptions of disposition, sanction or stimulating prescriptions. Science and practice have developed two main techniques for criminal law norm development: abstract and casuistic. This study investigates the category of legal constructions in criminal law, primarily from theoretical and legal positions, including an examination of the conceptual apparatus. Chapter 22 of the Russian Federation (RF) Criminal Code considers criminal law mechanisms to ensure the harmony and consistency of lawful norms. According to the authors, the criminal law structure refers to legislative engineering, which is a structural model of a group of homogeneous legal phenomena. A certain combination of elements by which the legislator fills legally relevant information thereby regulates the corresponding types of these phenomena within criminal law. Pages 171 to 179

 

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The Modern Idea of “Expected Values” of Consumer Goods and Services

Volkov Da, Babakaev Sb, Kulyamina Oc, a,b,cRussian State Social University, Russia, Moscow,

The motivational theory of attractiveness within the turbulent business environment has transformed over time, with modern consumers now portraying different perceptions of goods and services. In tackling this change, the entrepreneur should take the initiative to form the “expected value” of produced goods and services. Identification of the target audience in modern information spaces is now expected for an array of businesses, so the theory of “expected values” should be restructured to consider these continuous developments. This new theory considers the impact that suppliers of goods and services have on the consumer, as well as the influence of semantic fields, which include a potential consumer. Pages 180 to 195

 

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A Socio-Economic Analysis of the “Yellow Vests Manifest” in France

Patsula Aa, Vishnyakova Vb, Babakaev Sc, aDoctor of Sociology, Senior Researcher Interdisciplinary Research Laboratory Russian State Social University, bCandidate of Economics Research Institute of Perspective Directions and Technologies Russian State Social University, cCandidate of Politology, Senior Researcher Interdisciplinary Research Laboratory Russian State Social University.

This study conducts a comprehensive socio-economic analysis of the “yellow vests movement” in France. The research categorises and profiles various contributions to this movement, and identifies the potential causes of the yellow vest manifest. The paper aims to uncover and specify the nature, composition, content, significance and perspectives of this movement and suggests conceptual approaches to the assessment of the movement. Pages 196 to 210

 

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Strengthening Consumer Risks in the Conditions of Modern Economic Reality through Qualitative Analysis

Babakayev Sa, Kulyamina Ob, Vinogradova Mc, a,bInterdisciplinary Research Laboratory, Russian State Social University, Russia, cResearch Institute of Perspective Directions and Technologies, Russian State Social University, Russia,

The current economic situation evolving in Russia has combined two contradictory vectors leading to increasing consumer risks. Such risks are concern the digital society, digital economy and e-commerce, as well as economic stagnation of the economy and societal living standards. These latter implications undoubtedly affected many aspects of consumer behaviour, especially after a period of rapid development and growth of consumer activity. The multiplier effect of the combination of these risks significantly changed the consumer behaviour of Russians as a response to the emergence of new risks. Little research has been conducted on the effects of new consumer risks on behaviour strategies that aim to minimise these risks, however, which this study aims to develop. Qualitative analysis methods are employed through group focused interviews with consumers focused on online trading and online purchases. Results reveal a certain relationship between new risks, a specific response to their enhancement, and the characteristics of changes in consumer behaviour patterns. The main significance of these results was the definition and fixation of respondents’ awareness of enhancing consumer risks. Further, consumers were found to frequently choose inadequate strategies of action, which could only exacerbate the negative consequences of these risks. Through studying a specific segment of the target audience, an attempt to identify and explain the main reasons for which some people neglect the risks can be highlighted. Based on the sociocultural components of the personal perceptions of arising situations, the motives and strategies of consumer behaviour can be understood and analysed. Pages 211 to 230

 

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Impact of Digitalization on Changes in Business Processes of Service Provision

Leonova V. Pa, Vinogradova M. Vb, Pochinok N. Bc, a,b,cRussian State Social University, Russia, Moscow,

Business processes are transformed over time, responding to the challenges of our time. Modern conditions of General digitalization contribute to the emergence of new technological processes associated with forcing supply and demand in the market of goods and services. Directly services in the information society have acquired a new status. This article discusses the degree of transformation of modern services in the conditions of digitalization of processes. The position of both business and consumer is considered, which allows to create a more complete picture for the evaluation of positive and negative elements of the system. Pages 131 to 243

 

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Model for Assessing the Economic Security of an Enterprise

Vlasov M. Pa, aDoctor of economics, professor, Saint-Petersburg State of Architecture and Civil Engineering,

The purpose of this article is to assess the economic security of the enterprise, determine the necessary and sufficient conditions for its provision, and also analyse the interaction of all persons interested in the operation of the enterprise. The existing point of view reflects the interests of management, not the owner, and is to identify threats to the activities of the enterprise. The article assumes that the economic security of an enterprise depends on timely and far-sighted management decisions. Moreover, each management decision has not only positive, but also negative consequences that pose threats to the enterprise. Thus, it is argued that the modern theory of economic security of an enterprise is focused not on the causes, but on the consequences of managerial decisions. The article proposes to consider the economic security of the enterprise from the point of view of timely fulfillment of mutual obligations by the enterprise on the one hand, and by the owner, staff, customers, partners, the state on the other. Then a necessary condition for the economic security of the enterprise is the preservation of property as a means of generating income, and a sufficient condition is the effective use of this property to generate income by the owner. With this approach to determining the economic security of an enterprise, the interests of the owner, first of all, are protected, but the application of the proposed model makes it possible to measure the appetite of the owner and the real possibilities for achieving them. Thus, the interests of management are also protected from unreasonable claims of the owner. The article proposes a mathematical model that allows you to evaluate the income of the owner, the efficiency of use of property, as well as the adequacy of investments to obtain a given income. The proposed mathematical model implies that the enterprise is focused on mass production, the sale of which is associated with a certain risk. The model assumes that the company produces several types of products for different strategic business areas. The proposed model allows us to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of innovation and investment policies, their attractiveness and effectiveness. The article provides recommendations for the practical use of the model. Pages 244 to 264

 

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The Rhizome’s Features in the Splatter Paintings of Jackson Pollock

Dalal Hamza Mohameda, aIraq, University of Babylon, College of Fine Arts, Design Section, Email: adalosh590@gmail.com     

The current research aims to discover the features of the rhizome in the splatter paintings of the artist Jackson Pollock. The subject of the research plays a role in answering the following question: Can we find an approach between the general features of the rhizome and the splatter paintings of the artist, Jackson Pollock, at the conceptual and structural level? As for the importance of the research,  it attempts to activate the dissertations of Gilles Deleuze, concerning the rhizome, and to apply them to an artistic analysis . This means that its importance is  in the study of the relationship between the features of the rhizome as an environmental phenomenon of aesthetic and expressive structures, and in the application of these features to the abstract expressive artwork, especially with respect to the artist, Jackson Pollock. The current research focuses on a study of the splatter paintings of Jackson Pollock between 1940 and 1950 in the United States. The researcher has chosen to analyse three models of the splatter paintings so as to deduce a series of results, of which the most significant one is the following: The concept of movement and searching in the middle is one of the most important features of the rhizome, to which Jackson Pollock was giving attention while studying his images. Pages 265 to 282

 

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The Effectiveness of Flipped Classroom Presenting Types in Developing Programming Skills for Computer Science Students in Iraq

Thoraya Ahmed Khalis Shaalan Al-Shammaria, aLecturer, Department of Educational and Psychological Sciences, Faculty of Education, University of Hamdania, Iraq,

The present research aims to measure the effectiveness of the pattern of providing Flipped classrooms in the development of programming skills among students of the Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Education, at the University of Hamdania, Iraq, and was based on an experimental design (2 x 1), which included two independent variables (Vodcasting). The second pattern of providing Flipped classroom, cognitive journeys (web quest) included one variable, which was: programming skills in C ++ language. The sample of the study consisted of 50 second year students from the Department of Computer Science, at the University of Hamdania, Iraq. The results of the study revealed that there were statistically significant differences at ≤ 0.05 between the average scores of the two experimental groups in the skill performance rate due to the basic effect of the different patterns of the Flipped classroom presentation (video vs. cognitive journeys), in favour of the group that studied using the Flipped classroom presentation style. This may be because the viewing of video increases a student's focus on the practical skill. Pages 283 to 305

 
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Commercial Extent of Private Employment Offices

Ali Hussein Kaooda, Medhat Saleh Ghayyibb, a,bDepartment of Law, Faculty of Law, Tikrit University, Email: mohammed.alsad3@gmail.com

Private employment offices are commercial projects that receive wide attention at both the internal and external levels. They are effective in raising the economic level of countries and eliminating unemployment, by providing employment opportunities for job seekers, both inside and outside the country, and the nature of their work is predominantly commercial. Whether companies or natural persons (individuals), it was necessary to regulate them within the provisions of the Trade Law and remove them from the Department of Labour Law, and this is what prompted most countries and international labour organizations to regulate their work mechanism. Pages 306 to 314

 
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Hearing for Al-Khalil Bin Ahmed Al- Faraaheedi and the Modernists’ opinions about Him

Mohammed Nouri Al-Moussawia, Maedsabrisahnb,aAssistant Professor , Supervisor of Research and Teaching at : University of Babylon Faculty of Education for Human Sciences, Department: Arabic Language, bMaster: Babylon University College of Education and Human Sciences, Department: Arabic Language

This research aims to clarify the opinions of the modern grammarians about Al-Khalil hearing to the Quranic modes of recitation, Holley Hadith and Arab’s language, both poetry or prose, in addition to depending on and dealing with it in regard to grammar complication and devising  provisions. Did Al-Khalil say the reciters are wrong or undermine the recitation if it breaks the grammatical rule? Did he cite the Hadiths of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)? Did he rely on adopting the Arab’s language from certain tribes or rely on eloquence regardless of a particular tribe? The approach we have followed in presenting our research is inductive, analytical and critical. We reviewed the modernists' opinions (Ibrahim Mustafa, Shawki Deif, Mahdi Al-Makhzoumi, Ibrahim Al-Samarrai, Khadija Al-Hadithi, Jaafar Al-Ababneh, Khalil Ahmed Amayreh, Ahmed Mekki Al-Ansari, Mohammad Khair Al-Halawani), as well as the Book of Al Ain by Khalil bin Ahmed Al-Farahidi and the Book of Sibuyeh. Pages 315 to 325
 
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Employing Environmental Elements in the Design and Decoration of Contemporary Iraqi Pottery, to Highlight the Heritage of Local Culture and Civilization.

Namer Kasim Khalaf Al-Bayatia, aUniversity of Diyala – College of Fine Arts - Iraq

The current research highlights the heritage of local Iraqi culture and civilization, its relationship with the (international heritage) Iraqi Lagoons; and its variation of elements (Natural & Humanitarian) that relate to culture and civilization. Local environmental factors are necessarily employed in contemporary Iraqi pottery. This study identified three matters: 1) The environmental factors used in the design and decoration of contemporary artistic pottery works; 2) The celebration by the Iraqi Potter of the local civilized cultural heritage for the Iraqi lagoon environment; 3) A descriptive comparison of Iraqi and Arabic contemporary pottery artistic works, to define the common environmental factors. Two artists were considered, the Egyptian potter (Mohamed Rashad) and the Iraqi potter (Tirkey Hassan) from 1985 – 2015). The two researchers intentionally selected a number of samples for their descriptive – comparative methodology. Important results included the manifestation of local cultural and civilized heritage for both artists in their artistic works, in terms of the southern local environmental influences and the national heritage. The researchers conclude that the effective contribution of the Iraqi artist and potter in the production of pottery artistic works highlights Iraqi, civilized, cultural heritage; but most of the works concentrated on the Mesopotamian, Baghdadi and Islamic heritage which is the cultural, popular and environmental heritage for the lagoons areas. Pages 326 to 342
 
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Characteristics of rebellious adolescent student drawings

Maha Abdel Karim Zughira, Omar Abdel Amir Salmanb, a,bMinistry of Education - Babel Education Directorate, Babel, Iraq, Email: amuabdalkryma@gmail.com,beasen222277@gmail.com

The current research studied the characteristics of rebellious adolescent student drawings. The research is in four chapters. The first chapter contained the problem of research and its importance and need, then the objective of the research which is to identify the characteristics of rebellious adolescent student drawings, the limits of research and define its terms. The second chapter included two subjects, the concepts of adolescence and rebellion. The third chapter included the methodology of research and its procedures. The researcher reviewed the research community and the sample and the tools used in it. To achieve the objective, the researcher adopted the rebellion scale and applied the validity and consistency of this tool. The scale was applied to the sample of research consisting of (150) students in Saad bin Abi Waqas and Al-Adl schools for boys in Babylon province. The fourth chapter contains the results of the research and its discussion, as well as conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The results showed that neglect of the family and violent treatment by society and the environment surrounding adolescences, were the cause of adolescent rebellion. Adolescents, through their wide imagination at that stage, represent insurgency in both subjective and objective painting. Pages 343 to 358
 
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Russian-Iranian Relations in the Safavid and Qajar Era: A Historical Study

Nawal Kashish Al Zubaidia, aDepartment of History, Faculty of Basic Education, Al-Mustansiriya University, Baghdad, IRAQ, Email: asaqar.baaz@yahoo.com

This research aims to analyze and study Iran's position in the strategy of Tsarist Russia during the reign of Peter the Great and the end of the rule of Nader Shah in the light of Iranian-Russian sources. Those sources attended to this issue for several reasons, including the geographical proximity between the two countries and the presence of Iranians inside Russia because of the loss of Iran and the loss of its territories, including Baku, Georgia, Rasht and other Iranian territories. Therefore, it came under the banner of Tsarist Russia, as well as Russian ambitions in Iran, especially during the reign of Peter the Great, who occupied half of Iranian territory and wanted Russia to become the owner of the silk trade in the first place in the world. Russia controls warm water ports and there is no competitor to it. Therefore, it became one of its first attention and strategy to impose its dominance on it. Pages 359 to 374
 
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