The Kazakh Professional Song Traditions

Matyzhanov Ka, Omarova Ab, Turmagambetova Bc, Kaztuganova Ad, a Doctor of Philology, Department of folklore, Institute of Literature and Art named for M. Auezov, Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan. Republic of Kazakhstan, b Candidate of art History, Leader Research Fellow the Department "Musicology", Institute of Literature and Art named for M. Auezov, Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan Republic of Kazakhstan, c Candidate of art History, Atyrau State University, Atyrau, Student Avenue, 212, d Candidate of art History, Head of the Department "Musicology", Institute of Literature and Art, Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan Republic of Kazakhstan

The purpose of this study is to determine the features of singing traditions which were formed in the 2nd half of the 19th century in the Western region of Kazakhstan. In the course of this study, historical, musical-theoretical, comparative and other methods were used. Prior to this study, only two singing traditions were distinguished, whereas in this article the existence of three singing traditions was scientifically proven, with identification of another singing tradition in the history of music of Kazakhstan. In the musical culture of Kazakhstan, songs of the western region were known as “songs in a heroic spirit”, but this article discovers different temperament of songs. The latest songs are composed by “kayki”. “Kayki” is a person who sings and composes the song. They are called “kayki” only in the Mangystan region. The third Zhylyoi singing tradition, which was almost forgotten at present, was discovered for the first time in Kazakh music history. The third Zhylyoi tradition has been becoming an individual singing tradition influenced by the other two traditions. As a result of collecting and studying for 20 years, songs of Zhylyoi were introduced to the educational program of the Kazakh universities. Pages 1 to 21




Globalization: A Critical Analysis for Consolidating International Economic Development

Olawumi A. Osundinaa, Olasunkanmi Osundinab, Dervis Kirikkalelic, Festus Victor Bekund, Melike Torune, a Department of Economics, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria, b Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria, c European University of Lefke, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Science Department of Banking and Finance, Lefke, Northern Cyprus, TR-10 Mersin, Turkey, d Faculty of Economics Administrative and Social sciences, Istanbul Gelisim University, Istanbul, Turkey, e Istanbul University – Cerrahpasha, Vocational School of Social Sciences, Department of Banking and Insurance, Istanbul, Turkey, Email: aosundinaol@babcock.edu.ngbskm4me@yahoo.comcdkirikkaleli@eul.edu.trdfestus.bekun@emu.edu.tremelike.torun@gmail.com

The intricacies surrounding element of consolidation in international development leaves much room for doubt. The contention resides on certain efforts upon which many reforms, systems, theories, ideologies and philosophies like the Marshal Plan have been implemented on the international arena. Therefore, the concept of globalization in the economic affairs of states around the world most especially in developing nations has become a great concern. The results of economic development in many developing countries are constrained by debt crisis, external loan, unequal exchange, marginalization and exploitation in the structural economic system of the world directed by the Britton Wood Institutions. This paper, in order to dissect its intent adopts a content-based analysis cum historical perspective on how the world economic system in generating “global wealth” has affected economic life of developing countries. Nigeria was used as the reference point depicting its integrated economic life in global world. Study found out that the global economic system is full of unequal exchange detrimental to developing countries in Africa, most especially Nigeria. Hence, the paper recommends that globalization processes should be holistically reviewed to support rather than constraint development of the weaker states. Pages 22 to 36




 Religious Education on Heavenly Inspiration and Intellectual Contribution to the Composition of Paradise Lost

SeyedehZahra Nozena, Bahman Amanib, Mohammad Hossein GoharRostamic, a Department of English, Amin Police Science University, b Department of English Language and Literature, Khazar University, c MA Malayer University, Email: aresearch.university1@police.irbbamani@khazar.orgcRostamifx.78@gmail.com

Production of a big work of Literature is not a task which can be dealt with by a single person. Grandness of the epic is so much that it is out of reach of a single person to undertake. There is an idea of a ‘mass’ behind a single thought as Virginia Woolf puts it in A Room of One's Own. Great thinkers and literary figures unanimously believe that human thinking is in nature a collective act, meaning that authors use the ideas and hints of their precursors and contemporaneous authors. Cooperation is the very essential need to be met; therefore, it is highly unlikely that Paradise Lost as a grand epic has been written by Milton singlehandedly. This fact can be elaborated on the term ‘shared intentionality’ proposed by thinkers which refers to collaborative interactions in which participants share psychological states with one another. One can say that texts are not produced out of void, but there are intricate networks of prior texts behind shaping them, consequently communal thinking is traceable either directly or indirectly in a particular text. Context of society in that time, Milton’s religiosity and his affinity with Protestantism, and the impact of his blindness, as it has been affirmed by loads of critics including T. S. Eliot, is other key factors in the process of the epic composition. Milton also received the inspiration and hints from different contemporary figures including John Donne, Spenser, Marvell and his child acquaintance Charles Diodati. So both manly and heavenly influences that could have had the impact on Milton are worthy to be wondered about. Pages 37 to 43




A Review of Literature on Language Assessment Literacy in last two decades (1999-2018)

Vahid Nimehchisalema, Nasreen Bhattib, a,b Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Emails: a%20nimechie@gmail.com">vahid@upm.edu.my; nimechie@gmail.combenglican2013@gmail.com

This paper aims to explore the development of language assessment literacy (LAL) through the period of the last 2 decades from 1999 to 2018.  It commences with a review of AL studies in the last 20 years. Which follows evaluating 14 journal articles related to LAL. These studies are demonstrated by a discussion of the various components of LAL and their effect on each other. As a result of our analysis, three major themes emerged which demonstrated the development of LAL in the last 20 years. The themes were (i) impact of teachers’ assessment knowledge and beliefs on practices and outcomes, (ii) impact of training and teacher education program on assessment literacy, and (iii) impact of assessment literacy on testing, testing resources and its washback. This paper concluded by proposing a number of unexplored aspects of LAL and some practical implications. Pages 44 to 59




A Comparison of Competencies of Senior ، Middle and Operational IT Managers in the Healthcare Sector

Mohammad Taghi Taghavifarda, Mohammad Javad Jalilib, Mirali Seyednaghavic, Iman Raeesi Vananid, a Associate Professor of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran, b PhD Candidate in IT Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran, c PhD in Governmental Management, Associate Professor, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran, d Assistant  Professor of Industrial Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran, Email: adr.taghavifard@gmail.combmjavad_jalili@yahoo.comcasnagavi@yahoo.comdimanraeesi@atu.ac.ir

This study is developed to highlight the role of meritocracy in the Information Technology sector of healthcare field. This is a qualitative research in which we have tried to identify the important indicators of senior, middle, and operational managers' competency at healthcare sector, besides importance of meritocracy in Information Technology sector of healthcare field, through interviewing experts and scholars. Ultimately, this study identified 98 key competencies for senior, middle and operational managers in the healthcare sector. Pages 60 to 82




Development of a Methodology for Assessing the Quality of Financial Management in the Public Administration Sector

Elena Markinaa, Oksana Gorlovab*, Olga Makashinac, Marina Sedovad, Nataliya Shmigole, a Candidate of Sciences (Economics), First Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs, Professor of the Department of Public Finance, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, b,e Candidate of Sciences (Economics), associate professor of the Department of Public Finance, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, c Doctor of Sciences (Economics), Professor of the Department of Public Finance, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, d Candidate of Sciences (Economics), Professor of the Department of Public Finance, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia, Email: b*ksana.gorlova@yandex.ru

This article analyses the compliance of the indicators for assessing the quality of financial management with the authority assigned to the chief administrators of budgetary funds. The analysis is based on conceptual approaches to assessing the quality of financial management in the public sector with the consideration of the requirements for effective, responsible public finance management and on the results of summarizing the advanced international experience. Based on the proposed principles for assessing the quality of financial management in the public administration sector, the focus areas and indicators for assessing the quality of financial management of the chief administrators are determined. These administrators include the chief managers of budgetary funds, the chief administrators of budget revenues and the chief administrators of sources of financing the budget deficit. This study presents a methodology for calculating the proposed indicators and criteria for their evaluation and assesses the indicators in the context of federal executive agencies. Pages 83 to 100




Development of Leadership Potential in the System of Higher Education: Civil Aviation Students

Sovgira, Svitlanav.A, Bida, Olena A.B, Leshchenko, Hennadii A.C, Zakharova, Oksana V.D*, Chernyshenko, Iryna A.e, a Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor. Head of the Chemistry, Ecology and Their Teaching Methods, Natural Sciences and Geography Department. Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, Uman, Ukraine, b Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor. Head of the Pedagogics and Psychology Department, Ferenc Rákóczi II Transcarpathian Hungarian Institute, Beregszász, Ukraine, c Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor. Head of the Search, Resque Aviation Safety and Special Training Department, Flight Academy of the National Aviation University, Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine, d Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate professor of the Physical and Psychophysiological Training Department, Flight Academy of the National Aviation University, Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine, e Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate professor of the Translation, Applied and General Linguistics Department, Vynnychenko Central Ukrainian Pedagogical University, Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine, Email: d*oksana.vit.zakharova@gmail.com

The prime objective of the current study is to investigate the link between TQM, human oriented elements and the organizational performance. The satisfaction, commitment, and loyalty are considered as human oriented elements. The TQM is accessed as a determinate of the organizational performance. In addition to that, the current study has examined the mediating role of human oriented elements in the relationship between TQM and organizational performance in the higher education institutes of Thailand. The structural equation model is employed to analyse the structural model and structural relation among measured and latent variables. It analyses the direct and indirect association among variables. The SEM-AMOS is used, and the results of the study have provided a great deal of agreement with the hypothesized results. It is evident that the youth and graduate from Thailand tertiary institutions are not prepared with the skills with which to exploit and judicially utilized the endowed natural resources in the country. These and other reasons have rendered the attainment of self-reliance and entrepreneurship education among the teaming graduates difficult to maintain. This study has focused on the subjective measure of organizational performance including information gathering in problem solving/communication, faculty intellectual pursuits, achievement and development among staff and students, achieving academic excellence through quality adherence and feedback among others. The study which is among pioneering studies will be helpful for policymakers, educationist and researchers and student in understanding the issues in the higher education sector of Thailand. Pages 101 to 116




 Islamophobic Discourses in Hillary Clinton’s Speech at Council of Foreign Relations during US-Presidential Elections 2016

Mohsin Hassan Khana*, Hamedi Mohd Adnanb, Haifa Aljuaidc, Roziah Mohamed Isaᵈ a,b(Media & Communication Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, c(Faculty of Educational Studies, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Seri Kembangan, Selangor, Malaysia, ᵈ(Gender Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia, Email: aMohsin18516@gmail.com, bhamedi@um.edu.pk, chaifalii87@gmail.comroziemohamed@yahoo.com  

The current study has concentrated on Hillary Clinton’s diplomatic political ideology that positions her towards the Muslim community. The study aims to examine, and pin point the self-other representations that are evident in the form of explicit and implicit Islamophobia in Hillary’s speech delivered at Council of Foreign Relations during the American Presidential Elections of 2016. In order to examine these discourses towards Muslims, the research engaged with Critical Discourse Studies as its framework, with a specific focus upon Van Dijk’s Ideological Square Model along with NVivo 12 Plus for linguistic inquiry of the speech. The results showed that the self-other binary is strongly evidenced in Hillary’s sampled speech where she employed various discursive techniques to represent ISIS-Iraq-Syria-Libya negatively, while representing herself as very patriotic to the country. To legitimatize her implicit Islamophobic arguments, she deployed several rhetoric strategies, including victimization, presupposition, authority, number game, evidentiality, populism by creating a polarization of Self-Other against ISIS-Syria-Libya. Pages 117 to 138




How to Improve the Ability of Social Sciences Teachers to Improve Middle School Student Learning Discipline

Misnaha, Andi Dewi Riang Tatib, Bahric, Humaedid, Rizale, Mahfud M. Gamarf, a FKIP Tadulako University, b Elementary School Education Study Program, Faculty of Education, Makassar State University, c History Education Study Program. Faculty of Social Sciences, Makassar State University, d Physical Education Health and Recreation FKIP Tadulako University, e PGSD FKIP Tadulako University, f Tadulako University, Email: amisnah@untad.ac.id,   bd3wi1979@gmail.comcbahri@unm.ac.iddhumaed@untad.ac.iderizal_pgsd@untad.ac.idfgamarunggul@yahoo.com

The objectives of this study are: 1) To determine the ability of social studies teachers to teach social studies  to improve students learning discipline in SMP Negeri 8 Palu. 2) To  determine the obstacles faced by social studies teachers in improving student learning discipline in Palu 8 Public Middle School. The method used in this research is a qualitative method. Qualitative research is a factual problem-solving method of research that is equipped with both primary and secondary data, that is accurate about the state of the object of research. As well as systematic elaboration, descriptive research is interpreted as the research carried out on independent variables, i.e. without making comparisons with other variables. The results of the study show that: 1) Social Studies teachers at Palu 8 Middle School already have good abilities and can discipline students in learning, because the social studies teachers already have professional competence; 2) The most basic obstacle faced is still the lack of student motivation towards social studies subjects,  it was determined that social studies subjects are less desirable and students are less motivated to study social studies subjects. Pages 139 to 158




 Enhancing Decision Making Process using AHP-SCOR Integrated Model (ASIM)

Raja Nazim Abdullaha, Saadiah Yahyab, Muhammad Rozi Malimc, Mohamaed Nor Azhari Azmand, Ganefrie, aFaculty of Technical and Vocational, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia, b,c,d Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia e Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Padang, Jl. Prof. Dr. Hamka, Air Tawar Bar., Kec. Padang Utara, Kota Padang, Sumatera Barat 25132, Indonesia,

Purpose - Supplier selection is the most crucial element in a hypermarket’s supply chain system. This paper verifies the past research framework of supplier selection criteria by developing a supplier selection decision support model based on the modified Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with the integrated Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) model. Methodology - This paper presents a methodology to develop a theoretical model and literature analysis is executed in the area of supplier selection decision support model. Stratified sampling was chosen as sampling technique in this study to select hypermarket located in Selangor, Malaysia. All stand-alone Giant hypermarkets were selected. A combined theory model for the supplier selection employed the typical stages of the supplier selection process: data gathering, AHP calculation, SCOR evaluation, and the implementation of decision making. Findings - An increase in the market’s competitive edge, this paper highlights the current hypermarket situation and the selection criteria for choosing of the best supplier, especially with regards to improving the competitiveness of the whole supply chain system. Practical Implication - The results amplify the most appropriate decision-making approach, providing the implication of novelty development of the new integrated decision-making approach. Originality/value - This new model attempts to provide practitioners in a personal or professional setting with the skills to achieve the success of the holistic approach in the future decision support system. Pages 159 to 171




Character Learning Through Traditional Games Urang Banjar

Arie Rakhmana, and Basuki Wibawab, a,b Education Technology Studies Program, State University of Jakarta. Jl. Rawamangun Muka, Rawamangun, East Jakarta, Jakarta Raya, Email: aarie.rakhman@ulm.ac.id, bbwibawa@unj.ac.id

Learning about character through the traditional game of urang banjar is one of the innovations that stimulates children's development, through various natural media by utilizing the natural environment. Traditional games contain noble values and certain moral messages such as the value of togetherness, honesty, responsibility, cooperation, self-control, grace, encouragement to achieve, and obey the rules. The purpose of this paper is to find out how to develop character learning through the use of traditional games. The method used is based on a literature study on the traditional game of urang banjar, which is full of culture, national values, and elements that are useful for children's development. The traditional game needs to be preserved so that the values contained in it can become the cultural heritage of the Indonesian generation and the basic stimulation of character building that is responsive to the times without being deprived of its cultural identity. Implanting moral values to character learning cannot just happen without a consistent process. Therefore, the moral message in traditional games is only one of the contributions to the introduction of cultural values as arable land outside the home and school environment. Pages 172 to 180




 The Development of the Integrated Thematic Textbook

Alipina, Basuki Wibawab, a,bEducation Technology Studies Program, State University of Jakarta. Jl. Rawamangun Muka, Rawamangun, East Jakarta, Jakarta Raya, Email: aalipin_s3@mahasiswa.unj.ac.id, bbwibawa@unj.ac.id

The problem presented in this paper is the need to revisit the integrated thematic textbooks that have been marketed and used in Indonesia. This needs to be done to determine the model of integrated thematic textbooks with ethnic, religious, racial, and indigenous that accordingly in Indonesia. However, the issue is based on two assumptions. The first assumption, the integrated thematic textbooks in Indonesia, as there are many publishers and several kinds such as private and government, and textbooks that are not only conventional but also electronic form. The second assumption, the standards of eligibility in Indonesia are established by the national body of education standards (BSNP). By comparing the integrated thematic models in several countries with integrated thematic models in Indonesia, the paper is offered an integrated thematic learning model that not only integrates subjects but integrates eight brain-compatible elements as a learning model. For that in the integrated thematic learning, eight brain-compatible elements are advised to be applied. Pages 181 to 189




Empirical Examination of SERVQUAL on Patients’ satisfaction and Loyalty in UAE Healthcare Industry

Ahmed Abdulkareem Mosa Alhattia, aManagement and Science University, Malaysia,

The healthcare industry has been booming across the world. The aim of this research is to measure the effect of SERVQUAL dimensions on patients’ satisfaction and examining the mediating role of satisfaction on patients’ loyalty. The SERVQUAL model was used to develop the conceptual model for this study. Five independent variables, one mediating and one dependent variable was included in the model. A quantitative approach was used as the research design in this examination. In order to collect primary data, this study developed a well-structured questionnaire based on prior SERVQUAL items. With a one-month effort, this study managed to obtain 412 respondents based on non-probability sampling.  Multiple regression and Sobel tests were applied to test the hypotheses in this study. Results indicated all of the four dimensions of the SERVQUAL model were found to significantly affect both patients’ satisfaction and loyalty as well as excepting tangibility. Moreover, the Sobel test confirmed the mediating effect of satisfaction on patients’ loyalty. This study can be considered as one of another empirical evidence of the effectiveness of SERVIQUAL model in UAE healthcare industry. Based on the results, this study provides several practical implications for the UAE healthcare industry. Pages 190 to 209




Crafting Green Halal Tourism: Enhancing the Nation’s Competitiveness

Sri Widyastutia*, Sudarmin Parenrengib, Fatima Tuzzaharac, a,b,cFaculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Pancasila, Email: a*widyastuti.sri@univpancasila.ac.id

This research aimed to examine some determinants of tourism services, tourism infrastructure, human resources, and government policies in green tourism frameworks that influence the nation's competitiveness. The sample of analysis in this study is domestic tourism, taken purposively as many as 322 domestic tourists who had visited tourist attractions in Bogor, Yogyakarta, and Jakarta more than 3 times. This research found that halal-based tourism services do not affect green tourism, but the infrastructure, resources, and government policies affect green tourism conversely. This research also found that the tourism service has not played many roles in realizing the nation's competitiveness, and yet the infrastructure, resources, and government policies are influential. Pages 210 to 226




Determinant of Work Motivation and Supervisor Performance

Dasep Suryantoa, Alex Zamib, aSTIE Agus Salim, Bukit Tinggi, Indonesia, bSTIE Y.A.I, Jakarta. Indonesia, Email: adasep.suryanto@gmail.com, balexzami905@gmail.com

The objective of this study was to analyse factors which, either partially or simultaneously, affect Work Motivation (MK) and Supervisor Performance (KS) of the companies gathered at Kawan lama Group, Indonesia. Descriptive and explanatory methods were used in this research, with an explanatory survey used as the approach. The population used in this study was 2844 persons, who were working in 6 companies of Kawan Lama Group in the entirety of Indonesia. The number of samples was decided based on Slovin formula, and as many as 351 persons were taken by proportional random sampling technique. Data analysis was performed by using SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) with the program of Linear Structural Relationship (LISREL 8.80). The result of this study recommended that the management of Kawan Lama Group enhances the variable of KS in order to prioritize improvement of variables of GK, especially in the dimension of participative leadership style, to be more specific to the indicator which consults and discusses problems with subordinates before making a decision. Whereas, to improve MK, the management should fix up the variable of BO, especially in the dimension of innovation and risk-taking, more specifically, the indicator of act innovatively. Pages 227 to 246




The Effect of Person Organization Fit and Work Life Balance on Subjective Well Being and its Impact on Employee’s Performance

Gianti Gunawana*, Yus Nugrahab, Marina Sulastianac, Diana Hardingd, aUniversitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM.21 Hegarmanah-Jatinangor-Kabupaten Sumedang,45363, Bandung, Indonesia, b,c,dUniversitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM.21 Hegarmanah-Jatinangor-Kabupaten Sumedang, Email: a*giantipunti@gmail.combyoesdinain@yahoo.co.idcmarina.sulastiana@unpad.ac.idddhard_harding@yahoo.com

Regarding the 2020 plan to eradicate polio globally by the World Health Organisation (WHO), Indonesia is one of the countries that are working to support this plan. Life science company in Indonesia revealed that the company's profit had decreased significantly because of the program. In order to survive in a competitive environment, the company must be able to follow the pattern of change. Due to the organizational culture change in the life science company,  problems in balancing in work and family life and the subjective well-being of the employee had arisen. This work life balance concept has not yet received special attention in Indonesia. Employee’s with higher subjective well-being tend to be more productive in the work place and also have a stronger organizational performance.  This study examines the effect of person organization fit and work life balance on subjective well-being and its impact on the performance of 460 employees at a life science company in Indonesia. We used the work life balance questionnaire from Fisher (2009) and thesubjective well-being measures that were compiled by Ed Diener and Robert Biswas-Diener (2009). The person organization fit questionnaire was made based on the works of Kristof Brown (2011). Employee performance was measured by a competency questionnaire. Results of this research is that person organization fit and work life balance affects the subjective well-being and performance of employees of the life science company in Indonesia; person-organization fit and work life balance affects subjective well-being employees, person-organization fit and work life balance affects the performance of employees, and subjective well-being is influential in the performance of employees. Pages 247 to 264




Managerial Skills Operations and Waste Treatment Methods to Decrease CO2 Emissions at TPA Bantar Gebang, Bekasi

Jenniria Rajagukguka, Nandan Limakrisnab, aUniversitas Krisnadwipayana, bUniversitas Persada Indonesia YAI. Jakarta. Indonesia, Email : ajenniria_rajagukguk@yahoo.com,

The objective of this research is to analyse the effects of waste treatment methods (bio gas versus sanitary landfill) and managerial skills on employees operation waste to the decrease CO2 emission at Bantar Gebang, Bekasi. The method used is the method of ex post facto.Ex post facto is used to examine whether there is influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable through measuring the occurrence of events already in progress, this is seen in the context of the current time without manipulation of the variables studied. The samples of the research were 60 field operators which were selected randomly. The data was analysed by using the Analysis of Variance (Anova) method. Findings of the research are based on the factors of high managerial skills, and a reduction in CO2 emissions in waste treatment technology by using biogas which is more effective than using the sanitary landfill technology. The minimization of CO2 emissions by using biogas technology is more relevant on managerial Final Disposal (TPA) which is supported by a high managerial skills. The factors of low managerial skills, decreased levels of CO2 emissions in waste treatment technology using biogas is lower than using sanitary landfill technology. Minimization of CO2 emissions by using technology more relevant sanitary landfill performed on managerial landfill supported by low managerial skills. Pages 265 to 280




Building Print Newspaper Customer Loyalty

Nurmala Nurmalaa*, Muhammad Toasin Ashab, Utin Nina Herminc, a,b,cPoliteknik Negeri Pontianak. Indonesia, Email: a*ibu.nurmala@gmail.com

Companies engaged in the industry of Newspapers in Jakarta are faced with the problems of maintaining and increasing customer loyalty. In strategic marketing, failure to maintain and increase customer loyalty greatly interferes with the performance of the company. This is reasonable because customer loyalty is an important component of corporate performance. If this happens, then the company will have difficulties in maintaining and developing the internal resources and advantages. Companies that are not able to maintain and develop the internal resources and advantages are threatened with bankruptcy because it will have implications on their revenue. The purpose of this study was to determine the customer relationship with Print Newspaper, identify the Newspaper Print product attributes, determine therelationship and the effect of customer and product attributes to the Print newspaper’s customer value, determine the effects of the relationship between customer and product attributes on the customer’s loyalty to Print Newspaper and determine the effects of customer value on customer loyalty Print Newspaper. The method used is descriptive, and the survey method of explanatory survey was used, with a sample size of 70 customers of the Print Newspaper in South Jakarta as the unit of analysis. The time horizon in this study was cross-sectional. Findings from this research are that their relationship program performance influences both customer and product attributes on customer value and customer loyalty, but customer relationship dominantly influences customer value, while the dominant product attributes influences customer loyalty. Pages 281 to 296




Corruption and Its Economic and Social Impacts on Iraq's Economy Developmental Reality

Abdulwahhab Mohammed Jawad Al-Musawia, Hanaa' Sa'ad Shabeebb Hanan Abdulkhidhr Al-Musawic, Haider Ni'ma Bakheetd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Administration and Economics, University of Kufa,

It is clear to specialists that Iraq's economy has experienced and continues to experience many problems. Most notably,  it is a rentier economy, and it lacks the of diversity of sources of income due to its almost absolute dependence on the production and exportation of crude oil, and the decline of most other productive sectors to contribute to the composition of the gross domestic product (GDP). which enhanced its chronic structural imbalances. It has also caused growing unemployment and poverty levels, poor income distribution, accumulated balance of payment deficits, staying in the non-indebtedness circle, and other factors that have contributed effectively to the decline in the development indicators. It is no secret that financial and administrative corruption is prevalent in the country, and its impacts have extended to include the different economic and social levels of the country. It is known that corruption in Iraq is not a new thing, but it has increased remarkably after the fall of the former regime for various reasons, which contributed as a major cause to faltering development processes, which could have been achieved at high rates to commensurate with the size of the resources, and the natural, economic and human capabilities possessed by Iraq. However, the rampant corruption, confusion in policies and unplanned governmental programs, which is not mature because it is based on the concept of achieving private gains at the expense of public interest, in addition to the legitimization of some aspects of the corruption by the political class, and the complexity between the halls of the legislative and executive authorities, led to generating a disability in addressing the deficit in the economic file in an optimal way that could enable Iraq to achieve its development goals in a sustainable manner. The study aims to shed light on the size of economic and social impacts that corruption has had on the development reality in Iraq, and learning the size of corruption using a number of indicators that have been adopted in this area in order to develop appropriate solutions to eliminate this phenomenon, and then reactivate the role of economic policies and programs that would promote Iraq economy and achieve its desired goals. Pages 297 to 310




 Estimating the Volume of Monthly Deposits to Meet Expected Financial Withdrawals a Practical Study on a Sample of Iraqi Private Sector Banks

Ahmed Miri Ahmeda, aTechnical College of Management /Kufa, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University,31003 Al-Kufa,Iraq,

The private sector banks are no longer isolated from the government banking sector because they have attracted many of their clients with capital that has encouraged them to enter a competitive environment that offers their banking services, especially after the transformation of the economic system in Iraq after 2003. It is no secret that bank deposits are one of the main sources of banking capital. The investment of the bank is through its employment in entering projects and services that lead to an increase in its revenues and hence its profits, as well as to meet the requirements of the banking business to fulfil its obligations to their customers. Therefore, the importance of this study has emerged through the competitive role played by these banks, and thinking about how to share market shares to remain in the banking environment and grow their financial capabilities. The study aims to adopt the administrations of these banks on scientific methods in rationalizing the decisions regarding the management of financial resources away from using intuition. A detailed analysis of the volume of cash deposits was conducted in the light of the data obtained for the sample of the private banking sector of Iraq for five banks of the governorates (Najaf, Karbala, Qadisiyah, Babel, Methane) during the period of 2010-2018 using many statistical methods. The study concluded with a number of conclusions, the most important of which is the adoption of the study sample by the banks' management. This is done using the Markov chains method in determining the future indicators regarding the size of the future cash deposits, and the transitional probability matrix which is the basis for the estimation and calculation of the expected cash deposits for customers. The study came out with a number of recommendations, the most important of which is the preparation of the necessary software requirements for this purpose,  (Aminita v.17, spss, Amos v.18, QSC win), especially when the bank faces a major challenge in the face of the large size of cash deposits and how to expect them for longer periods of time. Pages 311 to 339




Financial Failure and Predictability Using the Sherrod Model: An Applied and Analytical Study of the Babil Commercial Bank of the Iraqi Banking Sector

Arshad Abdul Amir Jassem Al-Shamria, aMiddle Euphrates Technical University,

The survival and continuity of the work environment are dependent on the success or failure of organizations, whether productive or service, such as financial institutionslike banks. Given the business environment in today's world, there are many risks posed by globalization and policies that are related to financial liberalization and openness, these banks face a great challenge to find the ways and means to face these challenges, especially in the course of financial analysis to detect those risks early. Predicting the failure of the financial institutions is necessary because of the benefits that make use of the negative effects, and the economic consequences of how to address them, this is done by using the model (Sherrod), which was adopted by applying some financial ratios. The study was carried out by the Bank of Babylon in the Iraqi private banking sector for the purpose of determining the extent of its success and survival in the working environment. It included financial analysis of its data for the period (2011 - 2015). At the end of the analysis, on the need to adopt banks in their financial analysis to use the model mentioned to know its credit activity and then know the results of its work. Pages 340 to 363




The Role of Tourism Classification Elements in the Application of Tourism Legislation (Applied Research in Multi-Grade Tourist Restaurants)

Abd Alamir Abd Zwena, Hind Ghanim Al-Mehannahb, a,bCollege of Administration and Economics, Department of Tourism, University of Al-Kufa, Email: aabdalamir.zwen@uokufa.edu.iq

This research aims to signify one of the important topics in the Iraqi tourism sector that is represented in the development of the reality of tourism classification of tourism service elements (Restaurants), with the application of tourism legislation that is approved by the law and enforced instructions. The reality of the classification was made upon 25 restaurants in Baghdad with different classes. The research aimed to identify the signification of the role of tourism legislation in the classification of Iraqi restaurants and through testing the relations in compliance with the made assumptions.  A group of results was concluded, including the following: 1. Through the tourism classifications of restaurants, it had been noticed that there is an insistent need for re-evaluating the classification degrees as a result of the non-matching problem with the enforced tourism legislations. 2. The criteria for classification elements do not match and their relevance with the enforced legislations for being an integral part and the class of the restaurant. The research ended in a few recommendations, the most important are: 1. Re-evaluate the activities of the tourism classification with the need to match the tourism legislation with the tourism classification. 2. The continuity of checking the criteria of classification elements in a minute way through specialized committee and continuously. Pages 364 to 387




Marketing Directors Cognition on The Effect of Job Involvement Aspects on Promoting The Organizational Culture of Internal Clients

Azhar  Nema Abugnema, Hadeel Muhammad ali Alqamwsyb, Samyia hani Ajeelc, a,b,cUniversity of Kufa / Faculty of Management and Economics / Department of Tourism, Email: aAzharn.abugnem@uokufa.edu.iq, balqamousi@uokufa.edu.iq, csamyiah.aloity@uokufa.iq

The paper aims at studying marketing director’s recognition of job involvement as an independent variable through its dimensions: emotional involvement, behavioural involvement, and cognition involvement and organizational culture in its dimensions: organizational values, reliability, language, incentives system, and team work as an independent variable. For that, a descriptive methodology was used. The research formulated a number of main hypotheses as answers to the research problem. Correctness of such hypotheses was tested by suitable statistical tools. A purposeful sample consisting of 168 individuals of directors, technicians and administrators was tested. Analytical descriptive methodology was used for data depending on SPPS. The research aimed at achieving a number of practical goals, the most important of which was identifying the content of organizational culture and job involvement. The research concluded that involvement plays a role in organizational values, trust, language, incentive system, and team work amongst workers in the tourist organization studied. The paper recommends deepening of organizational culture and emphasis of practices of organizational culture and its dimensions in order to achieve success in completing its works. On the other hand, these organizations must pay more attention to morale of its workers and exert more effort to implement a modern concept like job involvement for workers which help them increase their organizational performance. Pages 388 to 403




Regional Islamic Bank Credibility and Customer Loyalty: Does Customer Commitment Really Serve as a Mediator Variable?

Naufal Bachria*, Abdul Rahman Lubisb, Nurdasilac, M. Shabri Abd. Majidd, Wahyuddine, aPh.D. Student in Management Science, Syiah Kuala University and Lecturer in Management Science, Malikussaleh University, b,c,dDepartment of Management Science, Syiah Kuala University, eDepartment of Accounting, Malikussaleh University, Email: a*naufal.bachri@unimal.ac.id

The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of credibility on commitment and loyalty and to determine whether the commitment mediates the credibility effects on customer loyalty of an Islamic bank in Aceh. The sample of this research is 160 respondents taken using a purposive sampling technique. The method of data analysis used is Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using AMOS. The results showed that the credibility of regional Islamic banks influenced significantly on customer commitment. The customer commitment influences significantly on customer loyalty. Moreover, the customer commitment can mediate the effects of credibility on customer loyalty. Unfortunately, credibility has no direct effect on the customer loyalty of Islamic banks. However, credibility is the key driver for increasing customer perception. Pages 404 to 417




Financial Performance Analysis of Pt Bank Danamon Indonesia, Tbk Using Camel Model

Wiwiek Mardawiyah Daryantoa, Adi Perkasa Yaminb, a,bSekolah Tinggi Manajemen IPMI, Jakarta 12750, Indonesia, Email: awiwiek.daryanto@ipmi.ac.id

The purpose of this research is to analyse the financial performance analysis of PT Bank Danamon Indonesia, with the application of the CAMEL (C-Capital, A-Asset, M-Management, E-Earning, L-Liquidity) method which consists of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) to assess Capital Adequacy, Non-Performing Loan (NPL) to assess Asset Quality, Net Profit Margin (NPM) to assess Management Quality, Return on Assets (ROA) and Operating Expense to Operating Income (BOPO) to assess Earning/ Profitability and Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR) to assess Liquidity. Then, the percentage number of CAR, NPL, NPM, ROA, BOPO and LDR will be used as a map towards CAMEL Composite Rating based on the Bank Indonesia Regulation Number 6/10/PBI/2004, to indicate the bank’s health level from each component. The source data has been obtained from the Audited Financial Reports of Danamon for the periods of 2013 to 2017. The results of the research indicates that Capital, Asset and Earning of PT Bank Danamon Indonesia, Tbk. was a strong, or very healthy predicate. Whereas Management and Liquidity were fair, or a quite healthy predicate. Pages 418 to 434