Managing Risk in Construction Projects and Sustainability: Evidence from Malaysia

Adibah Syahirah Nasruddinaa, Mazlina Mustaphab*, a,bFaculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400  Serdang, Selangor, Email: b*mazlina05@gmail.com

Prior literature defines risk management as the process of identifying and analysing the project risks and choosing the appropriate actions to remove the threats from any project. It is claimed that there are many risks involved in construction projects because the construction life cycle is filled with different risks at different stages of project development. Once the risks are identified, it is necessary to develop the appropriate risk management responses to detect any ordinary causes to deal with them. Thus, this study aims to examine the technical risks involved in property development project. Specifically, this study examines the technical risk implemented by construction companies. In addition, the risk response taken by the companies are also investigated. The study employs a qualitative method, where interviews were conducted with the contractors and developers of the construction projects. The findings show that technical risks are important as they can greatly affect the completion of construction projects, such as inaccurate project design, frequent change of drawings, and a shortage of material. This study contributes to the literature related to the risk management of construction companies, and it provides information to the key project participants about the importance of adopting a systematic and effective risk management to ensure successful property development projects. Pages 1 to 17




Satisfaction in Tourism Operations

Hamimah Hassana, Nawal Hanim Abdullahb. Aminallah, M.Azmic, a,bSenior Lecturers at the Dept of Management and Marketing Universiti Putra Malaysia, cUndergraduate student in the Dept of Management and Marketing Universiti Putra Malaysia

Purpose of study: The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the values in participating in adventure tourism operations and to examine the relationship between values and satisfaction.  Tourist participation in adventure tourism is very important in other parts of the world. Similarly, activities such as hiking and mountain climbing received great attention in Malaysia, as the country offers tremendous places for these adventure experiences including rivers, mountains and national parks.  Previous research found that the high participation in these tourism activities can be explained in the good values gained among the adventure tourists, namely the thrill value, emotional value, and social value. Adventure tourism research also studied the roles of tangible and intangible factors. Methodology: Fieldwork involved a total 300 respondents who were interviewed using questionnaires.   Data was analysed in SmartPLS and SPSS software. Result: The outcomes revealed that thrill value and emotional value are the significant factors to influence satisfaction among in adventure tourism operations. There is not enough evidence to accept that social value and satisfaction has a significant relationship. The findings of this study also include the intangible factors in tourism operations that are related to tourist satisfaction and, this satisfaction is also found to be related to behavioural intention. Pages 18 to 35




 Linking Rewards and Creative Performance: Mediating Role of Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation and Moderating Role of Rewards Attractiveness

Sapna Makhijaa, Waqar Akbarb, a,bDepartment of Management Sciences, SZABIST, Pakistan,

The present study examines the effects of tangible and intangible rewards on employee creative performance with two mediating variables of extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. The study further finds the moderating effects of the valence of rewards,  attractive rewards have greater effects on motivation resulting in an increase of creative performance by employees. Data was collected from 240 IT specialists and their 30 immediate supervisors working in the IT sector of Pakistan. Using a Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM), results revealed that both tangible and intangible rewards have a positive significant impact on creative performance. However, intangible is a better predictor to increase the creative performance. The results further reveal that both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation has a significant mediating effect between intangible rewards and creative performance, whereas intrinsic motivation does not mediate between tangible rewards and creative performance. The results also identify the individual perception on the valence rewards in such that the attractiveness of rewards significantly moderates the relationship between intangible rewards and intrinsic motivation. Moderating the effects of valence of rewards is found to be significant between intangible rewards and employee motivation. However, no moderation role is found between tangible rewards and motivation. The results have useful insights to design the rewards for employees.  Limitations and Future Avenues of the study are discussed in the end of the paper. Pages 36 to 61




Investigation on Sustainability through Human Resource Management (HRM) functions in Malaysian Manufacturing Industry by Firm Size

Taleselvi Muniandia, T Ramayahb, Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamedc, Charles Ramendran SPRd, Vimala Kadiresane,

Green Human Resource Management is an emerging concept to maintain environmental resources to create green strategies and resource productivity. Aligned with that concept, the green human resource management policies promote a resources optimization within the organization and more broadly. However, past researches justify that  differences occur between smaller and larger companies in achieving sustainability goals. Therefore, the research objective is to investigate if the organization sizes supports the implementation of green human resources management practices to ensure environmental sustainability. To achieve the key objectives, the researcher obtained the total of 470 ISO 14001 certified manufacturing list from the Federation of Malaysian Manufacturer (FMM). The simple random sampling method was adopted to select the 212 samples on the sorted list. Finally, the researcher has successfully collected 221 samples from the respondents with 50% of estimated response rate. Surprisingly the results showed that although manufacturing companies in Malaysia are practicing green training and development and green work culture, they are still left behind in recruitment, reward and compensation practices, green assessment, and green empowerment practices. The future recommendations and limitations of the study have been discussed. Pages 62 to 87




Challenges in Descriptive Essay Writing: A Case of Indonesian EFL Leaners

Mister Gidion Maruea*, Marvio B Pantasb, a,bEnglish department, Universitas Negeri manado, Manado, Indonesia, Email: a*marviopantas@gmail.com

Essay writing has a pivotal role in the education system. Within the context of learning English as a foreign language, essay writing is viewed as the reflection of the students’ knowledge and language acquisition. This creates challenges for students of every level  and background, including those learning English at thehigh school level. This study reports on the investigation of Indonesian students’ challenges in essay writing, particularly descriptive essays. In the frame of qualitative design, this study gains the data by analysing students’ essay assignments as documents for data, and interviewing them if the elaboration of the data is necessary. Students are interviewed on the basis of the following main question; how did you write your essay and what challenged you? The respondents for this study are students of the high school in North Sulawesi, whose academic achievement is high, and the students come from different regions of Indonesia. Later, they are assumed to represent the circumstances faced by most EFL learners in Indonesia. The grounded theory perspective is applied for analysing the data and presented descriptively. The findings indicate that students experience various challenges in their efforts of writing a descriptive essay such as grammatical problems, vocabulary limitations, and word choice, spelling, and idea development. This study recommends the need for regular teacher feedback, and more essay writing practices for students. Pages 88 to 103




Environmental Awareness as Social Responsibility: University CSR Approach

Md Ahbabur Rahmana, Tareq Hossainb, Ferdous Alamc, Warangkana Jutidamrongphand, Kuaanan Techatoe, aInterdisciplinary Graduate School of Energy Systems (IGES), Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand, bThammasat Business School, Thammasat University, 2 Pranchan Road, Pranakorn, Bangkok- 10200, Thailand, cSchool of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, dFaculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand, eEnvironmental Assessment & Technology for Hazardous Waste Management Research Center, Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand, Email: amuhammadahbab92@gmail.com,  bhossain@tbs.tu.ac.th,  cferdous@uum.edu.my,  dwarangkana.j@psu.ac.th,  euhugua@hotmail.com

Raising environmental awareness in the general community and  in the educational community is becoming an important issue nowadays. Universities have an important role concerning global environmental challenges by their research, education and community involvement. Universities of Thailand has been reflecting and developing social responsibility processes with the theme of sustainable campus. This paper aims to develop awareness strategies that can make visible the need to undertake actions for environmental sustainability in the faculty of environmental management in Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. The study was developed from the ethnographic framework through documentary review, needs assessment and campaign design with a sample of 62 students, 4 teachers and 4 administrators. It was largely found that most of the participants had environmental information but a lack of awareness. They are not strongly co-responsible because they have the knowledge of the environmental problem, but do not perform concrete actions. University authorities and faculties should promote a sustainable culture which can encourage faculty stakeholders to be friendlier for environment and make them socially responsible. Pages 104 to 123




Financial Performance Analysis of Indonesia Pharmaceutical Industry before and After the Implementation of National Health Insurance

Wiwiek Mardawiyah Daryantoa, Merianab, a,bSekolah Tinggi Manajemen IPMI, Jakarta 12750, Indonesia, Email: a*wiwiek.daryanto@ipmi.ac.id

After the Health Social Insurance Administration Organization (BPJS Kesehatan) implemented the national health insurance (Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional) in 2014, The profit of pharmaceutical MNCs has been reported to be dropping ever since. Although the pharmaceutical industry had 7.49% growth in 2016, this number actually dropped as the industry had double-digit growth at 12.31% in 2013. Thus, this study aims to measure the financial performance of pharmaceutical companies and will analyse the significant differences before and after the implementation of the national health insurance. The data was retrieved from annual financial reports and the period was divided into two periods, before the implementation of national health insurance (2011-2013) and after the implementation (2015-2017). The data was examined using financial ratio analysis, and paired t-test were applied to test the hypothesis based on the 11 variables or financial ratios. The results indicated that although the company still had a positive return on investments, the implementation of national health insurance has affected the profitability of the organisation. It also reveals that the overall financial performance of PT Kimia Farma is significantly affected after the implementation with a significant difference on 7 of the financial ratios examined in this study. The author believes that the findings will be helpful for managers to give insights when taking decisions. Pages 124 to 138




 Competitive Strategies, Mediating and Moderating Effects on Small and Medium Firms (Smfs) Performance in Malaysia

Norazlina Mohd Darusa*, Ahmad Rozelan Yunusb, Norfaridatul Akmaliah Othmanc, Nor Rofeah Abdullah Sanid, Noor Watee Rahmane, aPhD Student, Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneur, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTEM), Melaka, Malaysia, bProfessor, Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneur, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTEM), Melaka, Malaysia, cAssociate Professor, Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneur, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTEM), Melaka, Malaysia, dPhd Student, Faculty of Management and Information Technology, Universiti Sultan Azlan Shah (USAS), Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia, ePhD Student, Department of Social Sciences Development, Faculty of Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia  (UPM), Serdang, Malaysia, Email: a*norazlina3@gmail.com

Experiencing competitive strategies growth, the services industry has gained an important role in the worldwide trade involvement. The competitive strategies were aimed at increasing the positive impact of a firm’s activities in the global liberalised market. The focus of the study was investigating the causal relationship of competitive strategies, as well as examining how it can enhance the small and medium firms’ in services sectors performances in Malaysia. The stratified random sampling methods were used in collecting survey data from services firms in Malaysia using a cross sectional study design. The physical data collection method was analysed with 'Covariance-Based SEM' (CB-SEM), where 196 samples were used to run EFA analysis using principal component analysis (PCA), extraction and varimax rotation, while the remaining samples of 200 were treated as validation data for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results show that the competitive strategies consist of intellectual capital, innovation and quality, which are significantly related to a firm's performance. The relationship of competency as the moderator, also significantly related between liberalisation and a firm’s performance. The study concluded that competitive strategies were necessary for a country’s growth through the development of a valid framework that can be used to aid the competitive strategies awareness at its importance in SMFs in the services sectors. Pages 139 to 155




HLI Work Force Characteristic and IR 4.0: Psychometrics Profiling Perspective

Ahmad Rozelan Yunusa, Sabri Mohamad Sharifb, Izaidin Abdul Majidc, a,b,cUniversiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka,

Industry 4.0 (IR 4.0) is the implementation of Cyber Physical Systems for production. Its impact on the manufacturing sector and other technology sectors are well documented. However, the impact on the human resource sector is understudied. Managing the human capital of IR 4.0 is not an easy task since it requires continuous innovation and learning dependent on people and enterprise’s capabilities. Personality profiling strategy for appropriate worker screening approaches can play a vital role in the development of dynamics capabilities in Higher Learning Institutions (HLI). This paper aims to present worker screening approaches using systematic psychometrics profiling that promotes a climate of innovation and learning in organizations, and hence facilitates businesses to match the pace of IR 4.0. The overview employs a personality profiling framework with 15 personality domains that are developed in an integrated and systematic tool named as i-PRO (Integrated Profiling System). One of the major concepts applied was the application of Holland Individual-Environmental Congruency career interest, and adapting various established psychometrics profiling approaches, as an initiative towards adequate systematic screening strategy for recruitment, placement, succession plan, and planning the organizations’ personnel development training. Pages 156 to 168




 Intervention of Absorptive Capacity on the Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: A Systematic Approach

Nusra Izzaty Binti Aziza, Siti Norbaya Yahayab, Mohammed Hariri Bakric, Nusaibah Mansord, a,b,c,dFakulti Pengurusan Teknologi dan Teknousahawanan, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka,

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is one of the prominent determinants that controls the growth of one country both directly and indirectly. Though FDI is well known to exerts positive impact in economic productivity, there is several factors that control the impact of FDI towards economic growth which can also be called absorptive capacity. Hence, in order to understand the relationship between FDI and economic growth in Malaysia, this research paper conceptualized the relationship between FDI and economic growth with the presence of absorptive capacity as the moderating variables which consists of human capital, financial development, and trade openness. These variables encapsulate the relationship between FDI and economic growth in the overall economic environment. This paper included a comprehensive literature searching of FDI, economic growth and absorptive capacity in the Scopus database for the year 2014 until 2018. The current method used for the paper review is the PRISMA flow diagram. Therefore, the conclusions explained the relationship between FDI and economic growth, which then can be tested in empirical studies. This paper brings significant contributions to the literature of the area of study, whereas exploring the intervention of absorptive capacity on the relationship between FDI and economic growth and the visualisation framework can explain the relationship of it. Plus, this research paper serves as a reference for policy makers and FDI investor to gain positive economic advantages. Pages 169 to 182




Legislation of Electronic Data and Service in Indonesian Public Institutions: A Proposed Future

Budi Agus Riswandia, aFaculty of Law Universitas Islam Indonesia, Email: abudiagusr@uii.ac.id

The use of information technology has been having implications on legal life. One of them involves the impacts of legislation on data and electronic services for public institutions. Indonesia is one of the countries that have not yet developed legislation  regarding electronic data and services based on the convergence paradigm as a fundamental principle in the utilization of information technology. As a result, various legislation problems pertaining to data and electronic services have emerged. Therefore, Indonesia should attempt to renew its legislation on data and electronic services. The concrete attempt is performing legislative action in terms of electronic data convergence and telematics, which will be served as  a legal protection, and it will be followed by the process of synchronizing existing laws and regulations. This study was conducted using normative legal research methods, which are based on the legal system and drafted a legal system related to electronic data and services in Indonesia and other previous literatures. Pages 183 to 202




 Social media use for teaching English in Higher Educational Institutions

Shuliak Sa, Postolenko Ib, Protsko Yc, aDoctor of Philology, Associate Professor, Professor at Applied Linguistics Department, Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, 2 Sadova Str., 20300, Uman, b,cPhD in Education, Associate Professor, Associate Professor at English and its Methodology Department, Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, 2 Sadova Str., Uman, Email: ashulyak-svitlana@ukr.net,  bpostir-80@yahoo.com

Complete society informatization results in wide popularization of social media, which in turn makes the online communication of young people easier and more elaborated. All of this prompts the teacher to revise their own teaching methods. This research focuses on the possibility to use social media in teaching the English language to youth. Social media enables free, cheap, simplified and direct contact with the learning audience; promotes discussions, the studying of new topics, acquiring and strengthening of new knowledge and skills, the evaluation of own and colleagues’ work, and critical thinking. This study aims to analyse  identify the ways of using social media in education, and in teaching English in particular, revealing both the benefits and drawbacks. The study proves the importance of using social networks in general and Facebook in particular while working with students, since young people are the target audience of these websites. Pages 203 to 217




Economic Security Model and Enterprise Mission

Vlasov M. Pa, aDoctor of economics, professor, Saint-Petersburg State of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Russia

The purpose of this article is to form the process of interaction between an enterprise and consumers of its products. The process is considered from the point of view of determining the best conditions for the enterprise, under which all manufactured products are sold as well as maximum revenue is achieved. Typically, when modelling such processes, emphasis is placed on satisfying demand. The parameters of the proposed model include the maximum amount of receivables, terms of sale of products, volume of output, unit prices. As an additional effect of the application of the model, the possibility of minimizing working capital due to the timely receipt of payments for the sold products is considered. This ensures the economic security of the enterprise. From a reduction in the period of receipt of payments for products sold, an increase in the profitability of the enterprise and, as a result, an increase in the income of the owner follows. Thus, the model essentially represents the mission model of the enterprise, which determines its purpose and method of generating income by the owner. A sufficient variety of model parameters allows us to analyse different options for the mission of the enterprise based on various scenarios. These scenarios involve a change in the range of products, their output, their prices, as well as the composition of strategic business areas and their capacity, depending on the current pricing policy and the possible amount of receivables. The limitation of accounts receivable is caused by the desire to ensure, at the expense of the proceeds, the fulfillment of obligations of the enterprise in respect of remuneration of labor, repayment of accounts payable, tax payments and income of the owner. It is assumed that the volumes of output that are in demand are sufficient to fulfil the above obligations. In this case, the timing of receipt of payments for the delivered products is the factor that is designed to fulfil the listed obligations of the enterprise and, thereby, ensure its economic security. The proposed model is the manager’s tool that allows not only to substantiate the mission of the enterprise, but also to check the effectiveness of the marketing policy, including the pricing strategy. Pages 218 to 229




Adequacy of Enforcement Discretion in the Aspect of Manifestations of its Inadequacy and Measures of Optimisation

Rafail' G. Valieva, Marat R. Gilyazetdinovb, aKazan Federal University, PhD in political, Associate professor at the Department of Theory and History of State and LawKremlin, 18. Kazan, 420008, lecture hall 305a, Russia, bKazan Federal University, Post-graduate at the Department of Theory and History of State and LawKremlin, 18. Kazan, 420008, lecture hall 305a Lecturer of the Department of State and Legal Disciplines Perm Institute of the Federal penitentiary service of Russia, Email: araf.val.111@yandex.ru, bmaratozz@mail.ru

This paper examines problems of the adequacy of law enforcement in the manifestation of its inadequate dynamic law enforcement practices. The study is based on the method of analysing paired categories - antipodes, which suggest that a comparative assessment of inadequate enforcement discretion as an antipode, its adequacy is based on the opposite properties of each of them. The main characteristics of conflicting cooperation are inadequate enforcement of discretion. According to the authors, the discretion of the subject of law enforcement is of crucial importance for overcoming legal uncertainty in law, due to the abstract-general and relatively uncertain nature of the rules of law. it must itself be distinguished by adequacy. In this regard, special attention is paid to identifying criteria for adequate enforcement of discretion. It is concluded that, in order to ensure the adequacy of enforcement, the fundamental principles of law must have clear legal interpretations that exclude the diversity  of their interpretation. Pages 230 to 237




The Use of Mindomo Software to Improve the Logical Development of EFL Learners’ Writing

Bita Naghmeh-Abbaspoura, Vahideh Rastgoob, Nasrin Fathic, Zinat Mortazavi Yekd, aSchool of Languages, Literacies and Translation, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM):  11800 Penang, Malaysia, bM.Sc. Student of EFL teaching, Neyshabur Non-Profit University, Neyshabur, Iran, cDepartment of English Language Teaching, Tabriz Azad University, Tabriz, Iran, dDepartment of  general linguistics, Zahedan University of Humanities, Zahedan, Iran,

Educators have always been  interested in the establishment of environments which motivate and stimulate students to engage in their learning process in an active and dynamic manner. Digital mind mapping, which is a computerised version of mind mapping, is one of the popular teaching as well as learning strategies emerging  in the growing world of technology. The present study aimed  to determine  the effect of using Mindomo software as a computerised version of mind mapping techniques  for the logical development of Iranian EFL learners’ writing. Accordingly, thirty female intermediate English language learners were selected from the Shokuh Institute in Tabas, Southern Khorasan as the participants of the study. They were randomly allocated to a control group and an experimental group consisting of 15 subjects. The control group was provided with the usual training, while the experimental group was presented with the intervention twice a week during summer of 2018. Pre-tests and post-tests were applied for both groups in this experimental study and the results were then compared. The research findings indicated that application of Mindomo in teaching writing could promote the learners’ abilities to develop their writings logically. The results of the statistical analysis confirm that applying Mindomo software in writing classes helps the learners   with the logical development of their writings more effectively, although the changes reported in the present study were not statistically significant. Pages 238 to 252




The Influence of Competence and Discipline of the Crew on the Performance of PT. Djakarta Lloyd

Abdul Rachmana, aSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pelayaran, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aabdulrachman_agbstip@yahoo.co.id

A shipping company needs competent and qualified crews to carry out daily activities. To achieve its performance target, it needs to pay attention to the competency and the discipline of the ship crew. Unfortunately, many crews still do not meet the standards and qualifications to ensure maximum performance. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of the competency and the discipline of the crew on the performance of PT. Djakarta Lloyd. The technical analysis of data is conducted by using a multiple regression method. PT. Djakarta Lloyd holds more job training in the field to solve problems that are related to the variable of the competency. By doing so, the company expects the optimal performance of its crews daily. The issues about  crew discipline  are  mainly concerned with their awareness of the importance of being disciplined while working on board. The proper way to overcome this is by conducting training and periodic evaluations. The independent variable of this study is the variable of the competency and the discipline of the crew, while the dependent variable is the company’s performance. Pages 253 to 269




Labour Movement and Interest Groups in Contemporary Indonesia

Af-Sigit Rochadia, Ramlan Siregarb, Paisal Halimc, Syamsiah Badruddind, aDepartment of Political Science Faculty of Social and Political Science Universitas Nasional Jakarta Indonesia, bDepartment of Sociology Faculty of Social and Political Science Universitas Nasional Jakarta Indonesia, Email: aaf.rochadi@civitas.unas.ac.id, bramlan.siregar@civitas.unas.ac.id,  cpaisalhalim@civitas.unas.ac.id, dsyamsiah_badruddin@civitas.unas.ac.id

This paper discusses the labour movement as an interest group in contemporary Indonesia. Using qualitative methods, the researcher explains that as a group of interests, the labour movement was powerful  towards both the central and regional governments. However, the labour movement failed to build political parties even though the number of workers was a quarter of the electorate. The strength of the labour movement in influencing the government was evident. In 1998, the campaign was able to stop the implementation of new labour policies. Furthermore, in 2003, it actively participated in the process of  drafting new labour policies that massively changed the 2001 ministerial regulation on wages. Lastly, it made the government issue policies restrictions on work  completed  by outsourcing. For the regional government, the labour movement cooperates with regional heads to provide support in general elections. In return, the provincial leader establishes high labor costs and issues a policy of protecting local labourers. Pages 270 to 283




Effectiveness of Physical Activity Model Based on Circuit for Physical Fitness of Primary School Students

Apta Mylsidayua, James Tangkudungb, Achmad Sofyan Hanifc, Bujangd, aUniversitas Negeri Jakarta, Department of Sport Education, Postgraduate, East Jakarta, DKI Jakarta 13220, Indonesia, bUniversitas Islam 45, Department of Physical Education, Health, and Recreation, Bekasi, West Java 17113, Indonesia, Email: amylsidayu@gmail.com

The development of a model of physical activity for physical education will improve physical fitness. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of a physical activity model based on circuit for physical fitness. The method used in this research is an experiment with a pre-test,post-test control group design. The analysis test used in this research is the average difference test using t-test (paired t-test). The result of the experimental and control group showed a significant difference between pre-test and post-test physical fitness of 0.00 < 0.05 (T-count <T-table), thus the variable of the physical activity model based on circuit is predicted to have a significant correlation to physical fitness for primary school students. Therefore, physical education teachers  can  use a physical activity model based on circuit to increase the physical fitness of students  in the first class of primary school. Pages 284 to 300




Commitments of Countries  to Giving Old Age Allowances  to Workers

Chazali H. Situmoranga, aDepartment of Public Administration Faculty of Social and Political Science Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: achazali.situmorang@civitas.unas.ac.id

The existence of a nation is to fulfil multiple needs and wants that require people to work together in order to fulfil their needs as they  cannot fulfil  them individually. Thus, based on each person’s skill, he or she has his or her own tasks. This unity is called society or nation. Then, in a sovereign nation framework based on the 1945 Constitution, one of  the remits is to provide social security for every citizen. This commitment to social security is also stated in the 1948 United Nations’ Declaration of Human Rights, and further it is emphasised in the International Labour Organisation’s Convention No. 102/1952, which is aligned with the Indonesian Parliament (MPR-RI) in TAP No X/MOR/2001.  This assigns the President to create a National Social Security System (SJSN) in order to provide an integrated and comprehensive social security service. In June 30th 2015, the Government issued Regulation No. 46/2015 about the Pension Plan – based on the Act No. 40/2004 about the National Social Security System. In  Regulation No. 46/2015, article 1 on  general requirements, section 1 states “OldAge Insurance (JHT) is a lump-sum cash benefit that is paid to the workers when retired, dead, or permanently disabled”. Describing a nation’s policy, in the form of regulations, is  necessary  to measure the commitment of a nation in developing its people. Indonesia, as a part of the global world, has signed numerous world conventions and must be held accountable in improving  social welfare and protection for its citizens. Pages 301 to 314




 Indonesian Democracy, between two Political Systems

Diana Fawziaa, Erna Ermawati Chotimb, Paisal Halimc, Syamsiah Badruddind, a,bDepartment of Magister Political Science of Postgraduate Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia, c,dDepartment of Sociology Faculty of Social and Political Science Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: adiana.fawzia@civitas.unas.ac.id,  berna.chotim@civitas.unas.ac.id,  cpaisalhalim@civitas.unas.ac.id,  dsyamsiah_badruddin@civitas.unas.ac.id

This study aims to examine the existing democratic culture in Indonesia that is in the form of traditional values and institutions. The difference is in terms of the level of each culture. The study was conducted by comparing the democratic values in Minangkabau and Javanese culture. It is obvious that Indonesian culture comes from three elements of values: traditional, Islamic and western. Through observation and political science and political anthropology approaches, it is found that Indonesian democracy is a local level political system, namely a political system that lies between the local political system and the national political system. The combination of democracy types originated from local culture  on the one  hand; while the other originated from outside,  which has resulted in confusion that is manifested in contests and political competition. Pages 315 to 327




Social Media, Hoax, and Threats against Diversity in Indonesia

Eko Harry Susantoa, aDepartment Ilmu Komunikasi, Fakultas Ilmu Komunikasi, Universitas Tarumanagara, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: aekos@fikom.untar.ac.id

The issues of social media spreading hoax news are increasingly worrisome in the diverse society life in Indonesia. It is obvious that various conflicts have been triggered by hoax news filled with prejudice, hatred and negative information. Besides, the prevalence of hoaxes has increased simultaneously with political democracy in Indonesia. For the reason of freedom of communication as being the right of the people, messages are often interpreted unilaterally to serve a given interest.  This research aims to obtain an overview of the hoax which threatens  diversity as well as the effective strategy and communication pattern to counter it. To gain a holistic view of hoaxes on social media, this research employed a qualitative research method.  This research found that hoaxes dominate the social media information traffic and  threaten  national diversity, which is perceived differently by  social media users and  society. Another finding is that there is a need for a strategy and communication pattern to counter hoaxes which threaten the nation unity. Pages 328 to 344




The Social Function of the Rights and Benefits of Land (Utility) on Landowners regarding the Development of General Interest

Muhammad Rustana, Hidayahb, aDepartment of Faculty of Law, Universitas Muslim Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia, bDepartment of  teacher training and education science, Universitas Pejuang RI Makassar, Email: amuh.rustan@umi.ac.id, bhidayah@upri.ac.id

This study aims to analyze the Social Functions of Land Ownership Rights that are beneficial to landowners and the development of public interest. The study was located in five districts across the province of South Sulawesi, where the government conducted  land acquisition and the development of municipal facilities. The area is in Makassar City, Barru Regency, Wajo Regency, Tana Toraja Regency, and Bantaeng Regency. The study used questionnaire techniques to collect data from 258 people, who were selected purposively. This study also implemented a literature review. The research is related to the area of juridical sociology. The results of the study showed that the social function of property rights on the community was beneficial because the price of land increased dramatically (up more than 100%). The level of welfare received by the community varied.  The development had facilitated road transportation between regencies/cities.  The existence of motion dams has overcome drought, reduce flood from the Tempe Lake, and the flow of the Walennae and Cenranae rivers. Pages 345 to 359




Indonesia's Women’s Movement in Supporting Indonesian Government Policy: Government Regulation No 2-2017

Nieke Monika Kulsuma, Syamsiah Badruddinb, aDepartment of Communications Science Faculty of Social and Political Science Universitas Nasional, Jakarta Indonesia, bDepartment of Sociology Faculty of Social and Political Science Universitas Nasional, Jakarta Indonesia, Email: anieke.monika@civitas.unas.ac.id, bsyamsiah_badruddin@civitas.unas.ac.id

Since its independence in 1945, Indonesia is still facing many internal conflicts. Soeharto, former Indonesian President for almost 32 years, spread fear to many people in order to silence them. There was a reformation in 1998 that led to the collapse of the regime that made Indonesia experienced a period of “freedom from fear". After the reformation, many new mass organizations emerged in Indonesia. However, some of them were arrogant and caused fear for people in Indonesian. Therefore, in the current era of President Jokowi’s leadership, the government acts firmly regarding those mass organizations by issuing Government Regulation No.2 on July 10, 2017. This new regulation has raised pros and cons in society. The Indonesian women’s care group is one of the groups who are affected by this. This group consists of women from various racial, religious, educational, profession, and age backgrounds. The researcher was interested in investigation this matter as because it was a new thing in Indonesia. It was not common a group that consisted mostly of mothers which acted as a demonstration in front of Parliament Building/House of Representative on Friday, July 27, 2017. It turned out that those mothers were upset and disturbed by the actions of specific mass organizations. Thus, they felt the need to do the demonstration. The method of this research was qualitative. Researchers conducted interviews and studied some available documentation and literature. Research is still currently underway. Pages 360 to 368




The Urgency of Personal Data Protection Laws in Indonesia

Nynda Fatmawatia, Tolib Effendib, Anissatul Ulfac, a,cFaculty of Law, Universitas Narotama, Surabaya, Indonesia, bFaculty of Law, Universitas Trunojoyo Madura, Bangkalan, Indonesia, Emaill: aninda.fatmawati@narotama.ac.id, bte.effendi@trunojoyo.ac.id, canisatululfa17@gmail.com

This research aims to observe the regulations of personal data protection in Indonesia and the urgency in establishing personal data protection laws. The research method used is a normative legal research method that reviews the laws and regulations in Indonesia.  This will be applied in terms of Human Rights Act, ITE Law (Electronic Information and Transaction Law), Law on Population Administration, and Public Information Disclosure Act. The results show that personal data is each individual’s unique data and the owners of such personal data will be harmed by irresponsible people who violate it. Protection of personal data has been mentioned in several laws. However, more detailed arrangements that contain sanctions for violation are still needed so that people have legal protection. Pages 369 to 386


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