Students’ Cognitive Development Through Improvisations in a Theater Game-Based Approach

Norzuraina binti Mohd Nor1, Norasmah binti Mohd Nor2, Santhi A/P Letchumanan3, Mohd Fadzil bin Mohd Arif4, Halim bin Busno5, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris1, Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Perempuan Melayu2, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tok Perdana3, Sekolah Kebangsaan Sultan Abdullah4, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Alauddin5

This study aims to examine students’ cognitive development during the teaching and learning of the topic of Mixed-media Paintings using a theater game-based approach. This study is based on a qualitative approach which involving 8 Form Five students who were selected as the study sample. Data were collected through observations where the researchers examined the learning process which involving five sessions, namely induction, perceptions of art, applications of art, expressions of art, and art in life. Teachers were provided with the modules of theater games and a teaching plan as a guideline for the theater game-based approach in teaching the subject matter based on Bloom’s taxonomic levels of mastery. Data was analyzed using Nvivo software to reveal students’ level of cognitive development based on the twenty-first century learning skills as they performed selected theater games during the learning of Fine Art Specialization. The finding shows that students made several spontaneous improvisations in performing the games in terms of voice intonations, gestures, movements, and emotional expressions. In performing in such games, the students demonstrated various levels of Bloom’s taxonomic skills in the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains, namely synthesis and analysis. Pages 1 to 12




Secondary Chinese Teacher Recruitment Examination Trends and Improvement Plan in Korea: Focusing on Questions from 2018-2021

Eun Young Jang, Department of Chinese Education, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Republic of Korea, Email address: j9902768@hufs.ac.kr

Studies on the Chinese secondary school teacher recruitment examination had been steadily conducted. This paper examined the types and trends of the current recruitment examination by targeting the recruitment exam questions from the 2018 academic year to 2021, on which there are almost no studies, and presented ways to improve the Chinese secondary school teacher recruitment examination in the future. There is a difference in the ratio of questions by year, but in general, the ratioof questions asked in Introduction to Chinese Language and Chinese Education Theory was high. The questions on Chinese conversation and Chinese reading did not appear at all, or even if they did, the ratio did not exceed 10%. And although the percentage of questions on Chinese culture course is not high, the questions consistently appear every year. This can be said to be related to the emphasis on comparison and understanding of mutual culture in the 2015 revised curriculum. This study presented improvement measures for the recruitment examination of Chinese secondary school teachers based on the results of analysis on questions from the 1st exam for the 2018-2021 school year and the evaluation contents of the 2nd exam. Pages 13 to 32




The Hospitality Students’ Experiences with Work-integrated Learning in TVET Colleges

Zandile Kubhekaa,  Mncedisi Christian Maphalalab, aUniversity of  South Africa, College of Education, Department of Curriculum and Instructional Studies, bNorth West University, School of Professional Studies in Education Studies, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1078-1985, Email: azandilekubheka@hotmail.com, bt25787810@nwu.ac.za

Work-integrated learning has been adopted in higher education worldwide as a strategy to transfer classroom activities to the workplace. There is a dearth of research in the South African context that seeks to explore the hospitality students’ experiences with work-integrated learning (WIL) in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges. Thus, this study sought to explore the students’ experiences with work-integrated learning in South African TVET colleges. The theories underpinning the study were the Experiential Learning Theory and Workplace Participatory Practices Theory. The study adopted a qualitative design comprising of 30 purposively selected students in 5 TVET colleges. A focus group discussion was used to gather data that was used to answer the research questions. Data was analysed using a thematic framework, following Braun and Clarke’s (2006) approach. The following themes resulted from the analysis: skills necessary for a hospitality graduate; students’ expectations and perceptions of WIL; students’ readiness for employment; support for students; resources, equipment, and infrastructure for WIL; work placements and the curriculum.  Pages 33 to 49




“The Time Machine” Social Innovation and Research-Creation Strategy for Risk Control in Informal Labor Communities

Gregorio Enrique Puello-Socarrás, ORCiD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7507-5937 - Industrial Design / Business Administration Proffessional - Safety and Health at Work Management Specialist - Master’s degree in Development Practice. Teacher and Researcher at the Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios - UNIMINUTO Bogotá, Colombia. Email: gpuellosoca@uniminuto.edu.cogregorio.puello@uniminuto.edu

Strategies to control occupational risk factors face various challenges in terms of their application and effectiveness, even more so when it comes to providing risk-control solutions under informal working conditions. Purpose: explore opportunities presented by the use of social innovation strategies and methodologies derived from research-creation to establish educational control measures for occupational risk factors, for recovery and recycling workers in Bogotá (Colombia). Methods and procedures: There were two main phases for this research: one aimed to understand the different risk posed to informal labor communities based on workplace inspection and risk assessment norms NTC4114 and GTC45, the other one was aimed to develop a research-creation and social innovation-based strategy, to co-create innovative solutions to address risk factors with the informal workers New Results: Risk conditions were measured for the first time with this group of informal workers and a social innovation creation was made to control risk factors and to dignify working conditions Conclusions: Informal work has precarious and uncontrolled risk. In addition, the systematic exclusion of informal workers from public health labor systems organized by national governments means that protective measures for this group of people are often ineffective or inadequate, or in the worst case, non-existent. Pages 50 to 72



The Challenges of Achieving Competitive Advantage at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ms. Fatima Abdullah Al-Melhama, Dr. Obaid Abdullah Al-Subaieb, a,bCollege of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

The study aims to identify the extent to which competitive advantage can be achieved across several areas (education, scientific research, community service, human resources, technology, and innovation) at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU) in Saudi Arabia. The study also aims to identify the most important challenges that prevent the achievement of competitive advantage across these areas. The descriptive approach was employed using a questionnaire as a tool of collecting data from a sample of (199) faculty members at the University. The results of the study showed a high degree of competitive advantage across the six areas. The results also indicated that many challenges prevent the achievement of competitive advantage. The most important of these challenges was the fierce local and international competition between universities. Pages 73 to 88

Leading Change and its Relationship with the Moral Spirit of the Faculty Members: An Applied Study on the University of Imam Abd Al-Rahman Bin Faisal in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ms. Saja Suleiman Al-Turkia, Dr. Obaid Abdullah Al-Subaieb, aDeanship of Preparatory Year, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, bDepartment of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between change leadership and the faculty morale at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University. The researchers used the correlational descriptive approach. The sample consisted of 243 faculty members which constitutes (17%) of the total population (1428). The study used the questionnaire as a tool to collect data. The study data were processed using the statistical program (SPSS). The results of the study found that the degree of practicing change leadership skills among academic leaders at the University of Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal was "high". The results also revealed that the level of morale among the faculty members at the University of Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal was "high". The researchers also found a positive relationship between change leadership, and the level of morale among faculty members at the significance level (0.01). The study recommended several recommendations, the most important of which are: Encouraging academics to take initiative in new projects and ideas, contribute to the development of the educational system within the university, and support the university in the field of university research and university research. Pages 89 to 105

Poverty as an Impediment to Economic Growth and Development: Perspective on Education in Nongoma Area of Zululand District of Kwazulu- Natal

Iwaloye Bunmi Omoniyia, Bongani Thulani Gamedeb, Chinaza Uleanyac, a,b,cHuman and Social Sciences, University of Zululand

Poverty is more complex than just than it is because it is a determinant factor for the growth and development of the economy in the country and precisely in Nongoma.     The study argues that the impact of poverty has limit economic growth and development due to a poor education system that disadvantage learners from poor households from receiving quality education while many even drop out of school, some learners engaged in different criminal activities, because of the financial constraints. Amongst others, the study recommends joint efforts among all the stakeholders to alleviate poverty, political unrest, even distribution of income and resources in the Nongoma municipality. The study was anchored by the ecological theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner while the mixed method was adopted for the study. Pages 106 to 129

The Effect of Intellectual Capital on Achieving the Competitive Advantage of Jordanian Pharmaceutical Companies: A Case Study of Dar Al-Dawa Company

Majed Masadeh, Full Professor, Department of Business Administration, Zarqa University, Jordan

This study aimed to Highlight the role of intellectual capital and its components in achieving the competitive advantage of Jordanian Dar Al-Dawa Company, then to submit recommendations that should be taken into account for the intellectual capital to achieve competitive advantage. The study used descriptive and analytical approach and both secondary and primary data were collected, using questionnaire specially designated the to gather data form a sample consisted of (148) employees in the top and middle management (director, deputy/assistant director and head of department) in Dar Al- Dawaa Company. And the program used for measuring the data is Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS. The researcher used descriptive and statistical analysis.  The study reached a number of conclusions, including that there is a high level of Intellectual Capital dimensions at Dar Al- Dawaa Company, which also found to have a high level of   the Competitive Advantage", It also found a statistically significant impact of Intellectual Capital in their dimensions (Human capital, Structural capital, Relational capital) on Competitive Advantage. In light of the conclusions proposed some recommendations were presented for Dar Al-Dawaa Company in Jordan. That have been focused around continuity to develop its intellectual capital in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in the market. Pages 130 to 150

Village Savings and Loan Associations as Resilient Factors in the Era of COVID-19 in Zimbabwe

Nyashadzashe Chiwawa1*, Norman Chivasa2, Henry Wissink3, 1University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Management, IT and Governance, 1ORCID NR: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5180-2631, 2University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, 3University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Email, School of Management, IT and Governance, *Corresponding Author, Email: 1*chiwawan@ukzn.ac.za, 2chivasan@ukzn.ac.za, 3 wissinkh@ukzn.ac.za

This article provides insights into the capacities of village savings and loan associations scheme to building the resilience of members of the scheme. This is true of ordinary people in Zimbabwe who are faced with financial exclusion and economic doldrums and a collapsing financial sector.  In the era of COVID-19, in which normal life has been disrupted, village savings scheme is a type of enterprise that seeks to empower ordinary people who are exposed to a myriad of vulnerabilities such as financial exclusion, poverty and inequalities. The capacities by ordinary people to take responsibility for their own well-being through savings is an indication of local agency and resilience. Pages 151 to 161

Female School Leaders and the Fourth Industrial Revolution in South Africa

Virginia Naidooa, Onoriode Collins Potokrib*, a,bUniversity of Johannesburg, South Africa, *Corresponding author, Email: avirginia@clps.co.za, b*cpotokri@uj.ac.za, b*cnuvie@gmail.com

The study explored the leadership skills female leaders in South African schools require to be adequately prepared for the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) era. It was conducted with female education specialists, principals, deputy principals and heads of department at primary and secondary schools. Both private and public schools were selected. A generic qualitative approach was used with individual interviews to collect data. Data analysis was conducted using a thematic inductive approach. Themes were generated from clusters of information relating to the research questions. The findings include the skills required for females to effectively lead schools for the 4IR era to become better 4IR-aligned leaders. The study revealed that female leaders recognize the need to adjust their leadership skills to the rapidly changing technological environment in schools. The study further revealed that support for development is lacking in public schools while private schools offer more mentoring and coaching of leaders to become 4IR-aligned. It is thus clear that leadership support/development, especially in public schools, requires effective administration and communication to ensure that schools receive the level of support that is drafted and structured at national government level. Pages 162 to 180

Developing Rural Economies through Small to Medium Tourism Enterprise: the case of Matatiele and Cedarville in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

aDr Siyabonga Mxunyelwa, bDr Obert Matarinano, cProfessor Dinesh Vallabh, a,b,cWalter Sisulu University, Faculty of Business Science, Department of Tourism, Hospitality and Sport Management, Email: asmxunyelwa@wsu.ac.z

Globally, nations depend on small businesses as engines for economic growth. Small to Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs), as part of the small business sector, are increasingly becoming important in terms of job creation, wealth creation and driving economic growth in smaller rural geographic areas. Utilising a mixed research approach, the paper identifies characteristics of SMTEs in Matatiele and Cedarville with the intention of identifying specific ways in which they can be supported to attain their real potential in enabling economic development in rural environment. Purposive sampling method was used to select respondents and self-administered questionnaires utilised to gather relevant data from managers/owners. The results indicate that the rural tourism is dominated by female-owned enterprises primarily offering accommodation services. Most of the enterprises have been in operation for a period of more than five years which points to potential growth as they are able to survive. The results further show that the businesses that participated in the survey intent employing more full-time employees. Furthermore, the results underscore that there is lack of local government support to promote entrepreneurship in the SMTEs sector particularly those that are located in the rural environment. The findings elucidate the ability of SMTEs to greatly reduce the high unemployment in rural economies if appropriate systems are put in place to support these enterprises. These findings have implications for the national, provincial and local government spheres in South Africa in their quest to create job opportunities in rural areas through entrepreneurship and SMTEs in order to provide impetus to the Eastern Cape Province and South African Economy. This paper recommends that government creates an enabling environment for SMTEs to operate optimally in the rural environment. Pages 181 to 196

Crisis Management Practices and Emergency Preparedness of Private Universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain: Basis for Framework Development

Dr. Yusuf Janahi, PhD from University of Bradford, UK, Ahlia University, Kingdom of Bahrain, Email: yjanahi@ahlia.edu.bh

The COVID-19 pandemic, unique as it seems, has a long-term effect on human capital, productivity, and behaviour. Consequently, the sudden closures of schools, colleges and universities highlighted the relevance of crisis management and emergency preparedness which have not received sufficient attention from universities leadership preparation programs. Likewise, scholars are currently digging deeper into the subject which demands deeper understanding of its theoretical underpinnings. This paper aimed to propose a reliable and valid development model that would best fit the crisis management practices and emergency preparedness of the private universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain. To understand the problem, a qualitative research method was used. Documentary analysis and WhatsApp technology were utilized to gather data in line with the current of practice of social distancing to contain the spread of the Corona virus. Consequently, purposive sampling technique was used wherein samples were chosen based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. The results of the semi-structured interview revealed a negative response from the respondents when they were asked about the practice of crisis management policies and procedures within their university. This was supported by the results of the documentary analysis which has underscored the need for training programs and a felt-need to establish a crisis management and emergency preparedness plan which will serve as a framework within which the university will operate in the event of a crisis. Pages 197 to 204

The Development of Engineering TVET Instructor Standard Teaching Competency Framework for Vocational College

Muhd Khaizer Omar, Khamsiah Ismail, Arnida Abdullah, How Shwu Pyng, Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: khaizer@upm.edu.my

Individual competency consists of a set of knowledge, skills and personnel characters to execute specific responsibilities and designated tasks. A competent person upholds the highest integrity and ensures perfection to fulfill self-satisfaction and meeting the standard. Competency can be classified into myriad components,  known as generic and specific skills. In light of the daunting issues on lack of skills among graduates claimed by the industries, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) educators have been pointed out to resolve the issue. The key aspect discussed on TVET instructor competency components is to empower graduates' employability. Thus, TVET instructors are requested to comply with the necessity to upgrade their theoretical and practical knowledge content and become adroit to compensate for the 21st-century teaching and learning environment. Emphasizes are from the development of teacher professional characteristics and specific competency traits in pedagogical aspects as well as soft skills training to synchronize with the ever changing educational milieu. This research employed a qualitative strand of a case study by compiling the narrative collected from the structured interview to obtain research data. The participants were selected among teachers, students, and vocational college directors in Selangor, Malaysia. The objective of the study is to explore the required competency components of the TVET instructors in engineering-related courses. The data was compiled using NVivo software and thematically analyzed by extracting and determining the ‘meaning-making process’ of participants to answer the formulated research questions. The findings of the study incited personality and values, ethics and professional practices, knowledge-development, professional skills, effective management, socializing skill, and pedagogical skill as pivotal themes emerged from the analysis. It is hoped that the findings will initiate a significant impact particularly to the Engineering TVET instructors at the vocational colleges. More importantly, it is to execute the competency components and drive instructors’ motivation to remain in the teaching profession and enhance the quality of TVET education as well as demonstrate professionalism among instructors.  Pages 205 to 227

Government Governance in the Utilization of Traditional Forests in Kampar District, Riau, Indonesia

Winda Lestaria, Ahmad Fitra Yuzab*, Syahrul Akmal Latifc, Rendi Prayudad, Khairul Rahmane, *Corresponding Author, a,b,c,d,eRiau Islamic University, Email: awindalestari2113@gmail.com, b*fitra.ip@soc.uir.ac.id, csyahrul72@soc.uir.ac.id, drendiprayuda@soc.uir.ac.id, ekhairul.ip@soc.uir.ac.id

This article wants to discuss about government governance in the use of the Rumbio customary forest in Kampar Regency, Riau, Indonesia. The current forest area is 64% of the 7.4 million hectares of customary areas mapped by the Alliance for Indigenous Peoples of the Archipelago (Aman). According toThe Minister of Environment and Forestry (LHK) (in 2020 granting access to forest area management through Social Forestry covers an area of ​​4.062 million hectares, with the number of SK Permits or rights totaling 6,464 SK units for the community totaling 821,371 families. Recognition and designation of customary forests covering 35,150 hectares scattered in 65 indigenous peoples with 36,438 families and indicative of customary forests covering an area of ​​915,004 hectares in 22 provinces and 48 districts. Social forests in Riau are 108 thousand hectares of a potential 1.05 million hectares, for all of Indonesia covering 4 million hectares. The results of the investigation by the Kampar Indigenous Forest Acceleration Recognition Team (TP2HAK) that there are two customary forests that have been recognized, namely the imbo putui kenegerian petapahan customary forest covering 251 hectares and the kenegerian kampa customary forest covering an area of ​​156.8 hectares. Kampar District has at least eight areas that are included in the customary forest area. However, so far only seven customary forest areas have been submitted for issuance of SK to the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, two of which have been issued decrees. Meanwhile, the other five proposals have not been issued yet because they are still in process. Pages 228 to 238

Saudi Arabia’s Social Commentary Art in Photography

Roba Abdullah Alromiha,b , Husaini Yaacobb, aCollege of Education, Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, bFine Art Department, School of the Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, Penang, Malaysia, Email: robaalromih84@gmail.com (Roba Abdullah Alromih); husaini@usm.my (Husaini Yaacob)

Photographers have their artistic creativity to express relevant social comments about the global social trend. In this respect, the current Saudi photographers have no exception. Compared to other countries in the West, images which publicize comments towards a society’s norm, also known as social commentary, images that have been a part of Saudi’s daily life since decades ago were produced as a way of expression. Unfortunately, photography in Saudi Arabia has attracted little scientific and international attention. Thus, this study intended to get a clear picture of the public's point of view on photographic representation and its role in social commentary, portrayal of social comments from Saudi photographers as a way to better understand the ideas, practices and attitudes of Saudi photographic artists. When there are limitation of open criticisms in Saudi, photographers tend to express their thoughts to the public through photography. Photographs were chosen from photographic artists who pro-duce extreme expressions of creations through their photographs. This study provides insight about public understanding on how contemporary photographic artists of Saudi Arabia utilize photographic images to comment on sociocultural circumstances of the country in relation to social norms, cultural manifestations, and politics overall. Pages 239 to 258

Social Networking Sites and Political Knowledge: Factors that Affect Individual’s Knowledge Acquisition from Facebook and Twitter

Sara Basyouni, Middlesex University

This paper seeks to investigate the impact of social network sites (SNS) specifically Facebook and Twitter on the acquisition of the political knowledge. Further, it attempts to identify the extent to which both political interest and level of users’ education affect this process. Results indicate that only Twitter’s usage is positively correlated with political knowledge acquisition, in the sense that Facebook is ineffective in political learning education; a result that bears many important implications for election campaigns, political socialization and diffusion of political knowledge. This paper also shows that individual’s political interest and level of education determine type and amount of knowledge people gain from SNS. An interesting result of this paper states that SNS effect on learning domain specific knowledge is more powerful than on the general one. Data of this paper was obtained from Egyptian youth where 311 respondents were randomly selected via online survey. Pages 259 to 275

Contribution of Personality Competencies and Social Competencies of Tutor Teachers in Increasing the Value of Alternative Education National Examinations for Citizens Learning Equality Package C in Banten Province

Sudadio, Nandang Faturohman, Professor Lecturer, in the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Sciences and Lecturer in Postgraduate Doctoral Program, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University, dr.dio@untirta.ac.id

Pamong teacher is one of the components of the educator who has a very strategic central role in supporting the implementation of the equality education process activ ubi. 9mities in various educational institutions outside the school whose program includes equality of packages in the province of Banten in particular and in general throughout the region. To find out the strategic role of the tutor teacher, researchers on this occasion presented article writing from the research results with research problems:”  Contribution of personality competencies and social competencies of tutor teachers in increasing the value of national equality tests for citizens learning package C in Banten “In order to get the data as needed, researchers used a data collection tool in the form of a questionnaire that was distributed to thirty civil servant teachers as respondents to the main data source, then the data obtained on the answers to the questionnaire, then carried out processing and analyzing data quantitatively using correlation statistical formula product Moment Person. Based on the results of processing and data analysis, it can be stated that: 1) the contribution of competitor to the tutelary teacher's personality in increasing the national test scores of equality in the package C learning population in Banten province is stated to have can be stated as contributing enough (0.242), 2) the ratio of equality in learning package C residents in Banten Province was stated to can be stated as contributing enough ( 0.236 ), thus contributing personality competencies and social competencies which had a role as a driving force in supporting the implementation of pedagogic competence and professional competence, meaning the tutor teacher would carry out the task properly if the condition of the personality and privacy of the tutor teacher is in a conducive condition. Looking at the level of contribution of the personal competencies and social competencies of the civil servant teachers who contribute relatively equally, this condition shows that personality competencies and social competitiveness are one entity, where each other is interconnected, needs each other, and supports each other for the implementation of educational process activities held at non-formal education, especially equality of package C. Pages 276 to 286

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