The Role of Face Concerns and Facework in Managing Communication Conflict among Arabs and Malaysians

Ali Mehelloua, Abbas Ramdanib*, Raji Ridwan Adetunjic, aDepartment of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia, b,cDepartment of Communication, School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Email: b*abbas@uum.edu.my

This study investigates the associations between face concerns and facework in managing intercultural conflict among Arabs and Malaysians. A questionnaire was administered to 149 participants at the Universiti Utara Malaysia. The findings of the current study revealed that face concerns have a moderate and negative relationship with intercultural conflict. Meanwhile, facework has  a very weak relationship with intercultural conflict. Additionally, this study demonstrates that Arabs and Malaysians have significant differences of facework and face concerns in managing intercultural conflict situations. The implications of the findings reported in this study is that face concerns and facework are critical for improving conflict management. The study contributes by providing useful insights in managing intercultural communication, negotiation, and conflict across cultures, especially among Arabs and Malaysians. Pages 1 to 14




Measuring the Relationship of Selected Macroeconomic Variables and the Velocity of Money Supply in the Iraqi Economy

Burhan Othman Husseina, aUniversity of Kirkuk, College of Administration and Economics, Economics Department, Email: aburhanohman@uokirkuk.edu.iq 

Macroeconomic variables are the backbones of any state’s economy, whether existing financially or as reserves. This research will provide a better picture and clear understanding on the influential role of macroeconomic variables on the velocity of money supply in the Iraqi economy. Particularly, price inflation, real gross domestic products per capita (GDP), and interest rates have been investigated by using the co-integration model based on the Vector Autoregressive approach. The strong and significant role of selected macroeconomic variables has been recorded using a time series ranging from 2004 to 2017. GDP proved to be indispensable and needs proper consideration when economic fluctuations are deep down. In short, it is foremost important, necessary and in the need of hour to initiate the government regarding price stability, and improving supervisory and regulatory systems in order to assure a typical financially stable system. The government of Iraq should also lineate the policies and make their implementation perfect, as per their maximum possible practice. Pages 15 to 24




 National and International Mechanisms to Combat the Trafficking in Persons: An Iraqi Case Study

Ameel Jabbar Ashoura, aCollege of Law, University of Misan - Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Iraq, Email: aameelashour@yahoo.com

This paper analyses the crime of human trafficking under national and international laws but with a special focus on Iraqi legislation. This paper examined human trafficking as a transnational organised crime and human trafficking as a crime against humanity by examining whether the International Criminal Court can be considered as an effective organisation to address human trafficking as a crime against humanity. This paper also showed the efforts made by the Iraqi Government to address the crime of human trafficking and the effectiveness of the Iraqi Anti-Trafficking Act Law No. 28 of 2012. Accordingly, this study concluded that human trafficking is a multi-dimensional problem and that the long-term success of combating this crime cannot be accomplished by taking a disjunctive approach to address its many facets. Therefore, if a unified approach is attained, it will result in a permanent solution or at least be a major contributing factor in the fight against the problem. Pages 25 to 42




Factors Influencing Manufacturers in Implementing Halal Logistics

Muna Norkhairunnisak Ustadia, Raja Zuraidah Raja Mohd Rasib, Sharina Osmanc, a,cUniversiti Kuala Lumpur Business School, 50250 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, bFaculty of Business and Technology Management, Universiti Tun Hussien Onn, 86400 Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia.

Similar to the conventional logistics activities, halal logistics comprises of the planning, implementing and controlling of the production, distribution, terminal operation and storage of halal certified products. In other words, to be certified as halal, the whole of activities, from the source to the point of consumption, must follow specific procedures and regulations which are set by the authority.    This paper shows the application of halal in the transportation industry, which addresses the issue of mixing the halal and non-halal products in the distribution and storage process. The awareness in the obligation to observe halal requirements for the Muslim community has increased the need to investigate the extent to which the halal principle is applied in logistics activities, from production to the delivery of the product to the end users. As such, this paper explores the perception of manufacturers on the intention to implement halal principles in using transportation services. The model was developed and tested by adopting the structural equation modelling (SEM) procedure from the data collected through a survey that yielded 360 usable questionnaires. The anticipated outcome of this study is to understand the perception of logistics providers on the value of implementing halal logistics management. This is important for the relevant authorities to improve and promote the implementation of halal logistics in Malaysia. Pages 43 to 55




The Extent of Physics Teachers Employed Active Teaching Methods in Their Classrooms (From Teachers’ Perspectives)

Ali Khaled Bawaneha, aDeanship of Academic Development Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University P.O. Box 10674, Dammam 31443, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia, Email: aakbawaneh@iau.edu.sa

The study aims to examine the level of active teaching practices used by teachers teaching Physics in the classrooms. It sought to examine the potential alteration of these practices  on terms of teachers’ gender and experiences. The population of the studyconsisted of physics teachers within the Irbid region Educational Directorate, Jordan. There was a representative sample of 256 teachers that participated in this  study. The  research was conducted through a questionnaire for data collection,  utilising the SPSS program for data analysis, as well as  valid statistical measures. The results indicated that the degree of employment of active teaching practices by physics teachers was low but, also, somewhat variable depending on the kind of questions raised. The study also demonstrates that there were statistically significant differences in the degree of employment of active teaching practices due to teachers’ gender. However, the results show that there were no statistically significant differencesin the teachers’ experience. Henceforth, the study recommended the urgent need of providing teachers with professional development programs for enhancing, helping, and raising teachers’ awareness of the utility of active teaching practices. Pages 56 to 74




Organising Medium Term Development Plan System Conceptual Model in the West Java Province

Muhamad Nur Afandia*, Bambang Heru Purwantob, Andre Suryaningprangc, aSTIA Lan, Jalan Cimandiri, bPasundan University, cSTIE Indonesia Membangunc, Email: a*afandimuhamadnur@gmail.com

This study focuses on understanding  the structural problem of  the implementation of Regional Medium-term Development Plan (RMTPD) (in Indonesia the term is Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Daerah (RPJMD)) systems. The research aims to review and analyse the main issues in the implementation of both  regencies and cities inside the RPJMD. The outcome needs to contribute to the implementation of the regency/city RPJMD system in regional government. In the formulation of alternative conceptual models to support the administration of the regency/city RPJMD. The research approach used in this study is qualitative, and the method  utilises the soft system methodology (SSM) method  along with CATWOE analysis (customer, actor, transformation, worldview, owner & environmental constraints), 3E (efficacy, efficiency & effectiveness), role analysis, as well as both social and political analysis.  This constructs a conceptual model for the implementation of the regency/city RPJMD system to overcome the impact of the enactment of laws and regulations that are not system based. Conceptual model construction operates in conditions  caused by the intervention of the system in the form of regulatory dynamics. The conclusion in this study is that the application of the conceptual model is expected to be able to provide solutions to local governments to support the implementation of Regency/City RPJMD to achieve development objectives. Recommendations are that the local government needs to strengthen organisational learning, control, and the monitoring of the implementation of Regency/City RPJMD, as well as the implementation of a joint government election. Pages 75 to 87




A Study of Tourists’ Knowledge about the Bronze Bell (Malaysia) and the Dotaku Bell (Japan)

Adnan Jusoha, aDepartment of History, Faculty of Human Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 39500 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email: aadnan.jusoh@fsk.upsi.edu.my

This article focuses on tourists' knowledge about two artefacts from prehistoric society - the bronze bell (Malaysia) and the Dotaku bell (Japan). Even though these artefacts emerged during the Metal Ages, knowledge about them is not as extensive as knowledge about the bronze drum. Therefore, this article aims to identify tourists' level of knowledge about the bronze bell (Malaysia) and the Dotaku bell (Japan). In addition, this study also attempts to assess whether there was any relationship between Malaysia and Japan in the context of history. The study involved 400 local and international tourists, selected through simple random sampling and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). A questionnaire was used to obtain feedback with regard to respondents' backgrounds, museum visit experience, and knowledge about the bronze bell (Malaysia) and Dotaku bell (Japan) artefacts. The results showed that the majority of the visitors had seen the bronze bell (Malaysia), but not many had seen the Dotaku bell (Japan). However, their level of knowledge was only general, and they did not even know about the symbols or motifs featured. They found it difficult to understand the existence of these two types of artefacts in the context of the relationship between the two historical communities of that age (Malaysia and Japan). This was despite the fact that the decorative motifs and patterns of both artefacts synonymously demonstrated the sociocultural development between the two communities, especially during the Metal Age. Pages 88 to 109




 Current Status and Recommendation of Employment Background Checks: What Malaysian Managers Need To Know.

Abas Nurul Ain Hidayaha*, Mazlina Che Mustafab, Suzani Mohamad Samuric, Chong Julvind, Atirah Haizire, Muaz Abdul Gaffarf, Sopia Md Yassing, a,b,d,eFaculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia, c,gNational Child Development Research Centre, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysi, Email: a*nurulain@fpm.upsi.edu.my, bmazlina.cm@fpm.upsi.edu.my, csuzani@fskik.upsi.edu.my, %20%20enora@fpm.upsi.edu.my">bahbibi@fskik.upsi.edu.my,  enora@fpm.upsi.edu.mydjulvinqiaoen@gmail.com,  eatirahhaizirsj@gmail.com, fmuazabdulgaffar95@gmail.com,  gsopia@fsm.upsi.edu.my

This paper’s aims are twofold; to review the status of background checking process and to provide practical recommendations to Malaysian managers in the hiring process from interview sessions with local authorities. The review covers the definition and fundamental purposes of background checking, overview implementation of background checking in Asian countries, and the emerging needs of psychometric tests. Methodology: Two methods of data collection are employed. First, literature search in exploring the fundamental aspects and needs of background checking from the Scopus database and Google Scholar. Second, a preliminary interview with Malaysian local authorities on the current status of the background checking process in Malaysia to provide further recommendations in the hiring process. Main Findings: Two themes emerged from the reviews and preliminary interviews; the enforcement of background checking and the use of psychometric tests in the hiring process. Applications of this study: The findings could be applied as the first phase of needs analysis to show the critical needs to develop standardised psychometric tests in the hiring process in Malaysia. This article highlights the significance of systematic enforcement of background checking in maximising safety to the employees while minimising potential lawsuits, time and costs for organisations. Pages 110 to 122




Educationists’ Voice on Quality Early Childhood Care and Education in Malaysia

MazlinaChe Mustafaa*, Kung-Teck Wongb, Norazilawati Abdullahc, Bahbibi Rahmatullahd, Jamilah Omare,  Suzani Mohamad Samurif, Sopia Md Yasing, a,b,c,d,e,f,gNational Child Development Research Centre, UniversitiPendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*mazlina.cm@fpm.upsi.edu.my

This study is to explore the educationists’ voice on the quality Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) scale. Methodology: In depth semi-structured interview was employed as the main data gathering method.  Purposive sampling was involved in this study in which three educationists were selected based on their expertise in ECCE. Main Findings: The themes emerged are characteristics of quality teachers, both the cooperation and involvement of parents, the continuity of the development of children, continuity of the children’s development, solidification of professional development, a dynamic and conducive environment, a sustainable management system, and collaboration between agencies and communities. Applications of this study: These themes can be examined as essential elements in the development of a quality framework of ECCE in Malaysia as well as other countries. Novelty/Originality of this study: The study confirmed that the elements are based on Malaysian ECCE context and relevant according to the existing ECCE practices. Pages 123 to 138




 Pre-Service Carers-Educators Competency of Ecce Programs in Malaysia

Nor Azah Samata*, Noor Wahida Md. Junusb, Nor Suriya Abd Karimc, Nur Hijrah Abd Rahmand, a,b,cDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia, dDepartment of Economy, Faculty of Management and Economics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia, Email: anorazah@fsmt.upsi.edu.mybnoor_wahida@fsmt.upsi.edu.mycsuriya@fsmt.upsi.edu.mydhijrahrahman1506@gmail.com

This paper aims to identify the level of competency of pre-service carers-educators from various institutions in Malaysia which offer ECCE programs towards the development of carers-educators professionalism framework. Here, competency is categorised as disposition, knowledge, skills and practices. Research: Methodology: In this study, quantitative research was conducted and 991 pre-service carers-educators from seven types of local institutions were randomly selected as respondents. These institutions include public universities, the Institute of Teacher Education, private universities, vocational colleges, private colleges, the SKM Agencies, and the KAP Agencies. Descriptive and inferential statistics based on t-test were applied to the survey data collected to answer the research objective.  Findings: Findings of the study showed that pre-service carers-educators in Malaysia have a significantly high level of competency in disposition, knowledge, skills and practices across the institutions. Conclusion and Applications: As a conclusion, it can be said that ECCE programs in Malaysia have successfully prepared the pre-service carers-educators with respectable competencies. This is important to provide excellent carers-educators for the future generations enrolled in TASKA/TADIKA in Malaysia. Novelty: Future research will be required to investigate whether there is a difference in terms of competencies between pre-service carers-educators with different levels of ECCE professional qualifications in Malaysia.  Pages 139 to 148




Early Childhood Educators’ Career Pathway Opportunities in Malaysia: a Preliminary Study

Nor Azah Abdul Aziza*, Norlaile Salleh Hudinb, Hasimah Alimonc, Salsabila Muzakhird, Nur Hanani Zakariae, a,b,c,d,e National Children Development Research Centre Sultan Idris Education University, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*azah@fskik.upsi.edu.my,  bnorlaile@fpe.upsi.edu.my, chasimah@fsmt.upsi.edu.my,  dsalsabilamuzakhir91@gmail.com, enurhananizakaria95@gmail.com

This preliminary study aims to review the implementation of early childhood educators’ career pathway development framework among government and private sector providers of early childhood services in Malaysia. In this preliminary study, four main variations represented by institutions providing Early Childhood Care & Education (ECCE) in Malaysia were identified which include the Department of National Unity and Integration (JPNIN), Department of Social Welfare (JKM), private preschools and Community Development Department (KEMAS). Methodology: This research embarked on mixed method methodology where both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to increase the credibility and validity of research results. The sampling frame was obtained from the National Child Data Center that contained registered ECCE providers only. Altogether there were 3,975 child care centers, and 23,701 preschools spanned over five zones in Malaysia. Main Findings: The findings show that all educators at TASKA have good career path opportunities except for some institutions such as TASKA Swasta (Private TASKA (workplace)), TASKA SWASTA, TASKA Komuniti and TASKA berasaskan rumah ( home-based TASKA) which have average professional development opportunities less than 3.0. However, through a t-test analysis, a sample of the findings showed that ECCE educators in TASKA had a significant career path opportunity (p <0.00). Applications of this study and Novelty/Originality of this study: The results of this research are expected to assist in the development of early childhood career pathway and can be an articulation of the conceptual theory framework and educator preparation model. Educators, supervisors, operators, trainers and officers from JPNIN, JKM, private preschools & KEMAS were the implementation target for this framework in developing professionalism and advancing their careers. Pages 149 to 163  




 Development and Validation of Early Childhood Care and Education Pre-Service Teacher Instrument (ECCEPTI)

Shazlyn Milleana Shaharudina, Noorazrin Abd Rajakb, Nor Azah Samatc, Noor Wahida Md. Junusd, Nur Hijrah Abd Rahmane, a,b,c,dDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia, eDepartment of Economy, Faculty of Management and Economics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia, Email: ashazlyn@fsmt.upsi.edu.mybnoorazrin@fsmt.upsi.edu.my,    cnorazah@fsmt.upsi.edu.mydnoor_wahida@fsmt.upsi.edu.myehijrahrahman1506@gmail.com

This research seeks to establish and substantiate the ECCE Pre Service Teacher Instrument designed to identify their competencies level towards the quality of early childhood carers-educators’ professionalism in Malaysia. Elements affecting the quality of early childhood education were distinguished through a comprehensive review of pieces of literature as well as interviews conducted with experienced teachers and experts. With a view to augment the validity of this instrument, it was reviewed by two experts. Additionally, this study involved 991 pre-school teachers. The principal component analysis had revealed four scales observing the quality of early childhood professionalism.  Methodology: 4 scales were used: (1) disposition, (2) knowledge, (3) skills, and (4) practices. Every instrument item covered a component loading range between 0.75 and 0.63. Conversely, the alpha reliability coefficient range for each scales was between 0.94 and 0.82. Findings: The findings of this study conclusively verified the validity and reliability of the ECCE Pre Service Teacher Instrument.  Application and Novelty Missing: As an addition, this research instrument will construct the quality of development framework for early childhood carers-educators professionalism in Malaysia which significantly helps to contribute and sustain the quality of ECCE. Pages 164 to 186




Educators’ Preparedness towards Children Safety and Health in Malaysian Preschools and Kindergartens

Noraine Salleh Hudina, Norlaile Salleh Hudinb, Azi Azeyanty Jamaludinc, Salsabila Muzakhird, a,cDepartment of Biology, Sultan Idris Education University, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Malaysia, bDepartment of Business Management and Entrepreneurship, Sultan Idris Education University, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Malaysia, dNational Child Development Research Center, Sultan Idris Education University, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Malaysia, Email: anorlaile@fpe.upsi.edu.my,  bnoraine@fsmt.upsi.edu.my,  cazi_azeyanty@fsmt.upsi.edu.my,  dsalsabilamuzakhir91@gmail.com

This research aims to explore educators’ preparedness towards children safety and health in Malaysian preschools and kindergartens. Methodology: 13 group interviews were carried out among educators from registered kindergartens (5-6 years) and preschools (0-4 years) which were selected based on purposive sampling technique. By using thematic analysis, data were transcribed in verbatim to be coded and categorised and finally, two themes were identified that were knowledge and practice. Findings: This study found evidence that educators in Malaysian registered preschools and kindergartens are well prepared in terms of safety and health knowledge and practice. They implemented appropriate procedures related to the cleanliness of school premises, sending and picking up procedure, food preparation, health screening, and first aid. Applications: This study implies that ECCE agencies need to make sure all preschools and kindergartens are registered so that their educators receive proper training on safety and health. In addition to that, there should be enforcement for more frequent monitoring of appropriate safety, and health practices are conducted at registered preschools and kindergartens. Novelty: This is the first attempt to develop a health and safety preparedness framework of early childhood educators in Malaysia. Malaysian ECCE educators are well-prepared in terms of knowledge and practice for health and safety issues at child care institutions.  Pages 187 to 205




Design Innovation of Ceramic Dental Model Moldwork through 3d Printing

Megat Mohd Safwan Yahyaa, Harozila Ramlib, Tajul Shuhaizam Said*c, Fadhil Wong Abdullahd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Art, Computing and Creative Industry, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, Email:amegatmohds383@gmail.com, bharozila@fskik.upsi.edu.myc*tajul@fskik.upsi.edu.my

The study of ceramic dental molding models through three-dimensional printing technology aimed at studying the design of ceramic dental molding designs adapted through three-dimensional innovation as well as interpreting the innovative design of dental model molding materials through three-dimensional printing (3D Printing) and analysing the suitability of the results design of dental model molding materials through three-dimensional printing technology (3D Printing) based on design principles. This study uses a qualitative approach, using structured and non-structured observation and interview methods to analyse data and documents. Experimental studies of dental mold molding process procedures using conventional craft methods and three-dimensional printing technology methods were also conducted to obtain two comparisons of analytical data, namely conventional methods and three-dimensional printing technology. The findings show that the three-dimensional printing process of the same process and procedure is less complicated than conventional methods and the process of printing the tooth mold model takes time according to the quality of material selection for the printing process. This technology method still requires high technology skills to produce the design. Conventional methods of manufacturing procedure are very complex and require great detail and they require very high skill and experience for molding the model This study can also realise and apply to the dental industry and dentists to develop the technology method while optimising the conventional method so that it can grow more rapidly in the local market dentistry industry while the conventional method is still being used in conjunction with the three dimensional printing technology. Pages 206 to 214




Quality Management Practices and Organizational Performance at Higher Educational Institutions: the role of Human Oriented Elements and Work Environment

Yeni Absaha, Endang Sulistya Rinib, Beby Karina Fauzeea Sembiringc, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia,

The standard of Indonesian higher education is not well recognised globally. There are several loopholes which decrease the performance of these higher educational institutions. To expediate the organisational performance, it is needed to increase the quality of education. Therefore, the primary aim of this research is to review the role of quality management practices (QMPs) in organisational performance. Additionally, the role of human oriented element and work environment were also examined. Data were gathered from Indonesian universities. The respondents of the research were based on the educational staff of these universities such as lecturers, assistant professor, associate professors and professors. By applying the area cluster sampling, 400 survey questionnaires were utilized for data collection. Partial least square was used to analyse the collected data. It is found that QMPs have a significant positive role in organisational performance. Additionally, human oriented element and work environment as a moderating variable enhance the positive relationship between QMPs and organisational performance among Indonesian higher educational institutions. Pages 215 to 233




Promise and Delivery Gap of Corporate Social Responsibility

Muneer Al Mubaraka, aAhlia University, Bahrain

Email: amalmubarak@ahlia.edu.bh

This  study reviews corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature to find out what firms usually promise society and what the latter actually receives due to corporations actions. Any differences between what firms promise  and what they actually deliver  to different stakeholders cause a gap. A gap was found between what firms say and what they actually deliver. This gap is attributed to many reasons including different perceptions and expectations of stakeholders, limited resources of firms, and low level of stakeholder involvement in firms’ CSR activities. Firms to be efficient and successful, must manage stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations and involve them in CSR activities. Clear communication with the stakeholders who are influenced by corporate social responsibility activities is vital.  Although many studies have reviewed CSR activities over the recent decades, only few have focused on the gap between promise and delivery. This study makes the review unique for many reasons including the betterment of society, to better firms’ performance, generate a better corporate image, and in order to allow for efficient investment. Pages 234 to 247




Does Contemporary Design Impact on the Competitive Advantage of Artotel Hotels?

Dicky Hida Syahcharia*, Arif Zulkarnainb, Eduard Rudolf Pangkeregoc, Hardijanto Sarosod, Lasmye, a,d,eManagement Program, BINUS Business School, Universitas Bina Nusantara, Indonesia, bHotel Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Communication- Universitas Bina Nusantara, Indonesia, cArtotel Hotel, Email: a*dicky.syahchari@binus.edu

The rapid development of the industry in the existing hotel services sector has led to high competition in the industry in the hotel sector. Now the competitive advantage is the main consideration to face the competition of the hotel industry. The hotel is not only a place to rest, but it can also be a place to express artistic value. One of the hotels that comes with a different concept from the others is Artotel. Artotel Hotel prioritises contemporary design concepts in all rooms and has an art gallery. This investigation was carried out with qualitative method.Based on the competitive advantage, and contemporary design, a unique semi-structured interview form is designed. The data collected  was analysed by descriptive analysis. The results show that the concept of contemporary design, which is very important for the competitive advantage at Artotel Hotels, has been well adopted and used effectively by Artotel Hotels. Pages 248 to 260




The Impact of Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management on Competitive Advantage

Dicky Hida Syahcharia*, Muh Amsal Sahbanb, aManagement Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Universitas Bina Nusantara, Jakarta, Indonesia, bManagement Department, STIM Lasharan Jaya, Makassar, Indonesia, Email: a*dicky.syahchari@binus.edu

This study aims to examine the relationship between intellectual capital and knowledge management with a competitive advantage in small and medium enterprises. Intellectual capital alludes to all the intellectual resources that the organisation claims or possesses, while knowledge management alludes to the procedures and practices that enable organisations to deal with their intellectual resources and accomplish knowledge based on a competitive advantage. This research uses quantitative and multiple regression methods to analyse research data. The statistical software used in SPSS version 24. The results of this study support previous research, in the sense that there is a significant relationship between Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management on the competitive advantage. The implication of this research shows that the degree of Intellectual Capital can foresee the advancement capability of a company. The company must use Knowledge Management to increase Intellectual Capital and exploit the potential of knowledge. The results of this study indicate the benefits of developing innovations to illustrate the relevance of knowledge management in the exploitation of intellectual capital to improve the competitive advantage of the company. Pages 261 to 272




The Role of Advertising and Raw Material in Pharmaceutical Company

Hardijanto Sarosoa*, Olivia Hamzahb, Warsono Wc, Soekarso Sd, Rusdi Musa Ishake, a,b,c,d,eManagement Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Universitas Bina Nusantara, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*hardijanto.saroso@binus.edu

Companies are always faced with performance targets that rely on the ability and quality of their resources. Not many studies have evaluated the characteristics of company resources that form business models so that they can winagainst competition. Pharmaceutical companies are no exception. Not all of the investments that have been allocated in company activities have a high impact. In this research, we want to test which resources have the most dominant influence on company performance, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. The variables studied were the levels of investment in the company, raw materials, advertising, training, and the number of workers on company performance. The data used are secondary longitudinal data from 5 pharmaceutical companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results of this study indicate that advertising has the most potent influence on company performance in the pharmaceutical industry. These findings contradict the perception that pharmaceutical companies must prioritise raw materials. Pages 273 to 283




E-Service Quality and Corporate Image on Customer Perception

Lasmya*, Hardijanto Sarosob, Dicky Hida Syahcharic, Darjat Sudrajatd, Maria Grace Herlinae, a,b,c,d,eManagement Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Universitas Bina Nusantara, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*Lasmy@binus.edu

IDN Times (2017) noted that five e-commerce companies that have a large audience experienced incredible average growth of 97%. Matahari Mall holds the highest growth value at 201%, followed by JD.id at 135% and Blibli at 107%. The number of companies adopting technology in Indonesia amounted to 26.6 million until 2017. With the growth in technology adoption by business people, does the quality of e-service and corporate image still need attention. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of e-service quality and corporate image on customer perceptions of one of the companies in Jakarta who want to adopt technology in business. This research approach uses quantitative, research data collection by distributing questionnaires online and offline to 78 samples out of the population of 361. The analytical method uses multiple linear regression analysis and is processed with SPSS. The result shown is that e-service quality and corporate image can significantly influence customer perception and that the most impactful outcomes is that a businesses corporate image is directly followed by e-service quality. Pages 284 to 294




 The Mediation of Motivation on Organisational Commitment of Government Officials

Dicky Hida Syahcharia*, Hardijanto Sarosob, Lasmyc , Darjat Sudrajatd, Maria Grace Herlinae, a,b,c,d,eManagement Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Universitas Bina Nusantara, Jakarta, Indonesia, E-mail: a*dicky.syahchari@binus.edu

Organisational commitment is an important factor in achieving the vision, mission, and goals of the organisation because employees who are highly committed to the organisation will be more effective and efficient at work and will have a close relationship with the  organisation. Adequate and specific compensation is a factor that helps employees have a high commitment, but their effectiveness will apply employee motivation. To date, no research has been conducted to explore and evaluate the relationship between compensation and organisational commitment, with motivation as a mediating variable. This research uses a quantitative approach. Methods of data processing through multivariate analysis and to test the effects of meditation using the Sobel test. From the results of this study, we found the mediating effect of motivation in the relationship between compensation and organisational commitment. This study found support factors for the commitment of government officials' organisations’ so that they can provide better services to the community. Pages 295 to 307




Resource Evaluation of Indonesia Non-Bank Financial Institutions

Randy Hadipoespitoa, Hardijanto Sarosob*, Lasmyc, Darjat Sudrajatd, Dicky Hida Syahcharie, a,b,c,d,eManagement Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Universitas Bina Nusantara, Jakarta, Indonesia, *Email: b*hardijanto.saroso@binus.edu

Company resources have an influential role in supporting the achievement of company performance.  The financial companies are no exception, especially with the increasing trend of competition today. Therefore, this research paper focuses on evaluating existing resources within the company  as well as any company activities that significantly affect the company's revenue targets through secondary data analysis. Resource-Based Theory (RBT) and Dynamic Capability Theory (DCT) are the central theories that have been used in this paper. The results of this study concluded that human resources through recruitment contributed the most significant support to the company's performance, especially on non-bank financial institutions listed on the stock exchange. This analysis is one of the critical indicators for leaders, especially with extraordinary changes due to the presence of digital financial technology and applications. Pages 308 to 321




Effect of Market Orientation, Marketing Capability, Product Innovation on Performance

Lasmya*, Dewib, Dicky Hida Syahcharic, Hardijanto Sarosod, Hendry Hartonoe, a,b,c,d,eManagement Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Universitas Bina Nusantara, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*Lasmy@binus.edu

The economic crisis experienced by Indonesia in 1997, at which time the orientation of economic growth relied on the development of large businesses. Large businesses are expected to encourage the growth of micro, small and medium business. However, it turned out that the crisis had stopped the success of Indonesia’s economic development, which resulted in many large businesses experiencing bankruptcy and large-scale termination of employment. In contrast to large businesses, micro and small businesses recover faster from the crisis, and workers who are affected are absorbed into these micro and small businesses. Speed of recovery of micro and small businesses due to the more flexible nature of the business, relatively small capital, and generally does not depend on imported raw materials and foreign debt.  Also, many micro and small businesses have sprung up and have begun to have an important role in Indonesia’s national economy. In 2017, micro and small businesses made a stagnant ante to Indonesia GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of 60.34%. Therefore, it is important to maintain the stability of the performance or even improve it. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of market orientation, marketing capabilities, and product innovation on the performance of micro and small businesses, especially in West Jakarta. The number of samples is determined using the Slovin formula, which is 270 samples of 835 population, micro and small business people in West Jakarta City who already had a Micro Small Business License. While data collected using a questionnaire  it was analysed using SPSS software. The results indicate that the most influential on the business performance is product innovation and followed by marketing capability, then the last is market orientation. Pages 322 to 337




The challenge to Technology Acceptance Model

Hardijanto Sarosoa*, Hadir Hudiyantob, Bambang Purnomo Sidikc, Parwanto Pd, Irwan R Oswane, a,c,dManagement Department, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Universitas Bina Nusantara, Jakarta, Indonesia, bUniversitas Gunadharma, eUniversitas Persada Indonesia Y.A.I, Email: a*hardijanto.saroso@binus.edu

Any application toward the usage of technology will refer to the technology acceptance model (TAM) theory. However, there is one thing that becomes a major concern for small traders. It is the attitude toward risk. This study wants to evaluate this variable related to the development of Micro and Small Businesses (MSME) with ICT Adoption. This research will want to see the effect of attitudes on business risk on usage behaviour, on their innovation capacity. The quantitative research method is used to analyse the interview result of traditional small business owners who have limited capital, have a low income and run their businesses. The results of this paper show that there is a new perspective on technology acceptance models. Based on this paper, the attitude in taking risks to using technology in developing business has a significant influence on small businesses. Pages 338 to 349



Reviewing Food as a Tourism Product

Sharina Osmana*, Norwani Nazarib, a,bUniversiti Kuala Lumpur Business School, Malaysia, Email: a*sharina@unikl.edu.my

Food has emerged as one of the motivations for people to travel and has an important multiplier effect in tourism destinations. As people are willing to travel for food, good food adds value to a destination’s image. Additionally, food has been a key attraction to any destination and is widely featured in promotional literature by many destinations.  This phenomenon is one of the signs to show the potential of food as a tourism product. Arguably, people travel just to taste and experience the originality as well as the authenticity of the foods at the chosen destination. This growth in interest in local products is linked to their regional or local heritage and is valuable for the tourism industry.  The main purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of food as a tourism product by analysing previous literature and documents pertaining to food tourism to identify and distinguish the potential of food as an image for the marketing of destinations. The findings summarised its relevance to tourism research in three main themes: 1) clear image in representing a destination; 2) authentic local food experience; and 3) policies in promoting food tourism. There is a need for future research in this area, particularly from the perspective of finding out, if and how, the authenticity and characteristics of the local food potentially strengthens the attractiveness of tourist destinations. Pages 350 to 371
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