Constructing an Educational Programme Based on Active Learning Strategies and its Impacts on Developing Pivotal Thinking Skills

Muhsin Tahir Muslima, aCollege of Education, AL-Qadisiyah University, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Republic of Iraq, Iraq, Email: aMuhsen.muslem@qu.edu.iq

The present study aims to: 1.Construct an educational programme based on skills of active learning. 2. Identify the impact of the programme on  pivotal thinking skills  for a particular group of fifth year students of an applied branch in Physics. The study sample includes 56 students distributed over two equal sections (B, C). The two groups are equivalent in the variables that could affect the experiment’s results. The researcher prepared a scale for  pivotal thinking skills, which includes 105 items including eight main skills and 21 fifth scale secondary skills. After verifying the scale psychometric features, the experiment was applied to the two groups during the second course of the academic year (2017- 2018)  and the results were analysed. The results show that there are significant differences in favour of the experimental group that adopted the pivotal thinking skills. In light of the results, the researcher puts forward some conclusions, recommendations, and suggestions. Pages 1 to 17




Are Urbanisation, Trade Openness and Inward Foreign Direct Investment Alarming for CO2 Emissions in Malaysia? A Study Using the Time series ARDL Approach

*Irwan Shah Zainal Abidina and Muhammad Haseebb, Azrina Abdul Razakc, Munawar javed Ahmadd aSchool of Economics, Finance and Banking (SEFB),      Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Sintok 06010 Kedah, Malaysia. bTaylor’s Business School (TBS) Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus, Jalan Taylor’s 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, C School of Creative Industry Management and Performing Arts (SCIMPA), Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Sintok 06010 Kedah, Malaysia, Iqra University, Karachi Pakistan. Corresponding author’s email: irwanshah@uum.edu.my, bmuhammad.haseeb@taylors.edu.my, cazrina@uum.edu.my, dmunawar.javed@iqra.edu.pk

The growing rate of CO2 emissions in developing countries, especially Malaysia, is becoming an area of concern for policy makers as well as researchers, because the need for analysing different predictors of CO2 emissions has become so prominent. In response to this emerging need, the current study examined the impact of urbanisation, inward foreign direct investment (IFDI), and trade openness on the CO2 emission levels in Malaysia. For this purpose,  data was collected about  urbanisation, IFDI, trade openness, and CO2 emissions of Malaysia for the last 30 years and a time series ARDL approach was adopted to assess the short-term and long-term relationships between variables. The unit root test, co-integration and ARDL modelling led the researcher to find that urbanisation, IFDI, and trade openness have significant positive effects on CO2 emissions in the long run however, there is no significant short-term impact of trade openness and IFDI on CO2 emissions in Malaysia. Therefore, it has been suggested through the findings of this study that urbanisation, IFDI, and trade openness are alarming for CO2 emissions in the long-run in Malaysia. These findings will contribute to theory and practice by setting guidelines for researchers and policymakers regarding the part played by urbanisation, IFDI, and trade openness in enhancing the CO2 emissions of the country. Pages 18 to 36




Expanding the Oil and Gas Sector of Indonesia through Better Marketing Performance: Analysing the Role of Online Engagement, Interactivity and Brand Attachment

Tripitono Adi Prabowoa*, Rainier Hendrik Sitaniapesayb, Ngakan Ketut Acwin Dwijendrac, Adi Santosod, Nurul Komaryatine, aMahasiswa program Doktor Ilmu Ekonomi Universitas Airlangga dan Universitas trunojoyo Madura, Indonesia, bUniversitas Pattimura Ambon, cFaculty of Engineering, Udayana University, dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo, eStudent at Faculty of Economic and Business, Diponegoro University and lecturer at UNISNU Jepara, Indonesia, Email: a*tripitono.prabowo@trunojoyo.ac.id,  brhendrik025@gmail.com,  cacwin@unud.ac.id,  dadisantoso@umpo.ac.id,  enurul@unisnu.ac.id

The present study attempts to examine the role of online engagement and online interactivity in improving the marketing performance of the Indonesian oil and gas sector. Along with the direct relationships, the mediating role of brand attachment is also investigated. The primary data has been drawn from a sample size of 294. To examine the impact of incorporated variables on marketing performance, Confirmatory factors analysis and the Structural equation modelling approach is incorporated in the study. Several tests were applied including: descriptive analysis, KMO and Bartlett’s test, rotated component matrix, convergent and discriminant validity. The direct effects indicated that online engagement and online interactivity are the significant and positive drivers of marketing performance,  creating a significant impact on the improvement of marketing performance. Similarly, the indirect effects show that brand attachment acts as the significant mediator between online engagement and marketing performance. Also, brand attachment significantly mediated the relationship of online interactivity and marketing performance.  The study embraces several theoretical, practical and policy making implications for the marketing management practitioners and strategy developers to attain high levels of marketing performance and business expansion. Finally, various limitations have been given along with  recommendations for in-depth findings by  future researchers. Pages 37 to 56




Causality between Stock Market Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from Emerging Markets

Hadeel Yaseena, Asma’a Al-Amarnehb*, aThe University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, bMiddle East University, Amman, Jordan, Email: ah.yaseen@ju.edu.jo,  b*aalamarneh@meu.edu.au  

The stock market is an indicator of an economy’s financial health and it indicates the mood of investors in a country. As such, stock market development is an important ingredient for GDP growth. This paper studies the causal relationship between stock market development and GDP growth rate of a small emerging market, namely Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) over the period 2000 - 2018. The results revealed that stock market development affects GDP growth with a unidirectional causality relationship between stock market development and GDP growth in the short run. In addition, we confirmed a bidirectional causality relationship between the interest rate spread and the GDP growth in the short run. Moreover, this paper sheds some light on one of the most important developments taking place in the equities market; that is the initiation of the Over-the-Counter Market in 2016. A causality relationship between ASE liquidity and the OTC-market liquidity was conducted. Our results stress that there is a bi-directional causality between the liquidity of ASE and the OTC-market liquidity. Pages 57 to 78




English Borrowing on Internet Lexicon Used by University Students in Medan Indonesia

Nuzwatya, Rizki Amaliab, aFaculty of Arts, Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, bUniversitas Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Jakarta, Email: anuzwaty@fisip.uisu.ac.id,  brizkiamalia@upnvj.ac.id

This study conducts on the pattern of English borrowing on the internet lexicon as the internet code used by university students in Medan, Indonesia. The data collection is purposely done during one semester (four months in every Monday and Thursday). The amount of the data is 53 lexicons. To recheck the reliability and validity of the data, 100 of first-year students of Political and Social Science Faculty, University of Islamic Sumatera Utara participated. The result shows that sounds of English borrowing lexicon convert into the typical Indonesian sounds. Consonant [t] at the end position of the stem in a cluster [nt] automatically dropped, like print > prin.  Sound [v] replaced by [f] in all of the distribution. The passive form of the borrowing follows the Indonesian passive pattern, indicated by prefix di-. The borrowing ones adapt the Indonesian prefix me- to convey transitive verb forms, with the allomorph /mem-, men, meղ/, like mem-prin ‘to print’. The nasal sounds emerge in allomorphs influenced by the initial sounds of the stems based on the point of articulation of the sounds confronted. Pages 79 to 93




Mood System of Teacher-Student Interpersonal Utterance in the Class: A Study in Systemic Functional Linguistics

Liesna Andrianya, Muhammad Ali Pawirob, aFaculty of Teacher’s Training and Education, Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, bFaculty of Arts, Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia, Email: aLiesna.andriany@fkip.uisu.ac.id,  bm.alipawiro@sastra.uisu.ac.id

This research aims to describe the form of mood system in classroom discourse. The analysis is conducted by studying the text according to the lexico-grammatical units that realise  interpersonal utterances by using the discourse analysis approach under the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics. This research is a qualitative research paper supported by quantitative data. The data are collected from six teachers and 232 students from three schools in Medan. The results of the research indicate that the representation of the interpersonal meaning of lexico-grammatical in the studied text by clause system focus indicates that the using of mood (mode of IND-DEC, IND-INT, IMP and O) on each text is realised either by teachers or the students.  The teacher’s pronunciation is the reflection of the ideology that the teacher is the managerial power holder in the class, as well as the knowledge authority holder. Pages 94 to 106




Iraqi Diplomacy in a Turbulent Regional Environment: A Study in Determinants and Constraints

Amjad Taamaa, Mohammed Kadhim Abbas AL-Maeenib, Haider Ali Husseinc, a,cMustansiriyah Center for Arab and International Studies/ Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq, bAl-Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: aamjdzain@yahoo.com,   bamjadztatmsc@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  cbmohammed.kh.law@nuc.edu.iq

This study aims to analyse  Iraqi diplomacy in general, and to diagnose its weaknesses in recent times, as well as the determinants, which impede their performance with regard to a specific role in a troubled regional environment.  There are many reasons which still affect  the return of Iraq diplomacy to its optimal activity levels, although more than a decade and a half has passed since the changes in the political system, including  internal disagreements, as well as many external determinants.  Countries that have a great influence on Iraq,  have been affected by the general performance of Iraqi diplomacy regarding neighbouring countries. The problem of the study are based on: What are the internal, external determinants and factors facing the work of Iraqi diplomacy in general, and towards the neighbouring countries in particular, and is there a possibility to develop a role in the path of regional balance in light of the available data.  Pages 107 to 120




The Influence of Social Media on Organisational  Performance and Job Performance

Hamzeh Ahmad Mustafa Alawamleha, D.Narasimha Murthyb, aDepartment of Management, ISBR Research Center Banglore, University of Maysore, Mysuru, India, bWelingkar Institute of Management Development and Research, 102 Electronic City Phase 1, Banglore, 560100,

Social networking is gaining prominence, and is increasingly being used in many businesses' daily operations, from start-ups to small, medium and large organisations. Very few empirical studies have been performed to assess the effect of the use of social media on organisational  performance and job performance. The purpose of this research is to explore the effect of social media characteristics on organisational  performance and job performance. The study  samples   were collected from 500 managers and supervisors of industrial companies which are listed in the ASE (Amman Stock Exchange). The PLS SEM analysis  proved that social media,  social media conversations, and social media connectedness have a positive and significant relationship with organisational performance. Whereas social media communities and social media openness have an insignificant relationship with organisational performance. The results regarding job performance indicate that openness, community and connectedness have a positive and significant relationship with job performance. Meanwhile social media conversation shows a negative relationship, where it does not significantly influence job performance. It was suggested that these industrial companies be managed to maintain and pay adequate attention to their social media platforms,  use them heavily to render customer support, and to promote and market their products and services so as to increase their performance. Pages 121 to 140




The Power of Antecedent Factors of Service, System, and Information Quality and Their Effects on M-Commerce Consumer Perceiving Quality

Ibrahim A. Abu AlSondosa, Anas A. Salamehb, aAssistant Professor, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Administrative Sciences, Applied Science University, Bahrain, bAssistant Professor, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, 165 Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia, Email: aIbrahim.abualsondos@asu.edu.bh,  ba.salameh@psau.edu.sa

The main purpose of this research is to enhance new knowledge for a better understanding of the most powerful dimensions of the m-commerce quality that influences consumer perception, developing theories based on existing and previous literature on m-commerce quality for online shopping purposes. This research concentrates more on the three-dimensions of the e-service quality framework that  better predict consumer behaviour on responding to SQ afforded by e-services. The outcome is assumed to increase awareness about the various country cultures in return for the diverse relevance of e-service quality characteristics. Data was collected after distribution of a survey to 386 staff and students at Jordan University (JU), customers were utilised to examine the study framework using SEM-PLS. The analysis outcomes revealed that two dimensions of information and system quality, namely content adequacy, and perceived website innovativeness respectively had a significant influence on customer perceived quality. Meanwhile, the dimension of service quality perceived risk has no significant effect related to customer perceived quality. Indeed, overall m-service quality is statistically associated significantly with customer behaviour. An additional investigation must take into consideration a diversity of product and service segments and/or other businesses to determine whether the measurement goes fairly well. In another business setting, the measurement may be required to be modified.  Research in the  future might also utilise various methodologies, for instance, interviews, focus groups, and observations. Pages 141 to 159




Financial Risk and the Financial Performance in listed Commercial and Investment Banks in Bahrain Bourse

Basel J. A. Alia, Mohammad Salem Oudatb, a,bAssistant Professor at Accounting and Finance Department, Applied Science University, Kingdom of Bahrain, Email: abasel.ali@asu.edu.bh,  basil8011@gmail.com

Risk management is on the rise every day in the banking industry due to the rising uncertain economic climate. Despite the growing role of banks in the country's growth, the governing bodies of these institutions face numerous risks. Risk management is perceived to be the secret to the success and failure of any financial institution. The study explores the effect of financial risk on the performance of listed banks in Bahrain and the relative value of the most popular types of risk. The research covers 11 of the 18 banks in Bahrain from 2014 to 2018. Based on the availability of data, data was collected from the Bahrain Stock Exchange Database. Alternatively, the most common metrics, ROA, was used for bank performance and risk measures. Four forms of financial risk have been used, namely capital risk, exchange rate risk, liquidity risk and operating risk. Regression analysis reveals that there is an insignificant relationship between bank performance, exchange rate risk, liquidity risk and operating risk. The findings also indicate an important positive relationship between bank performance and capital risk. In addition, the findings indicate that capital risk is the most significant form of risk. The research advises that attention be paid to operational risk, which is primarily related to uncertainty about the earnings of a financial company due to computer system failures, mistakes, abuse by staff, or risk of loss due to unforeseen operating expenses. Pages 160 to 180




The Effect of Internal Marketing on Marketing Performance: a Survey of Workers Opinion in the Public and Private Banks in Duhok Governorate

Aree Mohammed Alia, aTechnical College of Administration Duhok Polytechnic University, Email: aaree.ali@dpu.edu.krd

This study analyses the relationships between internal marketing procedures and their reflection in enhancing marketing performance, which has become a vital and contemporary issue. Internal marketing in banks has increased in business, especially after the emergence of its role and importance. The recruitment of highly qualified and skilful individuals with responsibility to provide high-quality services to customers is important. The study problem focuses on the extent of the relationship between internal marketing procedures on marketing performance. A set of primary and secondary hypotheses to solve this problem is adopted. In order to achieve the objectives and prove the hypotheses, a default model is developed to clarify the nature of the relationship between the study variables and to achieve the results expected from the analysis. I have relied on the available studies, research and books on the variables used in the current study to build theoretical and methodological frameworks. Pages 181 to 200




Investigating Short and Long-term relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Performance: New Evidence from Brazil

Mohamed Ameen Saeeda, Aras A. Mihob, Bikhtiyar K. Alic, aDuhok Polytechnic University, Kurdistan region-Iraq, bAkre Technical College, Duhok Polytechnic University, Kurdistan region-Iraq, cMinistry of Education, Kurdistan region-Iraq.

This study aims to discover the relationship plus the impact of FDI on economic performance in both long and short term in Brazil from 1980 to 2019. An analysis of time series approaches: Vector Error Correction model and Johansen Cointegration test are used. The demonstration of results relating to the stationarity test indicates that the included variables are stationary in first difference and integrated into order one. Furthermore, cointegration test of Johnsen for detecting the association ship in the long run, indicated to all the variables are cointegrated, which implies the existence of long-run relationship between FDI and growth of the economy. Continuously, estimated results of an empirical model of VECM affirms that the FDI impact on economic performance is positive and statistically significant, in addition, these results showed the double effect of FDI and important in explaining the economic performance, and the causality only runs from one side (unidirectional causality) runs from FDI toward RGDP in the long run. Finally, the short-run dynamic (speed of adjustment) estimated to be (62%) for any annual deviation of last years toward long-run equilibrium. Such findings are a significant part of an open and efficient economy, which suggests that foreign direct investment is a significant driver to the development of the economy. Pages 201 to 219




The Effects of Financial Performance on Firm Value and Good Corporate Governance: Evidence from Indonesia

Ririh Dian Pratiwia, Imang Dapit Pamungkasb*, a,bFaculty Ecomonic and Business, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Semarang, Indonesia, Email: b*mangdapit.pamungkas@dsn.dinus.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of financial performance on the value of manufacturing companies in Indonesia, as well as to find out whether good corporate governance can be a moderating variable on the effect of financial performance. The population used is manufacturing companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2017-2018. In this study, a sample of 129 was obtained. The analytical method used was MRA analysis. The results of this study are the financial performance proxy by return on asset proven to affect the value of the company. However, good corporate governance which is proxy by managerial ownership and independent board of commissioners has no effect on the relationship of financial performance to firm value. In other words, the good corporate governance variable which is proxy by managerial ownership and independent board of commissioners is not proven as a moderating variable on the relationship between financial performance variables and firm value. Pages 220 to 233




A Strategic Planning in Combating the Crime of Money Laundering

Sameer Raheem Attallaa, Mazen Dawood Salmanb*, aHeat Police Centre, Anbar Governorate Police Departments, Ministry of Interior, bLecturer at Department of financial and Banking Sciences, College of Administration and Economics, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email: b*Mazin@coadec.uobaghdad.edu.iq

The research aims to analyse the reality of the strategic planning process and the extent of applying that process towards reducing Money laundering crime in economic crime offices at the Baghdad governorate level. This study will provide an intellectual framework at the theory level describing the crime of money laundering and its direct and indirect negative effects in the Iraqi economy. It will also reveal the expected positive role that strategic planning plays in tackling the crime of money laundering. The development of a planning program is based on realistic statistical results, and lessons are drawn from global experiences to reduce the problem of money laundering. Pages 234 to 249




An Interrelationship between the Macroeconomic variables and the Exchange Rate in Iraq for the Period (2004 - 2006)

Ahmed Hafedh Hameed Altaiea, Ahmed Ayad Ibrahimb, aProfessor Assistant at Mustansiriyah University, College of Administration and Economics Department of Economics, Iraq, bLecturer at Mustansiriyah University, College of Administration and Economics Department of Economics, Iraq, Email: adr_ahmed_al@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  bmahmadayad1980@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

This study focuses on the interrelationship between the Macroeconomic Variables (MV) and the Exchange Rate (ER) in Iraq for the period of 2004-2006. There are two concepts that will be considered in this study. The first concept is the budget deficit, and the other concept is the current account deficit in the balance of payments. Furthermore, the internal debt m inflation and the (ER) have verified the validity of this interrelationship and its impacts on economics. Therefore, an economic explanation for the weaknesses and chronic structural imbalances in the Iraqi economy has been undertaken especially during the period of the research. Pages 250 to 265




Detection of Academic Dishonesty: A Perspective of the Fraud Pentagon Model

Tarmizi Achmada, Imam Ghozalia, Imang Dapit Pamungkasb*, aFaculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia, bFaculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Dian Nuswantoro, Indonesia, Email: b*imangdapit.pamungkas@dsn.dinus.ac.id

This study examines the dimensions of Crowe's Fraud Pentagon Theory such as pressure, opportunity, rationalisation, capability and arrogance to detect students conducting academic dishonesty. This study also examines the influence of pressure, opportunity, rationalisation, capability and arrogance on academic dishonesty. The data collection method uses a questionnaire with a purposive sampling method. Research samples were 222 students of the Accounting Study Program at the Faculty of Economics and Business, University in Indonesia. The regression model used in this study is a multiple linear regression model with the help of SPSS version 25.0. The results of this study indicate that pressure, opportunity, rationalisation and capability have a significant positive effect on academic dishonesty. However, arrogance does not significantly influence academic dishonesty. Pages 266 to 282




Comparison of Learning Style between Engineering and Non-Engineering Students in Vocational Education

Nizwardi Jalinusa, Ganefrib, Syahrilc, Rizky Ema Wulansarid, Rahmat Azis Nabawie*, Jailani Md Yunosf, Tee Tze Kiongg, a,b,c,d,eFakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia, f,gFaculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Email: e*raazna@ft.unp.ac.id

In some countries, there was inconsistency quality of learning outcomes and teaching input. There were others increase these in the many forms; one of the forms that used was a need to understand the learning process that focused on the learning style. It is important for the teachers to understand students' learning style so that they can implement the best practice strategy in learning activities. The learning style that commonly used was Kolb Learning Style based on the learning experiences theory. Therefore, this study aimed to describe engineering and non-engineering students' learning style. The population of this study was students of Vocational Education Program Universitas Negeri Padang. This study used a special mix method design that is using a survey approach and document analysis that concentrated on the deep systematic matrix analysis method. The result of this study described that the engineering student more dominant to adopt the accommodator learning style (feel and do), the second place, the dominant to adopt diverger learning style (feel and watch). While, the non-engineering students more dominant to adopt the accommodator learning style (feel and do), and the second place, the dominant to adopt the converger learning style (think and do). Pages 283 to 294




The Influence of Hindi Cinema on Fashion and Society in India and Vice Versa

Kumar Anketaa, Rajantheran Muniandyb*, Silllalee S.Kandasamyc, Paramasivam Muthusamyd, Thilakavathy Rajagopale, aResearch Scholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Assistant Professor, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh, India, bProfessor, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malay, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, cAssistant Professor, Department of Modern Languages, Faculty of Creative Industries, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sungai Long Campus, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000, Kajang, Selangor, dProfessor, Department of  Foreign Languages, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, eResearch Scholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Email: b*rajanmun@um.edu.my

There is no time recorded when human started adorning themselves for better presentation. As admiration of beauty is an innate quality of human, to make himself look neat and attractive in tidy, pleasant appearance is also natural to humankind. In modern, it has become the most important fact of once appearance, which influences the opinion of others. To present oneself most appropriately and suitably to impress upon encouraged various developments, including fashion. According to Merriam-Webster fashion is to give shape or form to make, construct, or create, usually with careful attention or by the use of imagination and ingenuity. The appearance does not confine to the individual. It has to be presented or showcased, and there is no better medium than films which transacts to the largest society across the globe. The individual gathers and forms a group for persistent interaction; thus, a society evolves with major of dominant cultural expectations. The different Societies are characterised by patterns of relationships between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions. For sharing some kind of medium is required, which has evolved from sound, sign, and hieroglyphics to structured language. Cinema is a nineteen-century invention that has provided the opportunity to use both audio and visual senses, including emotion. In modern period cinema has become the mirror of the society. The paper is an attempt to understand the influence of Hindi films on fashion and society in India and vice versa. Pages 295 to 309




Development of a Construction Instrument of Post Occupancy Evaluation for High–Rise Residential by Using Industrialised Building System

M. A. A. Rahmana, M. K. Musab*, M. N. A. Azmanc, Septian Aji Permanad, a,bFaculty of Engineering Technolgy, Pagoh Campus, UTHM, 84600, Muar, Johor, Malaysia, cFaculty of Technical and Vocational Education, UPSI, 35900, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia, dUniversitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: b*mnazhari@ftv.upsi.edy.my

Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) is an activity of the building evaluation process with a focus on quality, operational performance and satisfaction of the occupants. The POE is essential to evaluate completed and occupied buildings to identify weaknesses and potential for future improvement. To date, there have been various variations of POE instruments and tools for assessing occupied buildings, particularly POE for residential buildings such as POE for public housing, POE for low-cost housing and POE for student residential colleges. However, the POE instrument for assessing high-rise housing constructed using the industrialised building system (IBS) method has not explicitly developed. In this regard, this study aims to discuss the construction of an effective POE instrument to measure the quality and performance of high-rise housing built using the IBS method. For this purpose, the three-round of Delphi method adapted by involving 15 experts selected based on their background and experience related to IBS. The results of the third round of Delphi found that 33 out of all sub-constructs are dropped because of low mean scores (<4.2 in two rounds) while 75 sub-constructs identified as final items. The results of the Delphi study also found that all ten constructs are 1) Spatial; 2) Design and aesthetics; 3) Physical; 4) Building materials; 5) Quality of work; 6) Comfort and well-being; 7) Environment and health; 8) Maintenance; 9) Value and 10) Cost are the most significant construct for developing POE instruments. Therefore, an effective Post-Occupancy Evaluation instrument for measuring the quality, performance and value of a home built using the IBS method should include all of these ten component constructs. Pages 310 to 330




Patients' Response to Early Stages Chronic Kidney Disease: Learn To Recognise the Illness

Irsanty Colleina, Ratna Sitorusb*, Krisna Yettic, Sutanto Priyo Hastonod, aDoctoral Nursing student Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia, bFaculty of Nursing Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia, cFaculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia, dPalu Health Polytechnic of Health Ministry, Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, Email: b*ratnasit@hotmail.com

Objectives: Early stages of chronic kidney disease may have no symptoms; therefore, the identification and treatment of these manifestations early possibly help in preventing a transition into kidney failure and subsequently prevent the risks of progression. This study aimed at exploring the experience of self-management conducted by patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A descriptive phenomenological qualitative design was used, which required the recruitment of fifteen participants, using a purposive sampling technique. Furthermore, the data collection instruments employed consisted of in-depth interviews, field notes, and tape recordings. In addition, interview guidelines were prepared based on the objectives of the research which were further translated into a number of questions, to explore the experiences of patients, and the Colaizzi method was applied in data analysis. The results characterised the decisions to perform self-management, dealing with a health condition and social support as important aspects. This study identified several themes in the experiences of patients with decreased kidney function, suggesting that patients distinguish factors that facilitate and inhibit self-management, acknowledging its characteristics and readiness. Pages 331 to 342




The Implementation of Occupational Health Nursing Practice in Indonesia-Papua New Guinea Borders: Present and Future Challenges

Isak Jurun Hans Tukayoa*, Frans Manangsangb, Moh. Saljanc, Jems KR Maayd, a,b,c,dNursing School, Health Polytechnic Ministry of Health Jayapura, Papua, Street Padang Bulan 2, Hedam, Districk Heram, Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia, Email: a*tukayoisak123@gmail.com

Occupational Health Nursing (OHN) is a well-established nursing practice known in many western and developed nations around the world. However, it is still considered as a new field in the less industrialised countries, including Indonesia. This research study the implementation of occupational health nursing practice, with the comparison of international recommendations from WHO, AAOHN and OSHA, in four centres of borders (Jayapura, Merauke, Boven Digul and Keerom) between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). This study aims to measure the level of nurses' awareness of occupational health nursing services and to stimulate new thinking, linkages and collaboration among occupational health nurses, in public health centres, hospitals, nursing colleges and industrial settings. This study is conducted to measure the roles and responsibilities of 150 nurses in Papua New Guinea from different areas. A Qualitative method through a cross-sectional survey was conducted in the border between Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, in January and February 2020. The qualifications of nurses practising at the border are 74.6% Diploma of Nursing holders, 20.6% are Bachelor Degree holders, 2.66% Post Graduate holders and 2% doctorate level. In the view of OH training, 17% have attended OH-related training, and 83% never attended it. Only 37% knew the tasks of OHN. The averages of OHN activities across the border is 15%, with the least involvement is on Health Promotion (35%), Case Management (29%), Health Surveillance program (31%), and Fitness to Work (15%). The number of nurses working in a pure industrial setting is only 6%. Meanwhile, the averages of nurses aware and practice OHN activities are 27.6%. Pages 343 to 351




Formation of Cognitive Competence based on the E-learning System

Gulzhaina K. Kassymovaa*, Aigerim N. Kosherbayevab, Bruri M. Triyonoc, Ospan S. Sangilbayevd, Aigul I. Akhmetovae, a,b,d,eInstitute of Pedagogy and Psychology, Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University, 050010, Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Dostyk аve, 13, cGraduate School, Yogyakarta State University (Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta), Jl. Colombo No.1, Karang Malang, Caturtunggal, Kec. Depok, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia, Email: a*zhaina.kassym@gmail.com

This article studies e-learning possibilities and extra teaching skills needed to be developed in the industrial revolution 4.0 since online educational programs are made for easy use. It provides a brief review of ancient learning from the philosophical perspective of some countries. The authors believe that cognitive competence should be developed because the e-learning system is like eye-catching candy and digital era where almost everything is under fingertip in comparison with the past education system where students had to attend lessons. The research question is to test if e-learning environments develop students' cognitive competence. A goal of this study is to identify a method to implement e-learning environments well to develop students' cognitive competence and to achieve learning outcomes of students in higher education. To measure students' cognitive competence, a diagnostic map was used in the experiment conducted at three universities. The result of this study was satisfied to develop students' cognitive competence based on the e-learning system in higher education. Different methods and approaches were used in teaching to achieve the research objectives. Pages 352 to 370




The Impact of Imagination and Affective Creativity on University Students' Creative Thinking: A Verification through Structural Equation Model

Ibnu Siswantoa*, Mingchang Wub, Chenju Koc, aUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, bNational Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC, cNational Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC, Email: a*ibnusiswanto@uny.ac.id

Both imagination and affective creativity were identified to instigate individuals' creative thinking separately. However, the interaction effect of these factors may overwhelm their single-factor effects while simultaneously occurring. This study purports to validate the moderating effects of affective creativity on the influential power of imagination to creative thinking. Validated instruments were employed to examine the performance of 402 students in the National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (NYUST), Taiwan. Taking a moderation model analysis, this study revealed that students' affective creativity and imagination individually created a single-factor effect on their creative thinking; their interaction effect occurred and dominated the effects. The effective creativity moderated the impact of imagination on creative thinking: that is, students with average and higher levels of effective creativity would possess better creative thinking according to their imagination. Conversely, for the student with a low level of affective creativity, their imagination could not inspire creative thinking. These findings further clarified the factor effects on and influential approaches to youngsters' creative thinking development. Pages 371 to 389




The Drafting of Awig-Awig in Bali Traditional Villages: Understanding Form and Content

Gede Marhaendra Wija Atmajaa, aProgram Studi Ilmu Hukum, Fakultas Hukum Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia, Email: ahaen.wia@gmail.com

This paper addresses the drafting of Awig-Awig, a central, customary law in traditional Balinese villages, explained below. Currently there is a paucity of guidance regarding this matter. To guide the discussion, the problem is formulated into the following questions: (1) How should the lettering of Awig-Awig stage fit with the qualifications of the traditional village as a society that upholds the unity of traditional law?; (2) What should be done in each stage of drafting an Awig-Awig, in accordance with the qualifications of the traditional village, as a society that upholds the traditional law society? The materials used are library materials and primary legal materials. They are discussed by the descriptive-analysis method. The analysis is carried out using a systematic interpretation and history of statutory law. The results of the study show: starting from the Krama Traditional Village, Prajuru Traditional Village, Sabha Traditional Village, Kerta Traditional Village, Banjar Traditional, Labda Pacingkreman Traditional Village, Baga Utsaha Padruwen Traditional Village, and Traditional Institutions. Pages 390 to 404




A New Theory of Cybercrime: A Comparative Study between Jordanian and French Law

Alshible Mohamada, Abu Issa Hamzab, aAssociate Professor at Jadara University, Faculty of Law, bAssistant Professor at Applied Science University, Email: asoramohamad@yahoo.com,  bhamza_abuissa@msn.com

The theory of an attempt to commit a crime is one of the most important in criminal law. Traditionally, the legislator may adopt into the penal code a specific theory, when punishing the person who attempted to commit a crime. However, this approach may change in the face of cybercrime. This study deals with theories about attempts to commit cybercrime, by explaining provisions and penalties according to their types and conditions. It also compares Jordanian and French legislation, regarding such theories. The study concludes that there is somewhat of a difference between the two approaches. The Jordanian approach needs a comprehensive review, to provide an integrated framework for their legislators’ theory of attempt in cybercrime.Pages 405 to 423




Control over the Constitutionality of International Treaties (A comparative study)

Osama Ahmed Alnaimata, Khalid Khalaf Al-Droub, aAssociate Professor of Public Law Dean of the Faculty of Law, Philadelphia University, bAssistant Professor of Public Law Faculty of Law – Jadara University, Email: a*O_alnimat@philadelphia.edu.jo

International treaties are a source of Public International Law. Control over their constitutionality is of great importance. It is concerned with the protection of the supremacy of the constitution, and its priority over all other legal norms in the State, specifically its sanctity before international legislation. In addition, such control constitutes an impervious barrier to any encroachment on the sovereignty of a State, which may be prejudiced by certain international treaties, threaten its interests and prejudice its independence and sovereignty by some treaties it has concluded. Based on this, we will discuss constitutional control over international treaties, and highlight the positive or negative role of the Constitutional Council in France and the Constitutional Court in Jordan, and their role in protecting constitutional provisions. The main research problem lies in the supremacy of international treaties over the constitution and ordinary laws, and control of the extent of their constitutionality in maintaining constitutional supremacy.Pages 424 to 440




The Effects of Cultural Restraint on Social Media Motivation, Relationship Benefits, and Relationship Commitment among Young Adults in Jordan: A Conceptual Study

Islam Habis Mohammad Hatamleha, Izzal Asnira Zolkeplib, Jamilah HJ Ahmadc, a,b,cSchool of Communication, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Email: aeslamx2011@gmail.com,  bizzalasnira@usm.my,  cjahmad.usm@gmail.com

Aim: This paper studies the effects of cultural restraint on social media motivation, relationship commitment, and relationship benefits among young adults in Jordan. Material and methods: This paper is based on a review of the literature and takes a conceptual approach. It suggests the framework for examining social media motivation, relationship benefits and trust among young Jordanian adults, while focusing on the moderating effects of cultural restraint on online relationship commitment. Findings: It was expected that the findings would build on the significance of integrating social media motivation, relationship benefits, cultural restraint, and online relationship commitment among young adults in Jordan, as social media appears to be the main element of dedication to online relationships. Implications: Due to Jordan’s social media engagement radically improving in recent years, it is urged that the impact of its motivation on relationship commitment is conducted, to prevent adverse effects. Young adults are the most important segment of society. Therefore, understanding the benefits and harms of their online relationship commitment to social media motivation is essential. Novelty: To date, no studies examine the effects of cultural restraint on social media motivation, relationship benefits, and relationship commitment among young adults in Jordan. Furthermore, this study will help university students understand their online relationship commitment, as to the benefits or harms of social media motivation.Pages 441 to 462




Legal Security and Administrative Judge: A Comparative Study between Jordanian and French Law

Osama Alnaimata, aDean of the Faculty of Law, Philadelphia University, Email: O_alnimat@philadelphia.edu.jo

This research sheds light on the principle of legal security as a contemporary legal concept.  It is an independent concept that includes many things, including the need to develop the quality of laws and administrative decisions and facilitate access to justice. In fact, the French experience is considered the pioneer in putting this principle into practice through the so-called principle of the necessity of facilitating access to the law. This research addresses the need for legal norms to be clear, understandable, not surprising to those involved and not subject to permanent change and alteration, whereas there is a minimum level of commitment to the principle of non-transformation of legal norms, taking into consideration not to fall into a deadly deadlock. This research also deals with the issue of legal security before the administrative judge in particular, where we find that this principle means the necessity of facilitating the procedures before the administrative judge and enforcing the provisions, especially in cases of an urgent nature. There is no doubt that there is a fundamental relationship between this principle and the principle of the ex post facto laws, which is one of the general principles. Pages 463 to 480




A Right to Fair Trial

Osama Alnaimata, aFaculty of Law, Philadelphia University, Email: aO_alnimat@philadelphia.edu.jo

This paper addresses the issue of the right to a fair trial. This right has become the standard of the Legal State. Numerous texts establish this concept, but fundamentally we find Article (6) of the European Convention on Human Rights, which provides for the right of every person to consider his case impartially and in public within a reasonable period of time. Access to justice is one of the pillars of this right: there is no respect for the individual if he is not able to bring cases before an honest judge who accepts his request and "strives" to accept his request. This is the responsibility of the state, the primary guarantor of access to justice. Our research addresses the basic judicial decisions that established this right, such as Golder's decision: The  court  should  be   impartial  and  independent,  and  judges should not be subject to any political or financial influences. We then address one of the issues of the right to a fair trial; the right of litigants to make judgments within a reasonable time. Equality must prevail between litigants on the one hand, and between litigants and the court on the other hand. This is called the equality in arms, that is, the litigants must have the same capabilities during the course of the procedures. This paper will also highlight the issue of application i.e.  how things work in practice. One might find that in a country like France, which is in the race in the field of law and legal democracy, so to speak, there are many problems and countless obstacles to applying the principle of the right to a fair trial, whether in the matter of access to justice, delay in issuing judgments or even equality in arms. This was confirmed by the rules of the Jordanian constitution and various legislations in force. Pages 481 to 497




The Legal Adjustment for COVID19 Transmission Crimes in Jordanian Law

Ali Jabbar Saliha, Alshible Mohamadb, aDean of the Faculty of Law. Jadara University – Jordan, bFaculty of Law. Jadara University – Jordan, Email: adr_alijabbar@yahoo.com, bsoramohamad@yahoo.com

The seriousness of the pandemic of Corona Virus (COVID19) lies in its rapid and ease of spread. Therefore, all international and national bodies and institutions at various levels have taken all possible measures to prevent their spread. From a criminal point of view, national legislation, whether in the Penal Code or the Public Health Law, often provides for the transmission of infection with a disease or an epidemic as a crime against public health. By examining the approach of the Jordanian legislator, it was found that as epidemic crimes stipulated in Public Health Law No. 47/2008, the penalties stipulated in this law are not commensurate with the seriousness of criminal acts, especially for intentional crimes. However, this law states that any more severe punishment can be applied in any other law. Here it can be said that the Penal Code is applicable upon these crimes, but it did not stipulate these crimes as they are in the Public Health Law. Therefore, the question arises about the extent to which the provisions of the crime of murder and harm in the Penal Code are applied to these crimes if their penalty is more severe than that stipulated in the Public Health Law. So, if the act constitutes a murder (according to the free mold) or the harm crime because the penalty is more severe than that stipulated in the Public Health Law, the Penal Code will be the applicable law, not the Public Health Law. Pages 498 to 507




Do Comics Improve Social Care Characters for Elementary School Students?

Vera Yuli Ervianaa*, Sukirno Sukirnob, Jupriyanto Jupriyantoc, Rasmitadilad, Achmad Samsudine, a,bDepartment of Primary Education, Yogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, cDepartment of Elementary School Education, Universitas Islam Sultan Agung, Semarang, Indonesia, dDepartment of Elementary School Teacher Education, Universitas Juanda, Bogor, Indonesia, eDepartment of Physics Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: a*verayuli.2019@student.uny.ac.id, a**vera.erviana@pgsd.uad.ac.id,  bsukirno@uny.ac.id

Students look less interested in reading textbooks, but more enthusiastic when reading the available storybooks in the reading corner. One of the learning media in which the way of presentation can attract the attention of students is comics. This research aims to develop a comic in improving the character of social care. Social care characters are still least owned by students. This is a research development using ADDIE research model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation). The subject of the research was grade 3 elementary schools. Data product assessment, observation, tests, and interviews were used. The media effectiveness was tested with One-Group Pretest and Post-test. The results showed data normally distributed with a significance value of pretest is 0.63, the post-test is 0.136. This value is greater than the significance of 0.05. In conclusion, it is feasible and effective to use a comic learning media to develop the social care characters for elementary school students. Pages 508 to 525




Mobile Addiction and Interpersonal Relationship of Adolescents in Higher Education in Malaysia

Chan Yuen Fooka, Suthagar Narasumanb, Syarifah Muzlia Syed Mustafac, Cheong Tau Hand, Norazah Abdul Azize a,b,c,d,e Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Email: yuenfook@uitm.edu.my

This study has employed a descriptive correlational research design to collect data from a total of 150 young adults who have responded to an online google form distributed through a WhatsApp link. The questionnaire items were adapted and adopted from various previous studies. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as t-test and correlation. The study found that adolescents in Higher Education in Malaysia have a moderate level of mobile addiction and interpersonal relationship. There was no significant difference between mobile addiction and gender. Besides, there was a significant relationship identified between mobile addiction and interpersonal relationship. The study implies that mobile addiction is associated with interpersonal relationships, and addicted adolescents experience more negative emotions than non-addicts. The study found that people with high levels of anxiety or depression are often uncomfortable with face-to-face communication and face much more interpersonal difficulties. Pages 526 to 541




Patent Rights of the Defence and Security Equipment in Indonesian National Armed Forces

Ateng Karsomaa, Ahmad. M. Ramlib, Eddy Damianc, Marni Emmy Mustafad, a,b,c,dResearcher at the Postgraduate Doctoral Program in the University of Padjajaran Bandung, Jalan Banda Number 42 Kantaatmadja Komar Building 40115, Email: aakarsoma96@gmail.com,  bahmadramli@yahoo.com,  ceddydamian13@gmail.com,  dem_syd2000@yahoo.com

The form of protection provided by the state through the Law No. 13 of 2016 concerning Patent towards the Defense and Security Equipment (DSE) related to the state defence and security, explicitly and implicitly regulates the Government's role to execute its patent in Indonesia under the consideration of "related to the state defence and security" as defined in the Article 109 of the Patent law Paragraph 1 alphabet A. Since the implementation of patent by the government with respect to the state defence and security, the patent holder 'cannot' use its exclusive rights. Indonesia needs patent management hosted under the Ministry of Defense, as practised in China and South Korea, in order to keep the confidentiality of DSE as a patent object and to provide moral and economic protection towards the inventor of DSE as a patent, since the government has taken the ownership of DSE's patent. Pages 542 to 553




Effectiveness of a Training Program on Critical Thinking Skills in Developing Meta-comprehension Judgments among Middle School Students

Khaled Ahmed Abdel-Al Ibrahima, aAssistant Professor of Educational Psychology College of Education - Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Email: aka.ibrahim@psau.edu.sa

The study aims to reveal the effect of training on critical thinking skills in developing meta-comprehension judgments among middle school students in Al-Kharj Governorate, and to determine whether the effectiveness of training differs across the genders. To achieve these goals, the author designed a training program based on critical thinking skills consisting of a total of 30 activities. The sample consisted of 117 male and female students from the first class of a middle school at Al-Kharj governorate, whose ages ranged between 13-14 years. Two schools were randomly chosen, one male and one female. Two classes from each selected school were also chosen again randomly. One of the two classes in each school was chosen to be an experimental group, and the other was a control one.  The results showed that there are statistically significant differences between the mean of the responses of the experimental group and the control group in the meta-comprehension judgments based on individual experience and judgments based on performance expectations in favour of the experimental group. The results also indicated that the training program is highly effective in developing meta-comprehension judgments and that there are no statistically significant differences between the means of male and female responses in developing meta-comprehension judgments based on the experience of the individual. At the same time, there were differences between the means of male and female responses in developing meta-comprehension judgments, which is a statistical indication of judgments based on performance expectations for females. Pages 554 to 572




Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices on Financial Performance in Iraqi Commercial Banks

Muna Kamel Hamada, Kareema Abbas Jealob, Wisam Hasan Ahmed zainic, a,cAccounting and Financial Control department, College of Business Economics  AL Nahrain University, bAccounting department, College of Administration and Economics AL Mustansiriyah University, Email: amuna@eco.nahrainuniv.edu.iq,  bima@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  cWzaini59@yahoo.com

The study aims to examine the impact of social responsibility practices on financial performance and to demonstrate the interaction between social performance through the costs of banking social activities in three domains including personnel, community, customer domain. Financial performance through ROI, return on assets ROA and based on a sample of ten listed commercial banks on the Iraq Stock Exchange. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between social responsibility and financial performance. Results show that social responsibility at its total costs negatively affects ROI while the areas of responsibility are related individually (workers, community, customer) to a positive relationship with ROI. ROA is negatively affected by total social responsibility costs as well as their respective areas. The relationship between social and financial performance could be rationalised by the adoption of other financial indicators to illustrate the impact on different stakeholders. Pages 573 to 593




Appealing the Disciplinary Judgement before the Board of Grievances

Abdelbaset Ali Abouelez Haresa, aDepartment of Law, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, 173 Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia, Email: aa.hares@psau.edu.sa

This research deals with the disciplinary judgement, the manner and duration of the objection and the procedures to file the objection. This research also deals with those who have the right to object to disciplinary judgement and the terms of appeal to the Administrative Court of Appeal. It also discusses that appeal at the Supreme Administrative Court against the judgement may be issued by the administrative courts of appeal after reviewing the disciplinary judgement, its reasons and procedures, and how to hear the appeal and present the defences.  Pages 594 to 607




Timber Theft: Examining the Factors of Illegal Logging

Muhammad Nur Haniff Mohd Noora, Rokiah Kadirb, Suriyani Muhamadc, a,b,cFaculty of Business, Economics and Social Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu

Illegal logging has become an issue of global importance. Efforts to achieve sustainable forest management can be hindered by illegal logging activities. The negative impacts of illegal logging are significant on the environment, economy and forest-dependent communities. This conceptual paper examines the causes of illegal logging and identifies an appropriate policy response to overcome the issue. The paper is written based on extensive reviews of illegal logging-related articles published by global forestry organisations. The factors involved in illegal logging are examined with reference to motives, means and opportunities that can result in the occurrences of illegal logging. The findings identify factors relating to bureaucratic issues, demand for logs, corruption, violation of forestry law, and document falsification amongst the causes of the offences. The paper provides input in understanding how illegal logging takes place and how to control or reduce the problem through legislative and other approaches. Pages 608 to 620




Determinants of Creative Product Performance, Competitiveness, and Well-Being of Small and Medium Enterprises in Denpasar

Putu Eka Juliana Jayaa, Made Suyana Utamab, I G. W. Murjana Yasac, Ni Nyoman Yuliarmid*, aDoctorate Candidate of Economics and Business Faculty, Udayana University, Bali – Indonesia, b,c,dLecturer of Economics and Business Faculty, Udayana University, Bali – Indonesia, Email : d*nyuliarmi@unud.ac.id

This research aims to study factors which affect the SME’s performance, competitiveness, and well-being in Bali. Data was collected from non-behavioural observation, structured interview, and in-depth interview with a sample of 126 SMEs in Denpasar. Data analysis techniques with descriptive statistics and structural model equations using Partial Least Square were used. Three main findings are: (1) Quality of human resources and mounting product requirements have a positive and significant effect on product performance, product competitiveness and well-being; (2) ICT does not have any direct significant impact on competitiveness, but becomes significant through product performance as a mediator; (3) Local wisdom moderates the effects of product performance on competitiveness. The author concluded that the most important factors affecting the Bali SMEs’ competitiveness are local wisdom generated from skilful human resources and mounting product requirements. SMEs should utilise ICT more for marketing, as well as actively participate in Governmental development programs to achieve better performance, competitiveness, and well-being. Pages 621 to 635




Consumer Emotion Changes on Online Advertisement Case (Experimental Research on Online Advertisement that used Online Behaviour Advertising Approach)

Rina Astinia, Erwin Panigorob, a,bManagement Doctoral Program, Post Graduate, Mercubuana University, Jakarta, Email: arina_astini@mercubuana.ac.id,  berwin.agustian@student.mercubuana.ac.id

The trend of online advertising is increasingly in demand by business personnel, along with the growing development of internet technology this form of advertising provides wide opportunities for all users to interact with each other. The advancement of internet technology allows advertisers to design advertisements with unique features that can help attract consumers' visual attention, forcing consumers to see advertisements with the aim of influencing their psychological conditions such as attitudes and emotions. Advertisers monitor the behaviour of people and use their information to manage the information they obtain to target their advertisements accurately to potential customers with the method of advertisement impressions provided by daring channels. This phenomenon is called daring behaviour advertising (OBA). This study found a process that connects consumer awareness and knowledge about daring behaviour advertising with their attitude towards daring behaviour advertising, especially on YouTube ads, which shows that there is a feeling of annoyance from the consumer's side when exposed to these advertisements. The feeling of being disturbed does not change the image of the product to the consumer but has an impact on consumers' reluctance to recommend the product to others. Pages 636 to 648




Food Security and Sustainable Food Consumption in Nigeria

Chioma Dilichukwu Ifeanyichukwua, Chukwudi Ireneus Nwaizugbob, Subarsyah Subarsyahc*, Yusep Ikrawand, a,bNnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria, c,dUniversitas Pasundan, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: c*tediesubarsyah@gmail.com

This study centres on food security and sustainable food consumption in Nigeria. The study is aimed at ensuring if the four pillars of food security actually determine sustainable food consumption in Nigeria. The four pillars of food security (availability, affordability, utilisation, accessibility) were tested empirically to determine if they actually predict food consumption in Nigeria. The sample size is made up of 250 academic staff which were selected from five universities in the south eastern part of Nigeria. Multiple regression aanalysis was used to test for the significance of the hypotheses generated for the study and also to determine the variance in the dependent variable which is due tothe results of independent variable. Results show the significance of availability, accessibility and utilisation. However, affordability was not significant, thus contradicting previous research. Recommendations were made. Pages 649 to 660




Enhancing Electronic Word of Mouth through Customer Satisfaction for Young Customers' Mobile Phone Banking Applications

Wasutida Nurittamonta, aMarketing Department, Faculty of Business Administration and Information Technology, Rajamangala University and Technology Suvarnabhumi. 60 Moo 3 Asian Highway, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya,13000, Thailand, Email: awasutida_9919@hotmail.com

Information technology is a major customer sector. Entrepreneurs, corporations, organisations and government bodies adaption of information technolog will lead to dynamic changes. This study is aimed to examine the influence of e-service quality and corporate image through electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) regarding commercial banks targeting of young customers. The questionnaire was used as an instrument to collect primary data from 271 young customers shopping in the night market in Chang Mai and these participants were selected by purposive sampling technique. The regression analysis was used for evaluating the hypothesis with an enter method. The study findings indicated that e-services quality and corporate image had a positive direct and an indirect influence on e-WOM. In addition, the study highlights revealed that the mediation of customer satisfaction relates to e-service quality, corporate image and e-WOM. Lastly, this research provided outlook on e-service quality and corporate image literature, a test model of drives and outcomes, and helped to formulate guidelines to build commercial banks' online service banking. Pages 661 to 673




The Mediating Impact of Supply Chain Performance on the Relationship of Supply Chain Management Practices and Business Performance of the Textile Sector in Indonesia

Hamsinah Baharuddina*, Luh Putu Mahyunib, Imas Masriahc, Ugeng Budi Haryokod, a,c,dUniversitas Pamulang, bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Pendidikan Nasional, Bali, Indonesia, Email: a*hamsinahbaharuddin12@gmail.com,  bmahyuniluhputu@undiknas.ac.id,  chimasriah68@gmail.com,  ddosen00962@unpam.ac

The aim of the current study is to investigate the mediating impact of supply chain performance (SCP) in the relationship of supply chain management practices (SCMP) and business performance (BP) of the textile sector of Indonesia. To achieve this objective, the data was collected from the supply chain managers of the textile sector of Indonesia. The key findings of the study have shown that SCMP directly and indirectly through the SCP effect the BP of the textile sector of Indonesia. These findings indicate that the textile sector of Indonesia has a greater importance on the SCMP to increase the BP. The findings of the study could also provide help to the supply chain managers to know about the importance of SCMP and SCP to increase their BP. In addition, the empirical findings of the study could also have added a body of knowledge which could become a new area of research in future. Based on the findings of the study, there are some limitations which could become a new area of research in future. Pages 674 to 694




The Impact of Health Supply Chain Management Activities on the Health Service Qualities of the Indonesian Health Industry

Chauliah Fatma Putria*, Wahyudin Rahmab, Rini Hadiyatic, Eny Astutid, aTeknik Industri - Universitas Widyagama Malang, b,cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Luwuk, dKeperawatan STIKES William Booth Surabaya, Email: a*chauliah@widyagama.ac.id,  bwahyu@unismuhluwuk.ac.id,  crinihadiyati@unismuhluwuk.ac.id,  denyastutiserang@gmail.com

The aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of health care supply chain management (HSCM) activities on the health service quality (HSQ) of Indonesia. For this purpose, data was collected from 500 supply chain managers which yielded a 68% response rate. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) has shown that there is positive and significant relationship among the specification, after service supply, standard and health service quality in the Indonesian health service sector, while two components, supplier and delivery have insignificant association with the HSQ in the Indonesian health industry. These findings provide information about the importance of health care supply chain management activities to increase the HSQ. These findings could have added a body of knowledge which could provide help to conduct research in future.  The research limitations and future directions were also discussed at the end of the study. Pages 695 to 710




The Internal Control Moderating Effect on the Relationship of Supply Chain Integration and Firm Performance of Indonesia’s Banking Sector

Aang Munawara*, Novi Yantib, Fitrianic, Hadi Supratiktad, aInstitut Bisnis dan Informatika Kesatuan, bProgram studi Manajemen Universitas Ekasakti Padang, cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Luwuk, dUniversitas Pamulang, Email: a*aangmun@yahoo.com,  bdienqu955@gmail.com,  cfitriani@unismuhluwuk.ac.id,  dsupratikta@gmail.com

The aim of the current study is to investigate the moderating effect of Internal control (INTC) on the relationship of supply chain integration (SCI) and firm performance (FP) of the banking sector of Indonesia. For this objective, the data was collected from 450 middle managers by using s stratified sampling technique which yielded a 75 per cent response rate. The SEM analysis of the study has shown that internal integration (INI) and supplier integration (SUI) have a positive and significant integration along with the FP, while customer integration (CUI) does not have a significant relationship with the FP. The indirect effect findings have shown that internal control (INTC) significantly moderates the relationship of INI and SUI, whereas it does not significantly moderate the relationship of CUI and FP. These findings indicate that INTC is an essential variable because it significantly moderates most of the SCI indicators and FP. Therefore, this moderating effect is considered to a big contribution of this study that could become a new area of future research. Pages 711 to 733




A Debt You Can Debt on: Creditor Protection in the Field of Non-Performing Loans of Banking with the Rights of Liability Associated

Budi Untunga, aFaculty of Law, Janabadra University,

This study examines the legal cases of non-performing loans due to collateral agreements defaults associated with legal protection and encumbrance. The method used is a normative juridical and qualitative approach which will examine the subject matter through legal sources concerning treaties and the constitution or the Banking Act that specifically examines encumbrance through literature approaches and interviews. Results of research can be concluded that encouraged related parties, namely debtors, creditors, notaries, the Land Office, the District Court, to be able to carry out their duties and rights properly as well as their obligations to avoid non-desirable outcomes.Pages 734 to 743




Managing Innovation Process in the Real Estate Sector: Case study from UAE

Ahmad Ghandoura, aAssociate Professor, College of Business Al Ain University, UAE, Email: aahmad.ghandour@aau.ac.ae

Innovation in the real estate sector is rarely discussed although it can bring an overwhelming number of advantages to all stakeholders. Like any other industry, the real estate sector must too evolve to ensure better efficiency and increased profitability across the entire sector. This paper is focused on evaluating the innovative process associated with a leading real estate firm in the United Arab Emirates. Based on the cyclic innovation model, different types of data was collected for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The case exemplifies that innovation in the real estate sector is developed by meeting both market and technology factors. Pages 744 to 753




Spatial Analysis of Traffic Accidents in the AL-Anbar Governorate for the Period (2012-2018)

Huda Abdul Qadir Aziza, Mohammad abed algany settamb, aDep.Geography and Geographic Information Systems, The Iraqia University, Iraq, bCollege of Islamic, The Iraqia University, Iraq, Email: aa.prhudaaziz1245@gmail.com,  balanimohmad64@gmail.com

The current research deals with spatial analysis of traffic accidents in Anbar province for the duration (2012-2018), as traffic accidents are one of the most important problems which human societies in the world suffer from. It carries in its aspects human, economic, social and psychological characteristics, as it wastes many human energies and money, even if the losses resulting from it are estimated to be spent on other development projects to bring great benefit to society in the study area. The research has adopted the use of (ARC GIS V.10.5) in the analysis of spatial variance of accidents, to determine the levels of variability of accidents and to try to reach the appropriate solutions and radical manners that are consistent with the development of this era. Pages 754 to 771




Cost Accounting Management in M/S Millennium Appliances India Ltd (Vidocon Group)

Hawraa Nadhim Algalwa*, Ali Awadh Atshanb, Bassim Mohammed Merhejc, aDepartment of accounting, College of Administration and Economics, Al-Muthana University, Samawah, Muthanna, Iraq, bCollege of veterinary medicine, Al-Muthana University, Samawah, Muthanna, Iraq, cCollage of Arts, Al-Muthana University, Samawah, Muthanna, Iraq, Email: a*hawraazeayd@gmail.com

The current investigation is expected to give an incorporated way to deal with overseeing key expenses considering rivalry to fortify the intensity of industrial companies locally and globally in utilising the diagnostic methodology. The idea of the research lies in how to manage the costs of raw materials or materials involved in production at the lowest cost and of the highest quality in the company Vodocon Ltd. The levels of cost values were analysed for each model of each product of the company, where the study included three categories of products, televisions, refrigerators and washing machines, and each category has more than one model. The results indicated that it turned out that quality is the most important factor in achieving competitive advantages in industrial companies in light of competition strategies that depend on the value chain achieved by customers. The integrated entrance could combine the cost administration apparatuses by using prompt and adaptable production to accomplish high quality production. This would ensure customer search and guarantee cost decrease and returns through the integration of confirmed costs and registration cosst and the cost of control and accounting revenue. Iin addition to the integration of the target costs and activities costs to plan and design products and analyse activities to ensure re-engineering value, cost development, analysis, assessment and correlation with contenders to arrive at cost and greatness of individual management strategies that define the value chain of products that the customer is satisfied with and will search for in the future. Therefore, we recommend that industrial companies should concentrate on execution quality to ensure the company's competitive advantage under competition strategies through the value chain achieved by the customer. Industrial companies should refresh the incorporation of cost of the board instruments to give creation prerequisites, item arranging and configuration, diminish costs, and assess items and contrast them with contenders. Pages 772 to 794




The Effect of Ownership Structure, Leverage, Firm Size, and Audit Quality toward Earnings Management: An Indonesian Case

Toto Rusmantoa*, Agitha Juniaty Pasallib, a,bDepartment of Accounting, Faculty of Economics and Communications, Bina Nusantara University, Indonesia, Email: a*trusmanto@binus.edu

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of ownership structure, leverage, firm size and audit quality on earnings management. This study used the discretionary accruals of the Jones model in calculating earnings management. Fourteen companies in the consumer goods industry sector listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during 2013-2017 were used as samples in this study. The samples selected were based on certain criteria and the data analysis was done using the SPSS version 23 . Multiple regression testing is used to test the hypothesis such as the Classical Assumption Test (Normality Test, Multicollinearity Test, Heteroscedasticity Test, and Autocorrelation Test), Multiple Linear Regression Analysis and Hypothesis Test (t-Test, f-Test, and Determination Coefficient Test). The results of this study indicate that ownership structures (managerial ownership and institutional ownership) and leverage have no significant effect on earnings management. In contrast, firm size and audit quality have a significant effect on earnings management. Pages 795 to 808




Dynamics of Innovation in the Informal Settings

Oluseye Oladayo Jegedea, aDHET-NRF South African Research Chair in Entrepreneurship Education, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: aoluseyej@uj.ac.za

Using first-hand data collection from enterprises in the informal sector and their stakeholders, this study argues that enterprises in the informal sector are innovative however their innovation activities follow a different undercurrent. The study puts forward that indicators for capturing innovation activities as well as the actors involved in innovation activities are very different from those identified in the literature as informed by the Frascati and Oslo manuals used for capturing innovation and innovation activities. Also, the nature of the relationship among the actors and stakeholders in the innovation system follows a soft (informal) approach. These alternative patterns include learning by doing, using, interacting, imitating, producing and searching for business innovation. The study also advanced the importance of tacit knowledge acquired through on-the-job learning, the traditional apprenticeship system, indigenous knowledge system, amongst others. Finally, the study identified a high prevalence of innovation in the informal sector in Nigeria. Pages 809 to 828




Politics of Education in Indonesia: The Era of Soekarno, Soeharto, and Reformation

Sunarso Sunarsoa, aYogyakarta State University, Indonesia, Email: asunarso@uny.ac.id

This research was conducted with the aim of describing the development of education politics in Indonesia in the Sukarno Era, the Suharto Era, and the Reformation Era. This type of research was a literature study using a qualitative approach. A literature study was carried out by inventorying, examining, or testing written materials in the form of reference books, related legislation, journals, magazines, newspapers, and other written materials related to the problem under the study. Data that has been collected was first verified. In this study, the technique of checking the validity of the data was taken through confirmation between documents. The results showed that (1) The education politics of the Sukarno era in the early independence period 1945-1950 was coloured by the spirit of revolution, and the education aimed to instil the soul and spirit of patriotism. The education politics in the 1950-1959 period was coloured by liberal democracy, and education aimed to shape capable human beings and democratic citizens who are responsible for the welfare of the people and the motherland. The politics of education in the 1959-1966 period was coloured by Guided Democracy and the Manipol USDEK (Political Manifesto/1945 Constitution, Indonesian Socialism, Guided Democracy, Guided Economy, and Personality), and education aimed to encourage deceptive Indonesian socialist citizens. (2) The education politics of the Suharto era was marked by a passion for implementing Pancasila purely and consistently, as well as a passion for carrying out economic development. Education aimed to shape human development with the spirit of Pancasila, which can support the success of economic development. (3) The politics of education in the Reformation era was marked by a spirit to create a democratic society that obeys the law. Pages 829 to 847




Protecting the Marginal: Innovative Policy for Indonesia's Isolated Indigenous Communities

Moh. Dahlana*, Irwan Abdullahb, Sirajuddinc, M.Nasrond, Imam Mahdie, Intan Permata Sarif, Saepuding, a,c,d,e,f,gState Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Bengkulu, Indonesia, bGadjah Mada University Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*dahlanbkl20@gmail.com

This study depicts the objective conditions of Indonesia's isolated communities, who live in precarity, poverty, and desolation. Their interests as indigenous people are ignored as their community is perceived as a security threat. At the same time, globalisation has incorporated them into the 'global village', subjecting them to the systems, policies, and influences of other countries. This has threatened the security and sovereignty of the state, as the blurring of geographic, social, and cultural boundaries has undermined nationalism. This study seeks to map the structural positioning of traditional communities and their potential to promote change through innovative policy. Humanist and welfare-oriented policies will transform indigenous communities from objects of development into beneficiaries. This article recommends the implementation of innovative people-oriented policies that position indigenous communities as policy subjects. In this manner, development will not only serve to improve communities' economic welfare but also to recognise the dignity and rights of indigenous communities. Pages 848 to 862




Entrepreneurship Development and Open Educational Resources: A Bibliometric Analysis

Tayyab Amjada*, Yong Salmah Nasirb, aSchool of Business Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, bMAS, Cooperatives Bhd, Menara Glomac, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: a*tayyab_amjad@oyagsb.uum.edu.my

Entrepreneurship development is highly pivotal to economic growth. Therefore, higher education institutions are continuing to upgrade entrepreneurship education (EE), and entrepreneurship research has rapidly grown in recent years. However, open educational resources, such as open access academic publishers have not yet acknowledged EE could have an exclusive outlet for publication. Therefore, although rapidly growing in numbers, the scholars of EE are having only one Scopus indexed journal that is specifically focused in this domain. Therefore, based on these wide gaps, a bibliometric analysis has been done in the broader research domain of entrepreneurship to understand its growing importance. Accordingly, the implications are given to the publishers. Pages 863 to 879




The Effectiveness of an Online Learning Platform in Collaboration with Virtual Technology using a Digital Ecosystem to Develop Information, Media and Technology Skills of Undergraduate Students

Charinthorn Aumgria, aDepartment of Computer Education, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Thailand, Email: acharinthorn@webmail.npru.ac.th

This research aims to study the results of an online learning platform in collaboration with virtual technology using a digital ecosystem to develop the information, media and technology skills of undergraduate students who learnt with a digital ecosystem. The sample group was 79 undergraduate students who were randomised with a cluster sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups, with 40 students in the experimental group and 39 students in the control group. The research tools used were (1) the teaching plan for online learning platform in collaboration with virtual technology using digital ecosystem, in accordance with the Dick and Carey Model; (2) an academic achievement evaluation form and (3) the student's information skill evaluation form. The data was analysed using mean (X), standard deviation, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The research found that, with significance level of 0.5, the academic achievement and information skills of the students who learned using online learning platform in collaboration with virtual technology using a digital ecosystem was higher compared to the students who using the normal learning method. Pages 880 to 895




Servant Leadership and Its Relationship to Organisational Commitment in the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University

Khalid Alshehria, Mohammed Sarhan Al-mekhlafib, a,bDepartment of Educational Management, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia,

This study aimed to identify the degree of academic leadership practice for the dimensions of the servant leadership in the College of Applied Studies and Community Service at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University. It also aimed to determine the degree of organisational commitment among college staff while identifying the nature of the relationship between the practices of servant leadership dimensions by the college leaders and the organisational commitment of college staff. The research relied on the descriptive-analytical method. The number of the sample population was 95, which is at a percentage of 44% of the original study population. The study reached several results, the most important of which are: the degree of practicing the dimensions of service leadership from the employees' viewpoint reached 72.6% with a weighted average of 3.63, which represents a high degree of practice. While the degree of organisational commitment among college staff was 77% with a weighted average of 3.85, it represented a high degree of practice. Also, there is an average direct correlation of 0.567 between the servant leadership practices and the organisational commitment of college staff, and significant differences were found between the male and female attitudes toward both the servant leadership dimensions and the overall questionnaire and the difference was in favour of males. There were no significant differences between male and female responses towards the organisational commitment measures. There are significant differences between the responses of both administrators and academics at 5% level of significance. It was found that academics have a higher attitude than administrators towards servant leadership practices and the organisational commitment measures. Pages 896 to 919




Should the Modern Idea of Individual Autonomy Continue to Influence Understandings about the Goal of Education? A Critical Discussion with Reference to Paulo Freire’s Critical Pedagogy

Sherwan T. Ameena, aResearcher at Research Center Nawroz University, Kurdistan region, Duhok, Iraq

Lately there has been renewed interest in the idea of individual autonomy in this ever-changeable world. The modern societies that believe in pluralist and democratic life influence economic and social life by considering individual autonomy. This means giving freedom of choices to children and considering their abilities to choose and follow their conception of life that they hope to be suitable for themselves in ‘flourishing conditions’ Kant (1784). This perspective has not only been the view of liberal societies but many conservative societies as well. For societies that do not consider individual autonomy, it will be hard to continue towards their desire of reaching flourishing conditions. Dearden believes education is the key to ensure individuals gain individual autonomy. Thus, the modern idea of individual autonomy in the enlightenment time of Immanuel Kant until the present time influences several societies and especially education. A much-debated question is whether it should be applied in the education system. In this paper, I will argue that people can have autonomy yet additionally they need a critical realisation to request and alter exploitive conditions. I will discuss that a critical pedagogy as defined by Freire (1972) and modernised by Giroux (2004), is what is needed within modern education. I start by defining Freire’s (1972) proposal of critical pedagogy as a mean for social alteration and equality in education by giving an alternative to the ‘banking concept’ of education and will relate it to my professional context as an English speaker for other languages (ESOL) teacher from Iraq. Pages 920 to 930




Counterterrorism and Human Rights Violations in Northeast Nigeria

Ravichandran Moorthya, Gabriel Tyoyila Akwenb, Sity Daudc, Sarjit S. Gilld, a,b,cResearch Centre for History, Politics and International Affairs, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia, dFaculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Email: adrravi@ukm.edu.my,  bakwengab123@gmail.com,  csitydaud@ukm.edu.my,  dsarjit@upm.edu.my

This research investigates counterterrorism and human rights violations in Nigeria. It examines the types and the contributing factors of human rights abuses, as a result of Boko Haram activities and the Nigerian counterterrorism initiatives undertaken by security agencies. Employing both secondary and primary data, this study adopts the qualitative research approach. Semi-structured interview questions were used on a total number of 29 informants, selected purposively. This study reveals evidence of human rights violations in the conduct of the Nigerian counterterrorism operatives, which also breaches the United Nation’s counterterrorism standards. The findings also show that the lack of human security conditions, corruption, inadequate training, and attitudes of the local communities have contributed to violations of human rights. This research postulates that to reduce human rights violations during counterterrorism activities, there is a need to incorporate non-military approaches and confident building measures to gain the support of the people. Pages 931 to 947




The Role of Collegial Supervision of School Supervisors and Head of Developing Teacher's Pedagogic Competence in Rejang Lebong Regency

Jumira Warlizasusia, Heldy Ramadhan Putrab, Ifnaldic, Lukmand, Dewinofritae, a,c,dAssoc. Profesor Education, Islamic Education Management Study Program Postgraduate Faculty, IAIN Curup, Indonesia, bAssoc. Professor, Islamic Education Management Study Program  Postgraduate Faculty, IAIN Surakarta, Indonesia, eAssoc. Profesor Islamic Education Management Study. IAIN Fattahul Muluk Papua, Indonesia, Email: ajumira.warlizasusi@iaincurup.ac.id,  bheldyramadhan@iain-surakarta.ac.id,  cifnaldi@iaincurup.ac.id,  dlukman.asha@iaincurup.ac.id,  ednsjafri@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is the implementation of supervision as an important activity in the administration of education. Supervision is intended as a control activity for all educational activities to direct, supervise, foster and control the achievement of Islamic religious goals and objectives. So the quality of education can lead to a better direction. This type of qualitative research was a descriptive approach. Data collection methods used were observation, documentation and free (non-structured) interviews. The analysis technique in this study uses the analytic deduction approach according to Milles and Habermen's theory. The results of the study and the implementation of collegial supervision by supervisors has not been maximised because only one supervisor has had to face such vast field realities both in the area of guidance and the number of teachers that must be guided. However, according to teachers the supervision provided was very helpful to the teachers in developing their pedagogical competencies. Many school principals are stuttering with education technology and supervision systems so that the supervision process is still not maximised. The success of supervision carried out by supervisors and school principals has made the pedagogical competence of teachers good but it still needs to be improved. The ideal obstacles in implementing collegial supervision are categorised in two aspects, namely structure and culture. Pages 948 to 961




Identity Movements, Religious Organisations and Social Harmony in North Sumatra

Muryanto Amina*, Muhammad Arifin Nasutionb, a,bFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Sumatra Utara, Medan, North Sumatra, 20155, Indonesia, Email: a*muryantoamin@usu.ac.id

This article aims to analyse the roles of religious organisations in political participation and the electoral patterns through a case study of two elections in North Sumatra; the 2018 Governor election and 2019 Presidential election. The authors approached the research qualitatively using critical network analysis to explain the values system and political motivations of religious organisations. Religious leaders influenced the level of religious activism and radicalism through various activities. Social harmony played an important role in preventing activism and radicalism, albeit in ways difficult to predict. The findings provide a deeper understanding of how the religious identity movement through religious organisations increased, while at the same time, the social interest in politics decreased. This study contributes to analysing the relationship between religious organisations' roles and the influence of social harmony on political participation, innovatively and systematically, and can be used as a reference in managing subsequent elections. Pages 962 to 983




The Relationship of Life Stress to Adjustment Among Poor Female Breadwinners in Saudi Arabia

Maryam A. Alanazia, aThe Centre for Promising Research in Social Research and Women's Studies, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University,

The study identifies the relationship of life stress to adjustment among poor female breadwinners in Saudi Arabia. It applies the social survey approach to an intentionally selected sample of (320) female breadwinners benefiting from social insurance and women's charities in Riyadh. Results reveal that life stress and adjustment of the participants is high, with a negative statistically significant correlation. Economic stress is ranked first, family stress is ranked last. The role of women's charities in adjustment is intermediate. The study recommends the partnership between the civil society institutions and the government to create jobs for female breadwinners. Pages 984 to 1006




A Study on the Categorisation of Basic Job Competency for Middle-Aged People in Korea

SooJeong Leea, Yun-Jeong Kimb*, aKorea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training, Republic of Korea, bDept. of Heath, Counseling and Welfare, Hanseo University, Seo-San City, Republic of Korea, Email: acrystal@krivet.re.kr,  b*twoyun21@hanmail.net

The purpose of this study is to target middle-aged Korean people aged 40 to 64 to categorise basic job competency and to identify the connection with vocational education, job-seeking skills, and career transition status. To this end, the data from Lee SooJeong et al., (2020), targetting middle-aged people aged 40 to 64 who had the will to find a job (change jobs) was used. The quota sampling method by profession, gender, and age was used and the data collection was conducted for a month in February 2020. The collected data was used for a total of 1,224 analyses through the data cleaning process. First, the basic job competency of middle-aged people in Korea has divided into three groups. Second, a total of 579 (47.3%) people belonged to the 'high-ranking group' of basic job competency. People perceived to be in good health in this case are incumbents, managers/experts, paid workers (regular workers), college graduates, or higher, living in a large city, and in middle-class economic conditions. Third, 496 (40.5%) people belonged to the ‘mid-ranking group’ of basic job competency. There were many paid workers (regular workers) in other professions and they were in low-class economic conditions with normal health conditions: they had the characteristics of the moderate degree between the high-ranking and low-ranking groups. Fourth, 149 (12.2%) people belonged to the ‘low-ranking group’ of basic job competency. There were many unemployed and temporary or daily workers, both economic and health conditions are low, and material status is also unstable, unlike other groups. Pages 1007 to 1022




Learning Management by Using Design Thinking Blended with Gamification

Achah Binheema, Paitoon Pimdeeb, a,bKing Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Email: aachah.b@pkru.ac.th,  bpaitoon.pi@kmitl.ac.th

This research aimed to synthesise knowledge on learning management by using design thinking blended with gamification. This research analysed and synthesised assorted content from documents and researches, as well as reviewed literature. The results indicated that design thinking is a thinking process for solving problems. It is a user-centred process focussed on understanding problems and new solutions in order to form desirable guidelines and innovations for users. There are 5 steps in learning management comprising the following: understand the problem, define the problem, ideate, prototype and test. Gamification is the technical and mechanical integration of a game which consists of rules, scoring, game levels, player cooperation, coins, and feedback. These components are implemented in the first 3 steps of learning management in order to motivate students with enjoyment, learning support, challenges, and stimulation in problem-solving. Pages 1023 to 1035




A Review: Readiness for Change towards Organisational Change

Ratna Wardania, Dian Ekowatib, Indrianawati Usmanc, Fendy Suhariadid,  Sri Suhandiahe, a,b,c,d,eUniversitas Airlangga, IIK Strada Indonesia, eUniversitas Dinamika. Email: aratna.wardani-2018@feb.unair.ac.id, bd.ekowati@feb.unair.ac.id,  cindrianawati@feb.unair.ac.id,  dfendy.suhariadi@psikologi.unair.ac.id ,esri.suhandiah-2018@feb.unair.ac.id

Objective: To conduct a theoretical and literary review of the readiness for change at the individual and organisational level by identifying limitations in prior research that is not a stratified analysis of the perceptions of profit/loss as antecedents of the readiness for change. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on a systematic review of the literature, this paper develops antecedents using four key elements: readiness for change, organisational, employee or individual, and limits only to the fields of business, management and accounting with the limited article search period in 2010-2019, we obtained 35 articles in accordance with readiness for change. Limitation/Scope: This literature review focusses on research on antecedents that affect readiness for change only at the individual and organisational level, because from the reviews conducted there was no group readiness found, namely the antecedent of individual/ collective character,  context (internal and external), process, and perceived benefit/harm. Benefits/Implications: A review is conducted to assist researchers on the readiness of changes in determining antecedents by identifying the variables to be selected. Besides, the review conducted can provide benefits for researchers to help provide decisions in researching by replicating existing variables or finding new variables. Novelty/Value: Provides a review for future researchers to consider the antecedents of readiness for change at the individual level and at the organisational level in the developing countries in ASIA, especially the perception of profit/loss as an antecedent for readiness for change. Pages 1036 to 1058




State Management on the Marine Economic Development in a Sustainable Direction in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam

Tran Thi Quynh Gianga, aUniversity of Economics – Technology for Industries, Vietnam, Email: attqgiang@uneti.edu.vn

In recent years, Khanh Hoa province has focused on investing in developing a strong marine economy and gained significant achievements, making marine economy become a key economic sector. Khanh Hoa province has guidelines, strategies, planning and policies to develop the marine economy sustainably. However, these guidelines, strategies, planning and policies are not comprehensive, consistent, and do not create a favourable environment for the marine economy to develop sustainably. The management organisation is still limited; the inspection and supervision work still face many shortcomings and are not strictly implemented. Inheriting previous studies, basing on collected data and expert interview results, through surveys with lecturers, researchers on marine economics, the board of directors enterprises on the marine economy in Khanh Hoa province, this study analyses and assesses the state management on the development of Khanh Hoa marine economy. From these results, we propose a number of solutions to improve the marine economy in Khanh Hoa province sustainably. Pages 1059 to 1077




Strange Circulation in Iraqi Art and Contemporary European Art Alaa Bashir - Salvador Dali: A Comparative Study

Zahraa Mahood Mohammeda, aUniversity of Baghdad / College of Fine Arts / Department of Fine Arts,

The speech, as a physical structure of the encoded fabric, is launched, on a communicative intent, between its product and then swinging between its recipients in an endless interpretive game based on the phenomenological text. The text as a semiotic system is based on the relational of its formal elements as well as colour and its referral meanings with a generative approach based on the plurality of meaning that has become under the authority of language. The text has been edited in the arts of modernity and its aftermath to be captive to it. According to the communicative deliberations, those begin to address the relationship of both the producer, the textual text, and the reader together. The signs move within the framework of their users. The meaning gives up its historical centrality, as a foundational axis for building the text. The formative icon resolves its differential and coalition relations in the body of the rhetoric that must be in place, and gives the recipient the first initiative Interpretive model building semantic proposed by the artist, Fimars discourse to do with the impressionist receiver, which in turn interact with the proposed discourse of cultural orientation, as it is not the role of the plastic mark in reporting, but are effective communication, and toward a renewed Tdoual variable. Since surreal art is based on formal structures escaped from the dominance and centralisation of the mind, towards distinctiveness stemming from a feeling of ambiguity and existential anxiety, which removed the reality of the form towards irrationality and incomprehensibility, so this art was not without the circulation of my signs of its instinctive forms.Pages 1078 to 1094




The Effect of the Tarsia - Mental Triangles and the Sand Clock Scheme Strategies in the Achievement of Chemistry and Cognitive Failure for Female Students of the Fourth Scientific Preparatory Stage

Wasan Maher Jalila, aUniversity of Baghdad / College of Education for Pure Sciences - Ibn Al-Haytham (Department of Chemistry),

The aim of the research is to examine the impact of the two strategies of the mental triangles and the hourglass chart in the academic achievement of chemistry and cognitive failure among students of  fourth grade science. The research was applied to a sample of 180 female students of junior high school students for girls within the second Karkh Education Directorate for the morning study. To achieve the aims of the research, the three-group experimental approach was used, where the research sample was divided into three groups (a control group studied according to the usual method, a first experimental group studied according to the strategy of Tarsia, and a second experimental group studied according to the Hourglass chart strategy); in order to apply the research, the researcher developed the research tools represented in the achievement test in the chemistry course, the Arabisation and codification of the cognitive failure scale of Broadbent and his colleagues in 1982. The tools were applied to the experimental groups and the control group, then the grades of the students were analysed on the test and scale. For the appropriate statistical means to reach the differences of statistical significance, the research reached a number of results, the most important of which are: the positive impact of the two strategies of the mental triangles and the hourglass chart in improving and raising academic achievement in chemistry and in reducing cognitive failure of the fourth grade students. Pages 1095 to 1118




The Efficiency of Hospitality Experiential Education from Hotel Industry Perspectives

Khaled, Alsardiaa; Mohammad Al-Laymounb; Albattat, Ahmadc*

a,b Ammon Applied University College, 950271 Amman 11195, Jordan. cPost Graduate Centre, Management and Science University, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, 40100, Selangor, Malaysia. *Corresponding Author’s Email: ahmad_rasmi@msu.edu.my

The aim of this study is to review experiential learning in hospitality education through its implementation and also to explore industry perceptions, regarding the effectiveness of the adopted experiential learning methods. There are many focus group discussions that have been conducted amongst the hotel industry. A qualitative method for the hospitality industry professionals has been used in this research. Describing the meanings of central themes in the life of the subjects is what the qualitative research interview seeks to do. According to this research, understanding what the interviewees have to say is the main task at the interview stage. This study also reveals wide utilisation of experiential learning activities in hospitality education. Generally, it is said that experiential learning is more effective than traditional classroom learning in accordance to lectures, it is also believed that the hospitality industry with experiential learning activities is being effectively implemented. The researchers give many suggestions in this paper to provide support to hospitality educators to introduce ways to improve the utilisation of experiential learning methods to facilitate student learning. Pages 1119 to 1133




The Effect of Quality Assessment of Knowledge Sharing Behaviour in Convention Attendees: The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment

Wilawan Jansria, Shiva Hashemib, Shaian Kiumarsic, aFaculty of Economics and Business Administration, Thaksin University 90000, Songkhla, Thailand, bHospitality and Tourism Management،UCSI, Malaysia, cGraduate School of Business (GSB), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia, Emal: awilawan@tsu.ac.th,  bshhashemi4@gmail.com,  ckiumarsi78@gmail.com

Research in regard to knowledge sharing behaviour in convention attendees, as well as its efficiency, is currently limited. Despite that, knowledge sharing is utilised as a means of encouraging decision making and practice based on evidence as well as promoting the exchange of knowledge among researchers. Hence, for a deep comprehension of international convention attendees' knowledge sharing behaviour as well as related influencing factors, a conceptual research framework is proposed in this study. The basis of this framework is the theory of a planned behaviour model which includes social network, self-congruity, efficiency and personal branding in affective commitment in the direction of knowledge sharing behaviour. In 2018, a survey was carried out among the attendants of 8 international conventions in Malaysia, containing 275 samples. In addition, an empirical test was performed on the research model and hypothesised relationships. This was done via the structural equation modelling (SEM) approach which is supported by version 3.0 of the Smart PLS software. The findings of this study demonstrate that affective commitment acts as a mediator conceptualised in relationships among social network, self-congruity, efficiency, personal branding and knowledge sharing behaviour. Moreover, according to the results, the relationships between social network, self-congruity, efficiency and personal branding are impacted significantly and directly as well as particularly and indirectly by the mediating variable. Therefore, this study presents brilliant ideas and an improved comprehension in regard to the significance of encouraging international convention attendees to contribute further to practices concerning knowledge sharing behaviour. Pages 1134 to 1157




Champasak: Dhammayuttika Nikaya and the Maintenance of Power of the Thai State (Buddhist Decade 2390-2450)

Kiattisak Bangpernga, aDepartment of Sociology and Anthropology Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mahasarakham University, Email: akiattisak.b@hotmail.com

This article is intended to analyse the time during Siam's reign in Champasak, when Siam exercised the colonial power to collect tributes and taxes, resulting in the local Lao’s burdens. This caused rebels to be formed under the culture of local Buddhists combined with indigenous beliefs. Siam therefore attempted to connect the local Lao and culture to the central power. One of the important policies was to send Thammayut monks to remove the local beliefs and to disseminate pure Buddhism, according to Thai Dhammayuttika Nikaya. Later, French colonies wanted to rule the Lao territory in the name of Indochina, resulting in that the monks of Dhammayuttika Nikaya were drawn to be part of the political mechanism, in order to cultivate loyalty in the Siamese elites and spread the Thai ideology. This aimed to separate Laos from the French’s claiming of legitimacy for a colonial rule. However, even if the Dhammayuttika Nikaya was accepted and supported by the Lao rulers, but it was not generally accepted by the local people, because it was the symbol of the power of Siam who oppressed them, and appeared to have ideological differences with their local culture. Dhammayuttika Nikaya, as a state mechanism, was not successful in maintaining the power of the Thai state. Pages 1158 to 1174




The Resource Pool System on a Rice Farm Based on Pumping Irrigation from Tempe Lake, Indonesia

A. Majdah M.Zaina*,  Rahim Darmab, Musliar Kasimc, Awaluddin Yunusd, Andi Kasirang T. Basoe, A.Tenri Darhyatif, Rida Akzarg, a,d,eDepartement of Agribusiness, University of  Islam Makassar, Indonesia, bDepartment of Agricultural Socio-economics, University of Hasanuddin, Indonesia, cDepartment Agronomy, University of Andalas, Indonesia, fCenter of Tempe Lake and Costal Area, University of  Islam Makassar, Indonesia, gPhD student, Centre for Global Food and Resources, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Email: a*majdahmzain.dpk@uim-makassar.ac.id

The resource pool is a model that helps to meet water needs in rice farming. Each production factor has incentives and risks based on the value of resources. The research objective is to value the production factors used on a rice farm. The research method used to achieve this includes a case study on a group of rice farmers around the edge of Tempe Lake. Financial analysis is also used as a basis for valuing the resources incorporated into rice farming. Farmers as owners of labour, capital and skills have a higher benefit and risk, followed by land owners and providers of irrigation services. Risks faced by landowners include the opportunity cost of land, rent and high land values. The risk for irrigation service providers is the total operational costs and the depreciation of equipment, which is equivalent to land rent. Break Event Point (BEP) productivity is inversely proportional to business risks and incentives. BEP for productivity is 1.8 for farmers, 2.37 for land owners, and 2.27 for irrigation service providers. The share of water resources can be used as a reference for water fees for conventional irrigation. Pages 1175 to 1189




The Effect of Strategic Planning on Students’ Argumentative Writing Performance

Maria Cholifaha, Moh. Adnan Latiefb, Nur Mukminatienc, Niamika El Khoirid, Subarie, a,c,d,e,fState University of Malang, bKanjuruhan University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: amaria.cholifah.1702219@students.um.ac.id,  bmaria_cholifah@unikama.ac.id,  ca.adnanlatief@gmail.com,   dnurmukminatien.fs@um.ac.id,  eniamika.el.fs@um.ac.id,  fsubari.1705519@students.um.ac.id

This study aims at measuring the effect of strategic planning in different formats: guided strategic planning, unguided strategic planning and acting without planning in terms of local and global aspects. This study was conducted in a university in Malang, Indonesia in which 21 students majoring in English Language all in their fourth semester took part actively in this study. The students were given three different topics in three meetings to write argumentative essays. The results show that by using counterbalanced effect of order, the students who got the treatment of guided strategic planning obtained better performance marks than those that used unguided strategic planning and those that performed without planning. This study suggested that the students should be more familiarised with the planning time in order to get better writing performance, teachers need to be trained in the activities of planning. Pages 1190 to 1202




The Impact of Supply Chain Finance on the Financial Performance of the Pharmaceutical Industry of Indonesia

Tomy Fitrioa*, Lucky Kartantob, Irwan Moriduc, Nurcahya Hartaty Posumahd, aSekolah tinggi ilmu ekonomi indragiri, bUniversitas Widya Kartika Surabaya, c,dUniversitas Muhammadiyah Luwuk, Email: a*tomy@stieindragiri.ac.id,  bkkplucky@gmail.com,  cirwanmoridu@gmail.com,  dnurcahya@unismuhluwuk.ac.id

The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of supply chain finance (SCF) on the financial performance (FP) of the pharmaceutical industry of Indonesia. For this purpose, data was collected from 2009 to 2018 when the pharmaceutical industry has made a positive recovery after the global financial crisis. With the objective of examining the non-linear impact of SCF on the performance of the pharmaceutical industry of Indonesia, the model was analyses by employing the Pooled regression (POLS), fixed effects model (FEM) and random effects model (REM). Regression analysis is performed to address potential endogeneity, heteroskedasticity, and autocorrelation issues. The key findings of the study have shown that that SCF exerts a U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance, so the optimal threshold in the impact can be defined by the minimum of CCC*. In addition, the paper reveals that FP is significantly related to firm-specific variables like firm size (SIZE) and capital structure (CAP) and other macroeconomic (economic growth (EG)) determinants. In short, SCF does not frequently exert a positive impact on how its participants perform. Their restructuring occurred by the lowest threshold (CCC*) this makes this correlation under go considerably large changes. Therefore, this empirical evidence is essential in giving the management and scholars a comprehensive perspective on the relationship between SCF and FP. Pages 1203 to 1216




The Impact of Internal and External Supply Chain Integration on Business Performance of the Banking Sector in Indonesia

Dwi Santosa Pambudia*, Luh Putu Mahyunib, Listya Sugiyartic, Effriyantid, aUniversitas Ahmad Dahlan, bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Pendidikan Nasional, Bali, Indonesia, c,dUniversitas Pamulang, Email: a*dwi.pambudi@pbs.uad.ac.id,  bmahyuniluhputu@undiknas.ac.id,  cdoden01444@gmail.com,  deffriyanti.kurniawan@gmail.com

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of internal and external supply chain integration impact on the business performance of the banking sector of Indonesia. The data was collected from the 250 supply chain mangers which yielded an 80 percent response rate. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) of the data has shown that both supply chain integration indicators namely, internal and external supply chain integration have both apositive and significant association with the business performance of the banking industry of Indonesia. These findings have shown that banking sector of Indonesia has a great importance on supply chain integration to increase their firms performance. The findings of the study could also help supply chains to know about the importance of supply chain integration to increase their performance. The research limitations and future direction has also beendiscussed at the end of the study. Pages 1217 to 1234




The Influence of Local Startup Companies’ Brand Equity on the Consumer Trust in Digital-Based Umrah Travel

Aisyah Rahmawatia, Sucherlyb, Asep Mulyanac, Sutisnad, a,b,c,dPadjajaran University, West Java, Indonesia,

This study is aimed at knowing the influence of local digital startups’ brand equity on the consumer trust in Umrah travel through Umrah digital enterprise. The method used here is distributing questionnaires to 50 respondents domiciled in Jakarta who have ever performed Umrah, to see whether behaviour shifting from offline transaction to online transaction occurs. The result of this study shows that there is an influence of brand equity on consumer trust in the digital-based Umrah travel organised by local startups. Future research can be conducted to study the influence of the trust of Umrah travel service users on the purchase decision toward digital-based Umrah organised by local startup companies. Pages 1235 to 1245



The Effectiveness of the MAIL (Math Assessment, Instruction, Learning) Cycle in Mathematics Achievement and Reflective Thinking among Intermediate Third Grade Students

A.S.D. Basim Mahammad Jasim Al- Dulaimya, aUniversity of Baghdad - College of Education for pure Science\ Ibn AlHaitham, Email: aDr.basim.math@gmail.com

The aim of the research is to identify the effectiveness of a modern teaching model based on constructivist learning represented in the course (evaluation, teaching and learning in mathematics) in increasing mathematical achievement and developing contemplative thinking skills for the selected group of intermediate third grade students. In order to achieve the research goals, the researcher used the experimental approach with two groups (experimental and control), by applying two tests in mathematical achievement before and after, as well as  using the meditative thinking scale for the same purpose. The research sample consisted of 60 students from the third intermediate grade, where the research sample was divided into two equal groups. The control group studied the subjects in the usual way, and the experimental group studied using the MAIL evaluation course. The experiment was applied in the second semester of the academic year 2018/2019. The researcher taught the two research groups. The experimental group was taught according to the six stages of the evaluation cycle, teaching and learning in mathematics MAIL (Preparation and participation-Deriving previous knowledge- Sounding and discovery-Development Concept and skill-transfer of concept and skill-self-evaluation and reflection), and the control group  studied according to the usual method. The achievement test and the meditative thinking scale were applied to the research groups before and after test. To test the validity of the assumptions, data was collected and then statistically analysed using appropriate statistical means, the most important of which are the arithmetic averages and the standard deviations of the two groups ’scores to determine the statistical differences between the two groups. The results of the research revealed the effectiveness of the MAIL evaluation and teaching course in increasing students' achievements in mathematics and raising their level of contemplative thinking compared to the usual way.  In light of the results of the research,  several recommendations are suggested, the most important of which is to highlight the course of evaluation, teaching and learning in mathematics (MAIL), and to increase awareness of it, as  according to the researcher’s knowledge,  it has not been applied in the Arab environment prior to this research. It would also be useful to apply the stages of the evaluation course, teaching and learning in mathematics MAIL in maths classes, as it combines several strategies for constructivist learning within all stages and through all school stages. Pages 1246 to 1267

Insights on the Components of Smart Governance for Government Units in Iraq

Ihsan Deab Abida, Istiqlal Jumaah Wajarb, aMiddle Technical University, Iraq, bAccounting Department, College of administration and economics, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, Email: adr.ahsanabid@mtu.edu.iq,  bIstiqlalrashid@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

The research aims to diagnose the components of smart governance and the extent of its contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of government units and to evaluate their components in government units and their work environment in Iraq. The research identified the components of smart governance for government units as accounting standards, unconventional policies for budget preparation, government finance statistics manual (GFSM), electronic accounting information systems, intellectual capital. The research concluded that the Accounting and Control Standards Council in Iraq did not establish any accounting standard for government service units, and that the use of the cash basis in the government accounting system and preparing the budget in accordance with the traditional trend in Iraq contributed to reducing performance efficiency and increasing cases of financial and administrative corruption. The research identified the components of smart governance for government units as accounting standards, unconventional policies for budget preparation, government financial statistics manual (GFSM), electronic accounting information systems, and intellectual capital. The research showed that the Accounting and Control Standards Council in Iraq did not establish any accounting standard for government service units, and that the use of the cash basis in the government accounting system and preparing the budget in accordance with the traditional trend in Iraq contributed to reducing performance efficiency and increasing cases of financial and administrative corruption. In addition, electronic accounting was not applied, which was the reason for the delay in the presentation of the final accounts, the settlement of advances granted, and distortions in reports after their approval. Pages 1268 to 1282

The Role of the Auditor in Measuring the Operational Performance of the Internal Audit

Nahla Ghalib Abdul Rahmaa, Jalil Ibrahim Salihb, Hakeem Hammood Flayyihc, aSouthern Technical University, Technical Institute of Basra, Iraq, bSouthern Technical University, Technical College of Administration, Basra, Iraq, cLecturer at Department of financial and Banking Sciences, College of Administration and Economics, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email: anahla.jalee@stu.edu.iq,  bJaleel_kanan@yahoo.com,  chakeem.hmood@coadec.uobaghdad.edu.iq

The research aims to study the role of the auditor in measuring the operational performance of internal auditing, by reporting operational activities known as the operational triad of internal auditing, which are economic, efficiency and effectiveness, through the report of one of the auditing companies in the Minawi Pasha Hotel in Basra province, and that because this city has commercial importance and considered as an attractive destination to a large number of locals, with the intention to trade. The research sample was the financial statements of the hotel for the fiscal year 2017 and 2018, in addition to the report of the auditor. The researchers concluded that the results of the report do not reflect the opinion of the auditor on the operational results, and his opinion was limited to expressing the neutral technical opinion in his report on the study sample (the hotel). Pages 1283 to 1296

The Role of Intra-Cost Management in Supporting Internal Auditing Based on Risks

Hussein Ali Mohaisea, Thamer Kadhim Al-abedib, Khalid Obaid Ahmedc, a,cLecture, Control and Internal Audit Department, Presidency of Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, bLecture at Accounting Department, College of Administration and Economics, Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, Email: aHussein_aslan85@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,   bthamer_kadhim@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq,  cdr.khaled.cpa1@gmail.com

This paper aims at showing the importance of Intra-Cost Management in providing information that supports Internal Auditing Based on Risks. It also aimed at showing the theoretical analysis for Intra-Cost Management and its primary stages. This study has been conducted on 30 samples of employees that have been employed in the Industrials companies in Iraq. Statistical Package for Social Sciences has been used, which is known in abbreviation (SPSS) edition 22, which is one of the modern and important statistical programs in analysing data and extracting results. The scope of correlation between Intra-Cost Management and Internal Auditing Based on Risks has been tested through analysing minor regression. It was found out that Intra-Cost Management has a correlation on the Internal Auditing Based on Risks in order to provide proper information for decision-makers. Pages 1297 to 1314

The Effects of Good Corporate Governance, Independent Boards, and Firm Size on Bank Financial Performance in the Digitalisation Era: A Capital Structure as a Mediation Variable

Moeljadia, Kartika Hendra Titisarib, Yusuf Iskandarc, Sherlinda Octa Yuniarsad, aLecturer, Department of Management, Brawijaya University,  bLecturer, Economic Faculty of Islamic Batik University, cDoctoral Student in Management Department, Brawijaya University, dDepartment of Management, University of Brawijaya, Email: amoeljadip@yahoo.combkartikatitisari@gmail.comdsherlindaocta33@gmail.com

Financial performance is important for banks. Determinant financial performance remains a concern for bank management. This study examined how good corporate governance, independent boards, and company size can improve financial performance. This study also examined capital structure in the relationship framework. A total of 30 banks reporting on the Indonesian Stock Exchange were a sample, observed between 2015-2018. Path analysis tested the hypothesis. The test results show that good corporate governance does not affect financial performance, while independent boards and company size have a positive effect on financial performance. The capital structure also mediates the influence of independent board and bank size on financial performance. Further, this study provides empirical evidence that capital structure is directly proportional to bank financial performance in this digitalization era. The implication is banks must pay more attention to the supervising, independent board structure, to  improve the operational performance and financial performance of companies. An increase in the size of bank assets can increase financial performance, thereby increasing the bank's operational performance. Pages 1315 to 1326

An Implementation of HOTS Based Learning Strategy in Vocational High Schools

I Made Sudanaa, Nina Oktarinab, Delta Apriyanic, Taofan Ali Achmadid, a,c,dFaculty of Engineering, bFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati 50229, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia, Email: a*sudana@mail.unnes.ac.id

One way to produce graduates with good quality is by increasing the quality of learning. The learning process must be able to produce the competencies required in the current era, which is needed for the business and the industrial world (DUDI). Particularly, Vocational High Schools are in high need of graduates who have a good level of critical thinking, creative thinking, communication, collaboration and confidence, as well as the capability to solve problems independently. Learning process in Vocational High Schools is expected to have used Higher Order Thinking Skill (HOTS) based learning since it can help train and stimulate student's abilities to solve the problems given in the learning process independently. Based on the field activity findings, which was done by taking a sample of 15 schools using a purposive sampling method. There have been several teachers who applied learning method but still experienced errors in applying the HOTS based learning evaluation process. The pre-test results showed that 49.30% of teachers still did poorly in the application of HOTS learning in the classroom. After the treatment, which was proper and correct HOTS based learning, the post-test result showed an improvement that was only 4.23% of teachers who still did poorly in the application of HOTS based learning. Through the significant changes during the training, the teacher began to understand the details of HOTS based learning evaluation system so that they can apply it in the teaching and learning process and produce graduates required by HOTS learning itself, which is to produce students or graduates who are capable of thinking creatively, innovatively and independently and can solve problems well. Pages 1327 to 1340

Behaviour on Repurchase Intention in a Moslem Ethnic Store in Indonesia

*Sudaryanto, Sudaryantoa, Anifatul Hanimb, Woro Utaric a,b Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Jember, Indonesia.cFaculty of Economics and Business, Wijaya Putra University, Surabaya, Indonesia.
*Corresponding author’s Email: sudaryanto.feb@unej.ac.id

This study aims to investigate consumer behaviour on repurchase intention in the Basmalah ethnic Moslem store in Indonesia. Researchers used Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA) to analyse the data with the following results; (1) Brand Image is a significant influence on customers’ Repurchase Intention, (2) Store Atmosphere is a significant influence on customers’ Repurchase Intention before employing a moderator, (3) online promotion is not a moderating variable on strengthening the regression model and does not influence customers’ repurchase intention. Research implies that brand image and store atmosphere are essential factors in maintaining and influencing customers’ repurchase intention. Moreover, online promotion does not moderate customer repurchase intention in the Moslem ethnic store in Indonesia. Pages 1341 to 1355

A Needs Analysis on the Development of Learning Applications Based on Science, Al Qur’an and Nature

Budiyono Saputroa*, Muh Zuhrib, Mansurc, Muh. Saerozid, aAssoc. Prof, Science Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, bProf., Islamic State Law Faculty, State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, cProf., Education Faculty, State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, dProf. Magister Program of Islamic Religious Education State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, Indonesia, Email: a*budiyonosaputro@iainsalatiga.ac.id

This research aims to obtain the levels of need and to describe the need of development of learning application based on science, Al Qur’an, and nature. This research uses the descriptive method applying survey approach. Subjects of this research are 40 lecturers at the study program of Natural Science in Indonesian Natural Sciences Lecturer Association. Research instrument used is questionnaires with Likert scale of 1-5. Data is analysed using statistic descriptive method. The results of research show that the need analysis using questionnaires applies four indicators. Those indicators are (1) the average score of the learning model of the digital era is 3.61 (much needed); (2) the average score of learning strategy based on science, Al Qur’an, and Nature is 3.41 (needed); (3) the average score of the implementation of learning based on science, Al Qur’an, and nature is 3.53 (much needed); and (4) the average score of the compatibility of the application in the social religious field is 3.54 (much needed). Description of needs analysis shows that respondents need (1) interactive learning applications between lecturers and students for reflection, communication, and learning feedback; (2) a problem-based learning model, which is a project learning model to create meaningful learning and student activity; (3) interpretation material based on the theme of integration that facilitates the classification of material; and (4) the concept of material that can be used in campus, social, and religious communities. Therefore, the results of the needs analysis strengthen the basis of development of learning applications based on science, Al Qur’an, and nature with interactive updates, connection with problem-based learning models, and material that is accessible for students and the public. Pages 1356 to 1370

The Effect of Online Learning Based on the Glee Tradition on Students’ Environmental Knowledge in Higher Education

Zukya Rona Islamia*, Sumarmb, Singgih Susiloc, Syamsul Bachrid, aState University of Malang, Indonesia, and Samudra University, Aceh- Indonesia, b,c,dState University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*zukya.rona.islami@unsam.ac.idbsumarmi.fis@um.ac.idcsinggih.susilo.fis@um.ac.iddsyamsul.bachri.fis@um.ac.id

The declining of environmental quality is now a global issue that needs to be discussed and to find solutions. One of the solutions is through education, especially higher education. There is a subject aimed at environmental preservation, which is environmental geography. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of online learning based on the glee tradition with environmental knowledge and concern. This study used a quasi-experimental method and equivalent control group design. The subjects in this study were students in geography education major of 2017 at Samudra University, Indonesia. The data was collected through tests and questionnaires that had been issued. The data were analysed using parametric statistical measurements, namely t-test and ANCOVA test. The results showed that learning based on the glee tradition has significant value (0.0000) on students' environmental knowledge and concern. Also, there are interactions on all variables, especially environmental knowledge, which has more effect on concern than on learning. Pages 1371 to 1394

The role of Excellence Human Resources Management in Contemporary Learning Environments, in an Approach to Enhance E-Learning Practices

Dr.Oday Zuhair Mahmoud Nadeema, Aida A Saleh Al-Hasanb, Dr. Muayad Abdulkareem ShakircaMiddle Technical University / Iraq, bUniversity of Baghdad, College of Education for Women , cAl-Mamoun University College Email: aoday_zuhair@mtu.edu.iq, baida64@coeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq , cMuayedalnaqib@gmail.com

Designing e-learning environments for quality professional education through excellence human resources is a challenge for education designers, as the continuing practice of simply moving courses online can be surprisingly disabling. We argue that as universities strive to educate for excellence in professional practice, design approaches for the e-learning components must be conceptualised in a broader view of a contemporary learning environment involving integrated virtual dimensions. Our paper aims to provide more flexible, immediate and evolving virtual experiences, and test the relationship between the excellence human resources and e-Learning at the Al-Mamoon University College.  The Education Studies Online project newsroom simulation project exemplified elements of the approach  recommended in addressing the challenges of quality professional education. We highlight the generative role of the education designer in adopting an integrative and strategic stance when creating such environments. Implications for the selection and use of various e-Learning resources and corporate e-learning systems becomes evident as we highlight the role of excellence human resources management for instructional industrialism allowing courses to “move online”. The analytical descriptive approach was adopted in analysing the research problem. The research was conducted on an available sample of 78 members. The research recommended a set of recommendations, from these, to increase the utilisation of available and effective excellence human resources that will make future changes in e-learning support. Pages 1395 to 1411

Unraveling Cultural Code in Junoon:  A Narrative through Costumes

Kumar Anketaa, Rajantheran Muniandyb*, Silllalee S.Kandasamyc, Saravanan Sandaramd, Sivagamy Kanniahe, aResearch Scholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Assistant Professor, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh, India, bProfessor, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malay, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, cAssistant Professor, Department of Modern Languages, Faculty of Creative Industries, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sungai Long Campus, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000, Kajang, Selangor, dScholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, eResearch Scholar, Department of Indian Studies, Faculty of Arts and Social Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Email: b*rajanmun@um.edu.my

In this paper, a materiality-based approach for analysing film narratives through costumes is examined. Indian film director Shyam Benegal's Hindi film Junoon (1979) is pursued crystallising costume as a significant feature for reading the movie. The article argues that costumes, on a symbolic level, work as agents. It thus focuses on the interdependence between costume and interpretations of the screenplay's main character. A theoretical notion of costumes and materiality are explored, and the idea is further developed in relation to stylistics constituted as emotions materialised in costume. As costumes are the main object for analysis, the discussion immediately centres on costumes made for the moment: for a specific narrative and aesthetic expression. In this study, we make a semiotic analysis of costumes and how they express the user's socio-cultural attributes. We demonstrate the phenomenal role that costume as a form of communication plays within the cultural and social society, specifically in period films. This paper makes use of semiotic theory and film analysis through qualitative methodology in order to analyse Junoon directed by Shyam Benegal. This form of analysis will allow costume a distinct voice in words dominated film. It reinforces costume as communication through motifs, lines, shape, colour, fabric and texture. This work has been able to create a semiotics distinction of costumes in films using the socio-cultural and conventional interpretations of colours, fabrics, styles and textures of clothes and accessories. It has attempted to understand how colours, fabrics and textures convey meaning in the film. We discover that costume aids us to form individual opinions about characters and at the same time reconstruct their socio-cultural realities. In this study, Junoon is read through a theoretical framework deeply rooted in theatrical and film costumes, and a comprehensive methodology that focuses on the application of Roland Barthes 5th Code i.e Cultural Code is evaluated as the intervening mediations between interpretation and meaning of colours, lines, fabrics, textures, and styles of costumes in Junoon is unravelled with historical reference. Pages 1412 to 1430

Recent Non-Compliance as to Medication in Lung Tuberculosis Sufferers in Timika, Mimika, Indonesia

Andreas C. Ayomia, Arwam Hermanusb, Marlin Jaronac, Yelli Mardonad, Jems KR Maaye, a,b,c,d,eEnvironmental Health Polytechnic School, Ministry of Health Jayapura Papua, Padang, Bulan 2, Hedam, District Heram, Jayapura City, Papua Province, Indonesia, Email: a*andreas.ayomi@yahoo.com

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a health problem globally. Not one country is free from it. In 1993, the World Health Organisation declared TB a “Global Emergency”, because the situation is worsening particularly for 22 “high burden” countries. Directly Observed Treatment Short-course has proven effective at controlling TB, yet the societal TB burden is still high. There have been many improvements since 2003. However, there are still 9.5 million TB new cases, causing approximately 0.5% of deaths in the world (WHO, 2009). Additionally, around 75% of TB patients are of an economically productive age (in the age group 15-55). This research investigated factors affecting non-compliance as to medication in lung TB sufferers in the work area of Community Health Centre Timika, Mimika Regency in 2017. A cross-sectional study approach was used. The sample was 78 TB sufferers who followed medication at the centre. The data analysis used the statistic test of lambda correlation coefficients. Based on the characteristics of the respondents, the variable of the group at the age of 31-45 was 46.15%; the male percentage showed 52.56%. No-school graduation was 30.77%, whereas unemployment was 47.44%, and family income lower than the regional minimum wage was 91.1%. Bivariate analysis showed some factors affecting the non-compliance medication of lung tuberculosis sufferers. Those factors were related to treatment observers (p: 0.00), health talk (p:0.00), knowledge (p:0.00), attitude (p:0.00), action (p:0.00), distance from house to the community centre (p:0.00), transport availability (p:0.00), and travel expenses (p:0.00). Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that the most affecting factor was knowledge (significant value 0.02), and action (significant value 0.05). So, it can be concluded that the factors affecting non-compliance medication in lung tuberculosis suffers, were treatment observers, health talk, patients’ knowledge, patients’ actions, distance from patients’ house to the centre, transport availability, and travel expenses. The most affecting factors were knowledge and action. Suggestions are made for the lung TB program officers at the centre to do health talks, use a family approach to lung TB noncompliant patients, and to activate treatment observers. Pages 1431 to 1443

The Relationship of Maternal Knowledge about Nutrition, to Toddlers’ Growth and Development, in Public Health Waena Perumnas I, Jayapura, Indonesia

Jems K. R. Maaya*, Mohd Arifinb, Siti Roshaidaic, a,b,cNursing School, Health Polytechnic Ministry of Health Jayapura, Papua, Padang Street, Bulan 2, Hedam, Districk Heram, Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia,  Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: a*jemskrmaay@yahoo.co.id

‘Toddler’ is a general term for children aged 1-3 years (toddlers). Children this age are still heavily dependent on parents when completing important activities, such as bathing, eating and cleaning themselves after defecating. Their speaking and walking has improved, but other abilities are still limited. This study aims to identify the relationship of maternal knowledge about nutritional status, to growth and development in toddler-age children in Puskesmas Waena Perumnas I. This study used a descriptive analysis design, employing a cross-sectional approach. The subjects were mothers who had toddlers with the nutritional status of fewer than two people and good nutrition as many as 50 people. Univariate analysis with frequency distribution was undertaken, and bivariate analysis with the Spearman correlation test. The analysis related maternal knowledge about nutritional status to growth and development obtained p values (0.01). There is a correlation between the mother's knowledge about the nutritional status of growth and development. Pages 1444 to 1454

An Analysis of Biscuit Nutrition Substitution of Eel Flour, Given to Children in Elementary School

Maxianus K. Rayaa, Nia Budhi Astutib, Endah Sri Rahayuc, I Ray Ngarditad, a,b,c,dJayapura Ministry of Health Poltekkes, Indonesia. Email: pageepa_anggita@yahoo.com

Biscuits are a processed food products, made from flour. They have high carbohydrate and fat content, whereas protein content is relatively low. Eels are a fish with a very good protein content. In addition, their content of minerals such as calcium exceeds that of some other fish. This study aims to determine the nutritional content of biscuits to which eel flour (Monoptherus albus zuieuw) has been added. It is purely experimental research. The sample is a biscuit with eel flour which consists of three formulas, namely the addition of eel flour 10, 20 and 30 grams. The analysis was conducted by the Laboratory of Analysis and Measurement Unit of the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Brawijaya Malang, Indonesia. The results of this research are the components in biscuits containing for eel flour ranged as follows: Carbohydrates, 29.71 - 39.16; protein, 18.99 - 24.88%; fat, 14.29 to 14.79; ash, from 1.14 to 1.79%; water, 6.44 to 8.41; iron, 1.06 - 1.65%; and calcium, 33.0 - 51.03%. Biscuit F3 has higher nutritional and mineral content, compared to F1 and F2 formulas. Eel flour has a high content of protein, Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn). Pages 1455 to 1465

The Influence of Monopoly Game Simulations on Adolescent Attitudes and Knowledge about Basic Threats to Reproductive Health

Suryati Romaulia*, Flora Niub, Jems Kifen R Maayc, a,b,cMidwifery Diploma Study Program, Nursing Diploma III Program at the Ministry of Health Jayapura, Jalan Padang Bulan II, Heram Village, Heram District, Jayapura City, Papua Province, Indonesia, Email: a*romaulisuryati@gmail.com

Adolescence is critical in the development of individuals. Adolescents "targets" who are very vulnerable to the Basic Threats of Reproductive Health (Sexuality, HIV/AIDS and Drugs). More than 850 cases of adolescents have been counted with HIV/AIDS in Jayawijaya district, also has high risks as to sexuality and drugs. This made researchers interested in conducting research titled "Research Methods Monopoly Simulation of Adolescent Knowledge and Attitudes about Basic Threats of Reproductive Health (Sexuality, HIV/AIDS, Drugs) at Wamena 1 High School, Jayawijaya Regency. The True Experimental Design was used for research, with Pre-test‒Post-test Control Group Design. The study was conducted at Senior School Wamena, from January to March 2020. The research sample was 138 students of class XI, selected using the Simple Random Sampling technique. The instruments were Monopoly games, questionnaires and secondary data. Data were analysed using the Chi Square statistical test. Chi Square statistical test results showed a p value of 0,000 (p <0.05). The assessment of statistical test results using the chi square test results showed a p value of 0,000 (p <0.05). Research Methodology (Sexuality, HIV/AIDS, Drugs) at Wamena 1 High School. Pages 1466 to 1478

Proposed Internship Information System (IIS) for Private Universities in Bahrain: A Case Study on the  Applied Science University-Bahrain

Ahmad Saleh Shatat1, Ibrahim A. Abu-AlSondos2, Moaiad A. A. Khder3, Amal Albaba4, 1Assistant Professor, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Administrative Sciences, Applied Science University, Bahrain. 2Assistant Professor, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Administrative Sciences, Applied Science University, Bahrain. 3Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, College of Arts and Science, Applied Science University, Bahrain. 4Alumnus, Department of Management Information Systems, College of Administrative Sciences, Applied Science University, Bahrain. Email: ahmad.shatat@asu.edu.bh1, Ibrahim.abualsondos@asu.edu.bh2,    moaiad.khder@asu.edu.bh2, , amal.kuzbar86@gmail.com4

Most  universities provide undergraduate students with capstone courses, in particular internships or industrial training courses, where the student links  theories with practice and experiences  working life i prior to  graduating. The Applied Science University - Bahrain (ASU) recognised the importance of internship courses at  an early stage, and all undergraduate programmes in ASU featured an internship course in their programme curricula.  After completing prerequisite courses, students at the Applied Science University -Bahrain (ASU) register for the internship program, which is considered one of the graduation requirements in any department. Then they are required to get connected with their supervisors until the final assessment. This study aims to design an information system that computerises the whole process and makes it more accessible. This system will provide advantages to students, their supervisors and other parties involved in the process. Qualitative data are collected by conducting many interviews with different parties to focus on the main requirements of the system. The research flows starts from requirements analysis then moves on to designing interfaces for implementation. The system is based on four major components, namely academic supervisor, intern students, head of the unit, and secretary. The information system contains many features that facilitate coordination to implement the internship program. This system is integrated with the database system that assists supervisors to monitor and manage the applications of their students. One of the key functions of this system is that it reduces  effort and wastage of time. Thus, in a general aspect, this system will benefit not only the students but also all those participating in this process. Pages 1496 to 1518

The Role of School Leaders in Enhancing the Intellectual Security of Secondary School Students in Saudi Arabia

Amal Ali Alzahrani, Maha B. Bin Bakr, Educational Leadership & Policy Studies, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, P.O. Box 1982, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Email: mbakr@iau.edu.sa

The aim of the research is to identify the role of school leaders in enhancing intellectual security among secondary school students, and the challenges that limit their contribution to enhancing intellectual security (IS), and to reveal the differences according to the variables: (gender, educational qualification, years of experience). The descriptive method was used in order to achieve the study’s objectives; the study population encompassed of all secondary school teachers (n=2032) in Dammam city, Saudi Arabia. A simple random sample of (n=323) was selected and a survey was distributed via e-mail, and the recovered responses were (n=275) representing (85%) response rate. The study findings concluded that the role of school leaders in enhancing the IS of secondary school students came to a “high” degree with (m=4.11) and (SD=0.87) for all study dimensions, where the “teacher” dimension” ranked first, followed by the “student activities” dimension, then the dimensions of “family” and “community” in the same rank. The findings also indicated that the challenges that affect the role of school leaders in enhancing the IS of students came to a “high” degree with (m=3.93) and (SD=0.71). Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences in the responses related to leaders’ role in enhancing IS (P>0.05), nor in the responses related to the challenges faced by these leaders(P>0.05), which attributed to the study variables (gender, educational qualification, and years of work experience. The study recommends that school leaders may consider developing a strong partnership with the local community to initiate and support various IS programs, and recommends periodical revisions to the curricula and teaching strategies to employ social media and other technological tools to secure the enhancement of IS. Pages 1519 to 1545

Challenges of Rehabilitation Among Patients with Substance Use Disorder: Professional Perspectives

Dr. Wahida Anjum1, Dr. Anila Sadaf Mubashir2, Dr. Saeed Ahmad Watto3, Dr. Shazia Habib4, Dr. Muhammad Ramzan5, Dr. Sarfraz Mahmood6, 1*HOD, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Lahore Leads University, https://orcid.org/0009-0003-9709-2801, 2HOD, Department of Psychology, National University of Modern    Languages Rawalpindi.  3Deputy Director, Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation, Staff Welfare Organization, Establishment Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 4Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, G.C. University Faisalabad, 5Principal Law College, Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan. 6MBBS, PG, Jinnah Hospital Lahore

This qualitative research study explored the challenges of rehabilitation among patients with substance use disorder: Professional perspectives. The phenomenological method, inductive reasoning, an emic approach, a purposive sampling technique, and thematic analysis were used. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with the professionals (psychiatrists, general physicians, psychologists, owners of the rehabilitation centres, lawyers, police officers, members of anti-narcotic drugs, educationists, policymakers, and researchers). Participants aged 35 to 50 years, with 5-10 years of professional experience. The thematic analysis showed rehabilitation is complex since drug abusers' relatives have not realized it takes time. They escalated this issue until it threatened families, society, and themselves. Families did not comprehend that this problem could be controlled (not cured) with proper follow-up and supportive family and social surroundings under expert supervision. Easy availability of drugs, affordability, insufficient resources to deal with the drug Mafia, unavailability of a clear constitution, faulty strategies of law enforcement agencies to deal with the drug Mafia, and indifferent attitude of the government and society can exacerbate problems. Surprisingly, drug rehabilitation centres have no affiliation mechanisms, and drug addicts run most drug rehabilitation centres. The lack of expert supervision of treatment in centers worsens the situation. The solution to this problem required a holistic approach to rehabilitate them, including active participation from the government, law enforcement agencies, and physical-mental health professionals. Social skill-based training workshops, awareness, interpersonal conflict resolution strategies, and good earning opportunities can help them to manage their problem. Implications of the study will add to knowledge in the scientific literature. Pages 1546 to 1562
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