Measuring the Effect of Financial Policy Tools on the Contribution of the Industrial Sector in Iraq for the Period 1990 - 2018

Salam M. Zamila, Hatem K. Al-Quraishib, Ghalib S. bahitc, a,b,cWasit University / College of Administration and Economic/ debt. Of economic, Email: aS_samer@mail.rubhbalhawi@uowasit.edu.iq

The industrial sector in Iraq suffers from many problems, stemming basically from the lack of government support for the purpose of competing with imported industrial goods, especially after 2003 after the opening of borders and trade restrictions related to the import process. This has negatively affected the industrial sector’s production and productivity as well as the extent of its contribution to the gross domestic product. The importance of the current research relates to the industrial sector being considered one of the most important sectors of high added value, which contributes to most countries of the world with a high percentage of GDP. Furthermore, the research recognises the role that financial policy and its tools can play in affecting the development and progress of the industrial sector and raising its contribution to GDP within the provision of material support. The research aims mainly at verifying the validity of the hypothesis by clarifying the extent of the contribution of financial policy tools to effecting the productivity of the industrial sector, as well as its contribution to the gross domestic product in the Iraqi economy. The descriptive approach was used to verify the hypothesis by analysing the financial policy tools such as revenues, expenditures and the general budget, and their relationship to the extent of the industrial sector’s contribution to the gross domestic product. We adopted the quantitative method by building a standard model for the relationship between financial policy tools (public revenues, public expenditures, the general budget, industrial investment spending), and the contribution of the industrial sector to the gross domestic product by the Eviews9 program for the period 1990 – 2018. The research reached several conclusions and recommendations. The most important of these is that there is an inverse relationship between the financial policy tools and the contribution of the industrial sector in Iraq, because of a lack of government support supplied to the industrial sector. This has led to a decrease in production and productivity, which is reflected in the decline in its contribution to the gross domestic product. There is a necessity for economic diversity as well as interest in the industrial sector. There is also a need to increase government support to the sector through financial policy tools and to not depend on a single resource in financing the public budget, which exposes the national economy to many financial problems. Pages 1 to 12




The Manufacture of Islamophobia in America

Ali Al-Sardia, aCairo University, Faculty of Economics and political Science, Email: aAlsardi.alif@gmail.com

This article aims to explore the roots of the phenomenon of Islamophobia in the USA. Who is behind the manufacture of Islamophobia in the USA? How was this stereotype created? What role do the American media, the Zionist lobby, the impact of the Neo-conservative movement and the consequences of the tragic events of September 11, 2001 have on the anti-Islam discourse in America, and on its spread? This article uses analytical and descriptive methods in analysing the events related to the emergence of Islamophobia, and for describing and analysing the Islamophobia phenomenon and factors affecting Islamophobia manufacture in the United States. The phenomenon of Islamophobia travelled  from Europe to the USA from the beginning of the 1990s; the Zionist lobby, neoconservatives, American anti-Islam organisations and groups and the media contributed to its manufacture, spread and amplification. There is great influence from organisations in the USA such as the Zionist lobby and the American neo-conservatives, as well as from the consequences of the tragic events of September 11, 2001 on the making of Islamophobia. Pages 13 to 31




Legislative Humane Activities During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: Genuine Concern or Political Imaging?

Nur’annafi Farni Syam Maellaa, Rd. Funny Mustikasari Elitab, Edwin Rizalc, Slamet Mulyanad, aPadjadjaran University, Indonesia, and Dr.Soetomo University, Indonesia, b,c,dPadjadjaran University, Indonesia, Email: anurannafi@unitomo.ac.idbnurannafi@unpad.ac.idcFunny.mustikasari.elita@unpad.ac.iddEdwin.rizal@unpad.ac.ideSlamet.mulyana@unpad.ac.id

The legislative activities of every country, as representative institutions, have different ways of or actions in handling Covid-19. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the activities performed to deal with Covid-19 by the legislative bodies in many regions in Indonesia. The method of the study is an analysis of parliamentary activities from various provinces in Indonesia. We collect data from social media and online media reports concerning some legislatures. This study found that the humane activities conducted by legislators in the form of social assistance are aimed to show a genuine concern for the community and to escalate legislators’ positive image amid the society. The conclusion of this study is the humane activities performed by the legislators contain two meanings that are mutually beneficial for both the society and legislators. Society needs solutions and assistance, especially during this pandemic, while the legislators need a good political image as a future benefit. This study implies that the parliamentary institutions in Indonesia immediately draft bills (RUU) and also regional regulations (PERDA) regarding the handling of Covid-19 and crises in Indonesia. Pages 32 to 43




Could Non-bank Financial Institutions be a Threat to Financial Stability? Evidence from Vietnam

Hung M. Phama, Anh D. Phamb*, Huong H. D. Truongc, Ngoc B. Daod, a,b,c,dVietnam Banking Academy, 12 Chua Boc, Dong Da, Hanoi 10000, Vietnam, Email: b*anhpd@hvnh.edu.vn

This study investigates the relationship between the development of non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) and financial stability in Vietnam. Applying the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to the annual data series between 2000 and 2018, our empirical results confirm the positive comprehensive effects of the growing presence of NBFIs on financial stability. Through the breakdown of impacts by each NBFI category, we demonstrate that the asset size of securities, finance and finance leasing firms is positively correlated with stock market volatility, while the expansion of insurance firms is associated with a reduction in both stock market fluctuations and banking system’s non-performing loans. A possible explanation for these findings is that the insurance market on the rise tends to supply effective hedging instruments for the stock market and credit insurance products to restrict bad debts for banks. Pages 44 to 60




The Shift to Wise Policy Solutions to Prevent and Overcome Covid-19 Conditions (Adaptive Strategy for Business)

Zainul Arifina, aDepartment of Business Administration Faculty of Administrative Sciences University Brawijaya Malang, Email: aZainul_fia@ub.ac.id

Many things and events related to strategy-wise policy in life, including lessons that are to be learned during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper discusses the importance of health and medical care for the public, through the right strategy and the right policies by all parties, as wise policy. The present study aims to provide solutions, strategies and policies to all parties to overcome preventable and curable health problems, and also for business, especially during Covid-19.  The research analyses then, looking for wise strategies to overcome problems. This is a qualitative study. Data was collected by interview and documentation with 15 informants. Data analysis is by interactive analysis (data collection, data display, data reduction and conclusions; drawing/verifying). Covid-19 has had (and continues to have) a huge impact on life globally, including for the business world. Businesses take experience from Covid-19 conditions and situations to plan and determine short and long-term strategies. Controlling various conditions needs to be faced, so the development of strategic marketing management is really needed in all quarters, and specifically in the business field. The novelty of this research relates to healthy and safe keys of business; through adaptive strategies with crisis management business people can exist so that they do not experience huge losses. Pages 61 to 77




Applying Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Teachers Perceptions and Challenges

I Komang Budiartaa*, I Wayan Rasnab, Ni Nyoman Padmadewic, Luh Putu Artinid, a,b,c,dPost-graduate Program, Ganesha University of Education, Denpasar, Indonesia, Email: a*mrbudi@unmas.ac.id

Bali has a number of private schools adopting both national and international curricula where English is used as the language of instruction. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is also widely adopted as an approach to teaching primary school students. However, research regarding the application of CLIL in Indonesia, particularly Bali, is rarely found. This qualitative research with a case study design is intended to figure out teachers’ perceptions and the challenges of CLIL implementation in primary schools in Bali. The data were collected through document study, open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview. The research findings clearly found that teachers’ perceptions were directed towards CLIL characteristics, CLIL implementation and students’ understanding of the content and language. In addition, the challenges were dominantly on the parts of both teachers and students. These findings can be further used as a basis for much better implementation of CLIL in the future. Pages 78 to 94




Indonesia-Malaysia Political Relations: The Relationship between Economic, Idiosyncratic, Ideological and Territorial Factors

Mohd. Noor Yazida, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, Email: amohdnoor@ums.edu.my

This article discusses the relationship between the economic, idiosyncratic, ideological and territorial factors influencing political relations between Indonesia and Malaysia during the period 1961-1971 at three levels of analysis; domestic, regional and systemic. Analysis of this period showed a mutual relationship between the four factors, whereby changes to one factor affected and changed the others. There were close relationships between the various factors and situations at all three levels of analysis, but the most dominant factors influencing political relations between Indonesia and Malaysia before and after 1965 were the changes to the systemic (hegemonic power role in Indonesian domestic politics) and domestic political situation in 1965.  Hegemonic powers and domestic elements were the two key driving forces behind changes to Indonesia-Malaysia political relations after 1965. Hegemonic powers also had great influence upon the Indonesian domestic changes in 1965. Hegemonic power greatly influenced changes to the economic and political situation and relations between both countries. However, without the domestic political element, hegemonic power would have been unable to create changes to political relations. Pages 95 to 116




Tri-Polarity Structure and the Post-Cold War Asia Pacific Regional Politics

Mohd. Noor Yazida, aProgramme of International Relations, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, Email: amohdnoor@ums.edu.my

This paper discusses the tri-polarity structure (of the United States, the Soviet Union and China) from 1971 until 1991 and the impact on post-Cold War Asia Pacific regional politics. The objectives of the paper are threefold: First, to explain how important the tri-polarity structure is to regional politics of the Asia Pacific; Second, to discuss the relationship of the tri-polarity structure (1971-1991) and the regional political structure after the end of the Cold War, and; Third, to analyse the relationship of the rising and China’s strong economic position and the tri-polarity structure. This paper concludes that the tri-polarity structure was an important and influence to the regional political structure of the Asia Pacific after the end of the Cold War. Without tri-polarity structure, it would have been impossible for China to achieve very rapid economic development in the 1980s and 1990s and pave the way to become the second largest global economy at the end of 2010. Without economic strength, it would have been impossible for China to become a strong military power. The strong position of China in politics (military) and economics influenced the regional political structure of the Asia Pacific. It would not have had the same impact if it had become a unipolar political structure, as in Europe after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Pages 117 top 126




Early Warning Signs of Problem Firms

Pornthip Manodamrongsata*, Supa Tongkongb, Wachira Boonyanetc, a,bRajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pratumtani, Thailand, cChulalongkorn Business School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: a*pornthip_ma@mail.rmutt.ac.th

This research aims to identify factors considered as pre-warning signs of problem firms listed on an emerging market.  The data set comprises companies listed in the emerging the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET).  The study newly introduces problem firms when the SET marks up with the signs of Trading Suspension (SP), Caution (C), Notice Pending (NP) and Non-Compliance (NC) during 2013 - 2016. Match-pair sampling totalling 232 problem and non-problem firms are included in the dataset. Potential factors both adopted from previous studies and introduced by the present study, cover two main areas: financial ratios and corporate governance mechanisms. Conditional probability, mainly logit regression and descriptive statistics are employed in the analysis. The findings indicate that the potential factors are both financial ratios and corporate governance mechanisms at different accuracy rate during 3-year period before being marked as problem firms.   The in-depth analysis finds, at significant level 0.05 - 0.10, in the 3-year and 2-year before considering as problem firms (i.e. being marked of the signs), financial ratios including current ratio, debt to equity and return on assets enables to predict problem firms.  For corporate governance factors, the study finds out that percentage of independent board is the most likely to predict problem firms in the 3-year, but no corporate governance factors do not relate to problem firms in the 2-year before being marked. The prediction accuracy rate of the 3-year prediction model equals 71.1% and 67.7% in the 2-year before being marked. Furthermore, in 1-year before being marked, the same financial ratios as in 3-year and 2-year before being marked enables to predict problem firms, while directors who also hold positions in other companies could be anticipated problem firms.  The prediction accuracy rate equals to 79.3% in 1-year before being marked. This study inserts significant finding to literature. Investors and regulators should consider specific financial ratios and corporate governance factors before problem firms turn to be failed firms. Pages 127 to 150




Management Proficiency, Board Effectiveness and Auditor Quality in Role of Firm Performance

Wachira Boonyaneta*, Waewdao Promsenb, aChulalongkorn Business School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, bFaculty of Business Administration and Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Cheingrai, Thailand, Email: a*Wachira.B@chula.ac.th

The main objective of this study is to investigate whether management, boards and auditors relate to firm performance. The study employs earnings before interest and tax (EBIT), representing firm performance as a dependent variable. Three parties, including management, Board of Director (i.e. the executive and audit committee) and auditors, mainly hand on firm performance, are employed as independent variables. Size, leverage ratio and current assets/current liabilities are considered as management proficiency, while percentage of Board of Director meeting attendance and percentage of audit committee meeting attendance are used to measure board effectiveness. Also, key audit mattes (KAMs) measure auditor quality. The samples include the common stocks of the top 100 Thai listed companies (SET 100) as a representative of the emerging market. Financial ratios, board information and KAMs incur during 2016 are used in the analysis. Univariate, correlations, and hierarchical multivariate regression models are used in the statistical analysis. When considering which financial ratios influence EBIT, it is found that size is the most positively significant relating to EBIT, followed by leverage ratio. This means that bigger firms are able to generate more EBIT than smaller firms, while firms with higher leverage are more likely to generate EBIT. However, it was found that board effectiveness is not statistically significant with relation to EBIT.  In addition, the companies with KAMs mentioning provision for obsolete stock, property plant and equipment impairment, provision for contingent liabilities and provision in insurance businesses also influenced EBIT in a positive manner. This means that once auditors mention the specific KAMs in audit reports, all risks relating to these KAMs have been reduced into investors’ acceptable risks. Significantly, this study found that audit quality increases firm performance. Pages 151 to 172




The Praxis of Sustainability Development in the Ideology of Pancasila: Ecological Insights from Indonesia

Frederikus Fiosa*, Anselmus Sudirmanb, aCharacter Building Development Center, Computer Science Department, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia, bEnglish Education Department, Universitas Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*fios@binus.ac.idbanselmus.sudirman@ustjogja.ac.id

Pancasila, the basic philosophy of the Indonesian state, regulates the implementation of emerging ecological dimensions. The emergence of environmental crises and social conflicts is closely connected to land management and the opening of new business areas. These are inseparable from environmental problems. However, the five precepts of Pancasila do not explicitly designate terms concerning nature, the environment, and the ecology. This paper aims to find an epistemic foundation for ecological perspectives within Pancasila, as it relates to current environmental problems in Indonesia. In essence, Pancasila is not a dead and closed ideology, but more dynamic and open to constructive interpretation regarding a new epistemic horizon that enriches the discourse around the environment. This interpretation opens the direction of Pancasila ideology in the context of the ecological environment, showcasing an innovative alternative to solving environmental issues. The theoretical framework in this paper uses Pancasila-related theories, ecological notions, and other relevant ecological perspectives that seek to support the Pancasila ideology within the context of moving towards sustainable development, based on the paradigm shift of ecological values. Pages 173 to 184




Criminal Constitutional Policy for Protecting the Right of the Accused: A Case Study of the Jordanian Constitution

Hazem Suleiman Toubata, aAssistant professor at Faculty of Law - Jadara University, Irbid -Jordan, Email: ah.toubat@jadara.edu.jo,toubathazem@yahoo.com

State constitutions seek to protect society from the threat of crime and punish the perpetrators, as well as protect the rights of individuals accused of committing a crime. Fighting crime requires taking measures to impose restrictions on the rights and freedoms of individuals. However, criminal proceedings may be used to violate those rights and freedoms under the pretext of fighting crime. Therefore, the constitution is required to establish a criminal policy that defines the controls and principles that criminal law must adhere to when criminalising acts and punishing perpetrators. Similar to international covenants on human rights, the Jordanian constitution provides for some principles and controls that state authorities must adhere to when stipulating measures to combat crime, without prejudice to the rights of the accused and to fair trial guarantees. It stipulates the principle of legality, which includes, in one of its forms, the principle of non-retroactivity of criminal laws. It also stipulates the principle of presumption of innocence and the criminalisation of attack on freedoms and the inviolability of private life. However, the Jordanian constitution legitimised the exceptional judiciary by allowing civilians to be tried before military courts, which means violating the principle of the independence of the judiciary and fair trial guarantees. Using descriptive and analytical methods, this study examines the criminal policy represented in the principles and controls adopted by the Jordanian constitution in light of its impact on protecting rights and freedoms. The study concludes that, despite the importance of these principles and controls, they are not sufficient to establish a clear and comprehensive constitutional criminal policy. Consequently, the Jordanian constitution must include other provisions that explicitly guarantee a fair trial and prohibit exceptional courts. Pages 185 to 199




The Crime Prevention Law No. (7) of 1954 in Jordan from a Constitutional Perspective/ Analytical Study

Ali Jabbar  Saliha, Hazem Suleiman Toubatb, aDean of the Faculty of Law. Jadara University – Jordan, bAssistant Professor, Faculty of Law. Jadara University – Jordan, Email: adr_alijabbar@yahoo.combh.toubat@jadara.edu.jo">toubathazem@yahoo.com, h.toubat@jadara.edu.jo

Jordan's Crime Prevention Law No. 7 of 1952 gives governors the judicial jurisdiction to prevent crime. It came in response to certain political circumstances at a certain stage affected by the colonial character. As a result of these circumstances, the law sought to achieve specific purposes, regardless of the extent of its impact on the rights and freedoms of Jordanians, or the extent of its conformity with constitutional provisions. Utilising historical, descriptive and analytical approaches, this study examines the provisions of the Crime Prevention Law in Jordan from the perspective of its impact on rights and freedoms, and on constitutional principles. This study concludes that, despite the justification that it is importance in preserving the security and stability of society because it includes measures aimed at preventing crime before it occurs, this law violates the rights and freedoms of Jordanians, such as personal freedom and the right to freedom of movement. It also contradicts constitutional principles, including the principle of separation of powers, the principle that the accused is innocent until proven guilty, and the principle of the independence of the judiciary. This study recommends amending the Crime Prevention Law in a manner that makes it compatible with the provisions of the constitution, and the rights and freedoms of Jordanians while maintaining its goal of preventing and reducing crime. Pages 200 to 211




Legal Provisions Governing the State of Seizure of Insolvent Funds in Jordan's New Insolvency Law

Nasr Al-Balawia, aAssistant Professor / College of Law / University of Jadara, Email: anbalawi@jadara.edu.jonasir-balawi@hotmail.com 

The Jordanian legislator has established a new legal system to deal with the financial distress of debtors by issuing insolvency law number 21 (2018), which aims to strike a balance between the need to address the debtors’ financial distress in the shortest possible period of time, and the interests of the various parties directly concerned with that financial distress. Those parties include creditors and anyone who has an interest with the debtor. This law came about in order to fulfil the requirements of the Jordanian economic sector, which needed the creation of a legislative system to address debtor's insolvency. In carrying out this research, the author used the descriptive analytical method by studying and analysing legal texts, and by referring to the new insolvency law. This law aims to achieve balance when the debtor stops or is unable to pay the debts owed, or when the total obligations incurred by them exceed the total value of their money. The study concludes that declaring insolvency means that creditors may resort to obtaining the protection that this insolvency brings them, whether in relation to the debtor’s disposal of funds, or by preventing creditors from racing to gain advantages for their rights. As for the most important findings of the study, the Jordanian legislator should stipulate in the insolvency law that the concession rights are not enforced, as it is not permissible to protest against creditors who have previous rights in the insolvency lawsuit filed with the competent court with any jurisdiction that falls on the debtor’s property after that. Pages 212 to 221




The Effectiveness of Multicultural School Principals in Indonesia

Supadia, Hamid Muhammadb, Evitha Sorayac, Winda D Listyasarid, Sofia Hartatie, Nurhasanah Halimf*, a,b,c,d,eUniveristas Negeri Jakarta, fSTKIP Kesuma Negara, Email: asupadi@unj.ac.idbhamidmuhammad@unj.ac.idcevithasoraya@unj.ac.iddwinda_dewi@unj.ac.idesofiahartati@unj.ac.idf*nurhasah_halim@stkipkusumanegara.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to explain the effectiveness of elementary school principals in Indonesia from the perspective of their multicultural personality characteristics. This study used a mixed method procedure with an explanatory sequential design. Although the school principals are effective multicultural leaders, there are still two characteristics which are considered to weaken their leadership. There is a need for multicultural training for principals, as multicultural education is a continuous process and the achievement of its objectives has never been fully realised (Banks, 2004, & Banks and Banks, 2013). Multicultural education is not only needed by students, but also principals, when facing changes in the education system that now prioritises tolerance, relationships between groups and cultural understanding, all of which increase student academic achievement. Pages 222 to 233




Government Institution Performance Report: Value for Money Perspective

Ikhsan Budi Riharjoa, aSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Indonesia (STIESIA) Surabaya, Email: aikhsanbudiriharjo@stiesia.ac.id

The purpose of this research is to analyse Government Agency Performance Reports that explain the performance of the implementation of programs and activities of Local Government Work Units. This study was conducted at the Regional Government of JPR Regency (not its real name) in Indonesia. Data collection uses in-depth interview techniques and documentation. Analysis and discussion uses the concept of value for money, which is based on performance measures of efficiency and effectiveness. These are used as means for assessing the success of the implementation of programs and activities. Results showed that efficiency of the implementation of programs and activities was seen when looking at technical and economic measures. The development of output performance measures as a basis for measuring efficiency needs attention from the Local Government work unit. The measurement of efficiency, seen only in technical and economic aspects, cannot be used to assess accuracy in allocating public resources. It therefore cannot encourage the efficient use of resources in the aggregate. Achievement of effectiveness performance, understood based on the achievement of the results of activities that are appropriate or greater with predetermined outcome plans. Pages 234 to 258




Model of Elderly Entrepreneurial Networks to Strengthen the Community Economy

Kangsadan Chaowatthanakuna, Kanitha Chaowatthanakunb, aDepartment of Sociology and Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kasetsart University, Thailand, bDepartment of Teacher Education, Faculty of Education and Development Sciences, Kasetsart University, Thailand, Email: afsockdc@ku.ac.thbfeduktc@ku.ac.th

The potential and opportunity for elderly entrepreneurs to strengthen the community economy is a challenge in an aging society. This research uses a participatory process to explore and analyse the problems and needs of elderly entrepreneurs in developing potential and opportunity across the areas of health, security, and participation, with the aim of transforming the results to create elderly entrepreneurial networks that strengthen the community economy. This approach uses participatory action research beginning with survey research and participatory brainstorming meetings for elderly entrepreneurs from community enterprises to create elderly entrepreneurial networks. The model is tested to learn from the lesson. The study’s results reveal that the most difficult problems for elderly entrepreneurs are economic problems, lack of knowledge and skills, and health problems, in that order. Elderly entrepreneurs want public and private agencies to organise activities that develop various skills as much as possible. In this regard, elderly entrepreneurs live according to the concept of Active Aging, which can lead to a strengthened community economy. This is achieved through (1) creating a group as an online network, (2) organising diverse and creative activities, (3) creating participation between the elderly and their grandchildren, and (4) creating channels for easy and accessible dissemination of news. Pages 259 to 268




Promotional Mechanisms on the Elderly’s Employment of Informal Workers in Kho Wang District, Yasothon

Wijittra Srisorna, Sunthan Chayanonb, Suriya Prapysatokc, Tikhamporn Punluekdejd, a,b,cCollege of Innovation and Management, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand, dGraduate School, Southeast Asia University, Bangkok, Thailand, Email: awijittra.sr@ssru.ac.thbsunthan.ch@ssru.ac.thcsuriya.pr@ssru.ac.thdtikhamporn.pu@gmail.com

The purpose associated with this article is to examine the impact of promotional mechanisms along with elderly funds and employment on the informal workers’ benefit in the Kho Wang district, Yasothon. The aim also includes the inspection of the moderating role of organizational culture among the links of promotional mechanisms, elderly funds, employment and informal workers’ benefit. The data has been obtained by using the questionnaires method, while analysis has been made by using Smart-PLS. The results revealed that positive linkage among the promotional mechanisms, elderly funds, employment and informal workers’ benefit. The findings also show that organizational culture positively moderates among the links of promotional mechanisms and informal workers’ benefit but negatively and insignificantly moderated among the links of elderly funds, employment and informal workers’ benefit. These findings provide the guidelines to the regulation-making authorities that they should focus on the promotional mechanisms along with elderly funds and employment that enhance the informal workers’ benefit along with the performance of the organization. Pages 269 to 285




Development Model of Startup Enterprise Management for Value Creation of Herbal City

Yananda Siraphatthadaa, Duangkamol Thitivesab, Anchalee Hiranphaetc, aCollege of Innovation and Management, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok Thailand, b,c Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok Thailand, Email: ayananda.si@ssru.ac.thbduangkamol.th@ssru.ac.thcanchalee.hi@ssru.ac.th

Value creation is the prominent factor for organisations in enhancing their performance by adding more values in their processes. Thus, the primary aim of the current article is to examine the role of government policies, entrepreneurs and management on the value creation of the companies in Herbal City. The purpose of the article also shows the moderating role of environmental uncertainty among the links of government policies, entrepreneurs, management and value creation. The data has been gathered by using questionnaires from the respondents, while analysis has been conducted using PLS-SEM. The findings revealed a positive linkage among the government policies, entrepreneurs, management and value creation. The findings also exposed that environmental uncertainty has a positive moderating effect among the links of management and value creation; a negative effect among the nexus of entrepreneurs and value creation; and an insignificant moderating effect among the nexus of government policies and value creation. These findings provide insight for future research in this area in future and also provide the guidelines to  the policymakers for formulating the policies regarding value creation. Pages 286 to 301




Participatory Management Model for Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Enterprises

Yananda Siraphatthadaa, Duangkamol Thitivesab, Anchalee Hiranphaetc, Poramet Saeng-ond, a,c,dCollege of Innovation and Management, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok Thailand, bSuan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok Thailand, Email: ayananda.si@ssru.ac.thbduangkamol.th@ssru.ac.thcanchalee.hi@ssru.ac.thdPoramet.sa@ssru.ac.th

The aim linked with the current research is the examination of the impact of corporate social responsibilities, the aspect of happiness and stakeholders on the performance of small and medium enterprises. The purpose also includes the mediating role of organisational trust among the links of corporate social responsibilities, the aspect of happiness, stakeholders and performance of small and medium enterprises. The data has been collected from the respondents by means of questionnaires and analysed by using PLS-SEM. The results revealed that corporate social responsibilities and stakeholders have a positive association with performance of small and medium enterprises while the aspect of happiness is insignificantly linked with the performance of small and medium enterprises. The findings also show that organisational trust positively mediates the links of corporate social responsibilities, the aspect of happiness, stakeholders and performance of small and medium enterprises. These findings are suitable for the new researcher who wants to investigate this area in the future along with policymakers who want to develop policies related to corporate social responsibilities and firm performance. Pages 302 to 318




Promotion Strategies Impacting on Firm Product Performance in Yasothon Province

Wijittra Srisorna, Sunthan Chayanonb, Tikhamporn Punluekdejc, a,bCollege of Innovation and Management, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand, cGraduate School, Southeast Asia University, Thailand, Email: awijittra.sr@ssru.ac.thbsunthan.ch@ssru.ac.thctikhamporn.pu@gmail.com

Strategies relating to promotion are the essential factors for the performance of the product and firms around the globe and also get the attention of researchers nowadays. Thus, the ongoing study aims to examine the impact of the marketing mix, promotion and distribution channel on firm product performance. The goal also includes the investigation of the mediation impact of firm value among the links of marketing mix, promotion, distribution channel and firm product performance. The data has been obtained by employing the questionnaire method, and analysis has been conducted by applying the PLS-SEM. The results revealed that marketing mix, promotion and distribution channel have a positive association with firm product performance. The findings also revealed that firm value has positive mediation among the links of the marketing mix, promotion, distribution channel and firm product performance. These outputs are helpful for the policymakers while formulating policies on the promotion strategies along with firm value and product performance. Pages 319 to 334




The Participatory Development Conceptual Model for Creating a Competitive Advantage of Recycling Garbage Separately

Yananda Siraphatthadaa, Duangkamol Thitivesab, Anchalee Hiranphaetc, aCollege of Innovation and Management, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok Thailand, bSuan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok Thailand, Email: ayananda.si@ssru.ac.thbduangkamol.th@ssru.ac.thcanchalee.hi@ssru.ac.th

The foremost objective of the present study is to examine the impact of personal management systems, communication and information technology systems, knowledge management systems and services quality management systems on the competitive advantage of a firm. The data has been obtained by using questionnaires while analysis has been conducted by using the Smart-PLS. The results revealed that personal management systems, communication and information technology systems, knowledge management systems and services quality management systems have a positive association with the competitive advantage of a firm. These findings provide guidelines to the regulation formulation authorities that they should focus on the personal, knowledge, services quality and information technology management systems of a firm that enhance the competitive advantage of the firm that ultimately enhance firm performance. Pages 335 to 352




Crystallographic Pattern Analysis of the Loom Woven Clothes of Abra

Reymond S. Vasqueza, Novelyn B. Valerab, Jonathan P. Zalesc, a,b,cAbra State Institute of Sciences and Technology, Abra, Philippines, Email: areymondvasquez990@yahoo.combzv032405@gmail.comcjonathanpurisimazales1205@gmail.com

This paper presents the symmetry analysis, geometry concept and crystallographic patterns present in the loom-woven clothes of Abra, particularly the binakol kuskusikos, sungkat, laylayon, piningitan and baag. It aimed to associate these concepts in the teaching of mathematics. Also, mathematics teachers can use these patterns as a real-world application of the ideas in it to arouse students’ interests and for them to find it as an enjoyable and meaningful subject. Observation was utilised to determine the geometric ideas and symmetry analyses present in the woven clothes. Gathering and capturing photos of the finished products were also utilised to determine the crystallographic patterns embedded in the woven cloths. These crystallographic patterns are analysed through the International Union of Crystallography. The woven cloths exhibit geometric concepts such as points, lines and planes. Further, they display symmetry analysis such as reflection, rotation and translation, and uncover the crystallographic patterns, frieze and wallpaper patterns. The woven cloths of Abra showed similar classification under the frieze revealed and wallpaper patterns. The most prevailing pattern in the frieze group was pmm2. Other frieze patterns were pma2, pm11, p1m1, p1a1, p112, and p111. Likewise, pg, pm, cm, pgg, p2, pmg, cmm, pmm, p4, p4g, and p4m were unveiled to be wallpaper patterns with p2 being the dominant pattern. Pages 353 to 381




The Meaning of Symbolic “Sesaji Ayam” in Panca Sata Ceremony: A Study of Mecaru Butha Yadnya in Penarukan Village, Tabanan-Bali

I Made Girinataa, aInstitut Hindu Dharma Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, Email: agirinata71@gmail.com

This study aims to discuss the symbolic meaning of chicken (ayam) as the means of Panca Sata ceremony in the life of Balinese Hindu community in Penarukan Village, Tabanan, Bali Province. The research method used qualitative research. Data was obtained through observation, document studies, and in-depth interviews with 12 informants: the ceremonial performers, the religious leaders of Penarukan Adat Village, and observers of Balinese culture. Data analysis was descriptively qualitative through applying the theory of religion and structural-functional. The results showed the sesajen ayam panca warna (five-coloured) in the Panca Sata ceremony were symbols of the gods occupying the five corners of the compass: (1) the eastern position of the white chicken (Dewa Iswara), (2) the southern position of the red chicken (Dewa Brahma), (3) the western position of the white chicken (Dewa Maha Dewa), (4) the northern position of the black chicken (Dewa Wisnu), and (5) the middle position of the brumbun chicken (Dewa Siwa). The offerings of sesajen ayam panca warna are intended to reject disaster (butalaka) to achieve the balance of nature (the cosmos). The Panca Sata ceremony means: (a) as a pangeruwat (panyupatan), so that the chicken will be reincarnated into higher beings (humans); (b) creating a spiritual balance, namely providing a sense of comfort, security, peace and prosperity for life both as a human and for other living things; and ecological balance, namely environmental sustainability, including ensuring the survival of the animal population (chickens). The Panca Sata ceremony that supports environmental preservation needs to be maintained. Pages 382 to 398




Samkhya Yoga Education in Bhagavadgita

Ida Ayu Komang Arniatia, aProgram Pascasarjana Prodi Ilmu Agama dan Kebudayaan, Universitas Hindu Indonesia, Denpasar, Indonesia, Email: aidaayuarniati@gmail.com

This paper discusses "Samhkya yoga education in the Bhagavadgita". Data collection is done through a literature study, then analysed by hermeneutics and presented in descriptive, qualitative, and interpretative forms. The study results show: First, Samkhya yoga in the Bhagavadgita contains teachings so that humans know who they and other living creatures are. If humans realise their existence comes from God, there will be feelings of affection for all beings. That love will bring people to an experience of the real truth. Secondly, Samkhya yoga education in the Bhagavadgita, includes: (a) The value of truth (Tattwa), trying to get closer to God and practicing the nature of God's truth; (b) The value of moral education and spiritual awareness that begins to develop or evolve and then practicing spiritual discipline on a regular basis so that it evolves continuously to achieve full spiritual conversion; (c) The value of religious education, the value of divinity, high and absolute spirituality, is rooted in a human belief in his Lord, namely: (1) Believing in atman, the basic reality of the inner spirit of a human or soul as a personal ego; (2) Belief in the law of karma phala, the cause and effect of human actions; (3) Belief in the existence of Samsara (Punarbhawa), repeated human births; and (4) Belief in the existence of moksa, freedom from the cycle of birth and death. The development of Samkhya yoga to form a dignified personality needs to be developed. Pages 399 to 413




Cultural Acculturation on Great Manasa Temple Building in North Bali

I Wayan Sugitaa, I Nyoman Remab, aFakultas Dharma Acarya, Institut Hindu Dharma Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, bBalai Arkeologi Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, Email: awayansugita2@gmail.combnyomanrema@yahoo.co.id

This research aims to discuss cultural elements that reflect the acculturation of local culture with foreign culture in the Great Temple of Manasa in Sangsit Village, Buleleng. The research data was collected through direct observation, photoshoots of the object under probe, in-depth interviews with 10 key informants, and literature studies related to the research topic. The collected data was analysed qualitatively by applying the theory of cultural acculturation and cultural semiotics. The results successfully found in the location of the Great Manasa Temple building various cultural elements in the form of stone thrones, statues of Ganesha, yoni, temple structures in the style Buleleng architecture with variations in European, Chinese, and building components that represent Buddhist characteristics. The structure of the Great Manasa Temple reflects the fusion of local Balinese culture with Indian, Chinese, and European cultures, which is very harmoniously combined in the various cultural remains, which makes the temple unique, and also represents the soul of each era. Pages 414 to 430




The Impact of Entrepreneurship Development and Community Empowerment on Poverty Alleviation in Coastal Areas of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Rostina, Abd Azis Muthalibb*, Ahmad Muhlis Nuryadic, Jamalnasir Basod, Zainuddin Saenonge, Andi Basru Wawof, Pasrun Adamg, La Utuh, Muh. Irfandy Azisi, Dzulfikri Azisj, a,b,d,eDepartment of Economics, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kendari 93232, Indonesia, cStudy Progam of Agribusiness, Universitas Muhammadyah, Kendari 93118, Indonesia, fDepartment of Accounting, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kendari 93232, Indonesia, gDepartment of Mathematics, Universitas Halu Oleo, Kendari 93232, Indonesia, h,jStudy Program of Management, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Enam-Enam, Kendari 93121, Indonesia,  iDepartment of Accounting, Universitas Borneo Tarakan, Tarakan 77123, Indonesia, Email: aabdazismuthalib@gmail.comgadampasrun@gmail.com

This study was carried out at the Centre of seaweed production in the coastal region of Southeast Sulawesi with the aims of finding and analysing the impact of entrepreneurship development and community empowerment on poverty alleviation in the coastal areas of Southeast Sulawesi. This study was conducted by providing training in seaweed cultivation methods and entrepreneurship followed by mentoring in the farming of seaweed. The population of this study was all the seaweed farmers in the coastal areas of Southeast Sulawesi. Due to the time and financial constraints, this study took a sample of 25 people to be given training in seaweed cultivation methods and entrepreneurship as well as business mentoring for two planting seasons. For the purpose of data analysis, the researchers used a descriptive statistical analysis and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics were used to describe the income of the seaweed farmers before and after training. The inferential statistical analysis by means of paired test hypothesis was aimed at determining the impact of entrepreneurship development and community empowerment on poverty alleviation. The results showed that the development of entrepreneurship and community empowerment had a significant effect on poverty alleviation as measured by an increase in the income of the seaweed farmers. Pages 431 to 442




Measures of Organising Educational Activities for Students after Junior High School Graduation and Solutions Applied in Vietnamese Vocational Education Colleges

Bui Van Hunga, aHo Chi Minh City College of Technology II, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Email: ahungbuivan@hvct.edu.vn

Vocational education and training (VET) in Vietnam has changed remarkably to heed enterprises’ increasing demands for skilled workers, as evidenced by the diversity and high enrolment in vocational training programs at VET colleges. However, VET colleges still have difficulties in attracting ninth-grade pupils to enrol. This article discussed possible solutions for increasing the number of pupils enrolling in VET colleges, and in forming the basic orientations for the development of training models in Vietnamese VET colleges. The result has certain implications regarding the measures of organising educational activities (MOEA) for pupils, ensuring the national human resources structure, and reducing the time and costs of learning. Pages 443 to 455




The Development of Strategic Alliances and Business Performance of Sports Apparel Manufacturing and Distribution in Thailand

Patantiya Singcrama, Khorntawatt Sakhonkaruhatdejb*, a,bSports Management Program, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Thailand National Sports University Chon Buri, Email: b*tofkpru@gmail.com

The objectives of this study were: 1) to study the direct and indirect influence of the  organisations’ resources  on business performance; 2) to study the direct influence of corporate resources on the development of business alliances; 3) to study the direct influence of the business alliances development on the business performance; and 4) to develop the relationship model of the organisations’ resources and the development of business alliances with the business performance  of the manufacturing and distribution of sports apparel in Thailand. A mixed method involving quantitative and qualitative research was applied. The quantitative research was applied to test the causal relationships and the result factors in terms of resources and business alliances development with the efficiency of the business performance of sports apparel manufacturing and distributing in Thailand. Questionnaires were used to collect the data with business owners, executives and managers of 341 companies that have been registered with Department of Business Development in 2018. Moreover, qualitative research was conducted through the use of the phenomenological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 3 people from the Committee of the Industrial Council Apparel Industry Group. Structural equation model and content analysis were applied for data analysis. The results illustrated that 1) organisational resource factors directly and indirectly influenced the efficiency of business operations through the development of business alliances. 2) Organisational resource factors had a direct influence on the development of business alliances. 3) The development of business alliances directly influenced the business performance of the sports apparel manufacturing and distribution business in Thailand. Pages 456 to 471




Academic Results Based on Ubiquitous Learning to Promote Learning Achievement and Media Literacy for Deaf students in Thailand

Nantarat Anukoola, Thanongsak Sovajassatakulb, a,bFaculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang(KMITL) , Bangkok, Thailand, Email: anantarat.c@gmail.com, bake_tns@hotmail.com

This research aims to compare learning achievement and media literacy between a normal teaching approach and the ubiquitous learning approach (IPAA Model) among deaf students. Data was collected from 28 students based on the cluster random sampling. The experimental and control groups comprised 14 of each. The research tools include 1) An IPAA Model based teaching and learning plan to promote learning achievement and media literacy, 2) on-line teaching and learning materials, 3) a learning achievement assessment form, and 4) a media literacy assessment form. The data was analysed by statistics consisting of mean (), standard deviation (SD.) and One-way MANOVA. The results showed that students undergoing the IPAA Model teaching had higher learning achievement and media literacy than those undergoing normal teaching at a significance level of 0.01. Pages 472 to 483




The Responsibilities of Wahana Lestari Investama's Limited Business Actors against Environmental Pollution in Sawai Village, Central Maluku Regency

La Ode Anggaa, Rory Jeff Akyuwenb, Barzah Latuponoc, Muchtar Anshary Hamid Labetubund, Sabri Fatarubae, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Law, Pattimura University, Ambon-Indonesia, Email: aaodeangga@yahoo.combrjakyuwen@gmail.comcBarzahlatupono75@gmail.comdmahlabetubun@gmail.comesabrifataruba@gmail.com

In the case of the environmental destruction that occurred in Sawai Village, Central Maluku Regency, if Article 87 paragraph (1) UUPPLH is used, the perpetrators of the environmental destruction that occurred in North Seram, Central Maluku Regency by Wahana Lestari Investama Limited Company, are in fulfillment of the following elements: a. committed an illegal act; b. resulting in environmental pollution and / or damage; c. cause harm to others or the environment; and d. there are the business and/or activity responsible. Furthermore, in order to fulfil claims for compensation under civil law, Article 1365 of the Civil Code requires the existence of unlawful elements, which include: (a) the act is against the law; (b) the act is based on mistakes; (c) as a result of the correction incurred losses; and (d) there is a causal relationship between actions and losses. Article 1365 of the Civil Code is indeed protecting the rights of a person, because the losses he experiences due to the actions of others cause such losses. Thus, it is assumed that unlawful acts imply the existence of rights and obligations when a person commits an act, either wrongfully or in negligence, and the consequences of the act causes harm to others. Acts against the law based on errors that appear from this case are: (a) the existence of mining actions carried out without permission, both from the community's customary rights voters and the local Regional Government, so that the act is considered illegal, because it is contrary to community rights, and (b) the act which is unlawful, is done in error, because they do know the consequences of the act of mining is harming other parties. Pages 484 to 502




Does the Choice of the Time Series Model Affect Stochastic Profit Testing Results?

Agus Setiawana, Sugiartob, Gracia S. Ugutc, Edison Hulud, aDoctoral Program, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia, bFaculty member of Universitas Prasetiya Mulya, Indonesia, cFaculty member of Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia, dLecturer, Graduate School, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia, Email: aas8830@student.uph.edubprof.sugiarto@gmail.comcgracia.ugut@uph.edudEdison.hulu@lecturer.uph.edu

This research aims to fill the gap in Stochastic Profit Testing studies. The central research question of this paper is: does the choice of time series model affect the Stochastic Profit Testing (SPT) result? The financial model of this research was built through SPT by using the Monte Carlo method. The target population for the study was any conventional (not sharia) individual Unit Link product from a life insurance company in Indonesia with regular premium payments denominated in Rupiah currency. This research used simple random sampling as part of probability sampling techniques. From the population consisting of 34 companies, 20 samples were drawn. Data were taken from the Indonesian Financial Service Authority (OJK). The data used was from the time period between 1 January 2014 - 30 June 2019. The time series model tested were GARCH, EGARCH, GJRGARCH, TGARCH, APARCH, CGARCH, NAGARCH and ARFIMA-EGARCH. These are the most popular time series model to predict equity return. The equity index data comes from monthly Jakarta Composite Index from 1 April 1983 to 31 December 2019. Based on the results obtained it was found that the choice of time series models did not significantly change the Profit Margin of the product generated by the Stochastic Profit Testing except for the ARFIMA model. Therefore, the company does not have be too worried about the robustness of their SPT model as long as they choose a popular time series to model the equity return. Pages 503 to 517




The Impact of Social Influences on Independent Reading of Egyptian University Students

Ahmed khterea, aFoundations of Education Department - College of Education– Fayoum University,

The purpose of this study was to explore the differences between undergraduate students' practices of reading independently according to their socioeconomic status. SES was measured by three variables namely, student residence, parents' educational level, and their economic level. Five hypotheses and three mediation models were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance to the impact of SES on students’ motivation and their families' encouragement on independent reading. A total number of 432 students at Fayoum university were enrolled in this study. The data was analysed by Pearson correlation indicators and multiple regressions analysis. A positive correlation was measured between this encouragement and family economic level. However, the students' self-motivation wasn't affected significantly by these variables. Two of the mediating effects hypotheses were rejected, while the effect of the mediation model of parents' educational level on the relationship between students’ residence and family encouragement on reading was fully supported. Pages 518 to 534




Comparing Value and Performance between the Finance Industry and the Technology Industry under the Impact of Innovation: A Case of Listed Companies in Vietnam

Pham Phat Tiena, Tran Ba Trib, Nguyen Xuan Thuanc, aTomas Bata University in Zlin, The Czech Republic, b,cCan Tho University, Vietnam,

The study compares the value and performance between the finance industry and the technology industry before and after considering the impact of innovation. Data is collected from audited financial statements of 9 technological companies and 14 financial institutions on the Vietnam Stock Exchange for the period 2011-2019. T-Test is used to examine the difference between two industries, and the linear regression models for testing the impact of innovation on value and performance. Research findings show that, in most cases, innovation has a significant positive impact on value and performance, and innovation makes a change in the difference in firm value and firm performance between the two industries by bringing more benefits for the finance industry than the technology industry. Besides that, the findings open new research horizons in the performance, value, and innovation of the fintech company, which is a hybrid company of finance and technology. Pages 535 to 548




The Role of Internal Control Systems in Improving the Quality of Cloud Accounting Service

Sattar Gaber Khallawya,*, aWasit University, College of Administration and Economics Waist, Iraq, salradi@uowasit.edu.iq

The research aims to establish an integrated relationship between internal control systems and methods of cloud accounting within the banking business. Internal control systems are a safety valve that saves economic units assets and ensures the correctness of their financial statements from errors and fraud and manipulation by employees of these units, as well as motivating employees to abide by the laws. With the development of technologies available through the Web with the emergence and the steady increase in Internet speeds available to users, many Economic applications allow for the use of the Internet through what is known today as cloud accounting. This technology has provided its users with many additional features, including: saving expenses and providing information services to a larger sector of beneficiaries. It also provides the beneficiary and information institutions the opportunity to store information, transfer and share from anywhere and at any time without the commitment to use the personal computer. These actions (storage, processing, transfer and sharing) on ​​external servers are available on the Internet cloud while ensuring the security of this information and protecting it from hackers or viruses. An organisation that is sound is a weak organisation that loses its integrated components to achieve its objectives. A proper internal control system forms the basis for a strong control environment. Pages 549 to 564




Romanticised Slavery in Selected English Romantic Poems

Sahar Abdul Ameer Haraj, University of Al-Qadisyiah, College of Education, Dept. of English, Iraq, Emails: sahar.abudalameer@qu.edu.iq and sahar.alhusseini@gmail.com
Romantic poets utilise images of slavery, which was a very debatable issue during the Romantic era, for the sake of making this matter present in the English people's mind, to enable them to distinguish the varied ways the institutions in the society preserved, as well as nurtured the evils in the society. Slavery for the Romantics was practiced inside the authorised system and it, as well as the way the slaves depicted, was a problem of concern. The Romantics use the concept of slavery to challenge oppression and to support economic reform. They attempt, through their depictions of slaves, to convey the concept of alterity, which is to be familiar with the selfness of another, and to strengthen the individual's self-awareness as well as ethical awareness. Pages 565 to 574




Depiction of Revenge in Alexandre Dumas' Novel "The Count of Monte Cristo" And Naguib Mahfouz's Novel "The Thief and the Dogs": A Comparative Study

Ahmed Ghazi Mohasiena, Omar Hameed Abidb, aUniversity Of Anbar, College of Education for humanities, Department of English, Ramadi, Iraq, bMinistry of Education, General directorate of Education in Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq, Email: aed.ahmed.ghazi@uoanbar.edu.iqbomarhameed901@gmail.com

The present paper aims to highlight the concept of revenge in western and eastern societies through two different novels by exploring the theme of revenge in Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo and Naguib Mahfouz's The Thief and the Dogs. Revenge could be interpreted as harm in response to perceived damage or inequity. Dantes and Said are the two central protagonists and avengers in these two novels. The research focuses on the effect of revenge on human nature, and its influence on the actual transformation of the protagonists in the two novels. The study depends on a contrastive study between the two novels and the contrastive methodology explains the responses of both character (Dantes and Said) in light of their personalities and social experience of the social changes. The study concludes that there is a sort of difference between the societies of the west and east regarding the concept of revenge. Among the reasons for this difference between the two societies is the difference in the principle of culture and tradition, which leads to a different way of revenge. Pages 575 to 589




Court Authority in Confirmation by Judicial Presumption

Fwrat Rostam Ameen Al-Jafa, aCivil Procedures Law, College of law and political Sciences, Kirkuk University, Iraq, Email: afwrat.rostamameen@uokirkuk.edu.iq

One of the most important duties of the judiciary is hearing all the parties for the proceedings and investigating all the facts to form its opinion and make a fair decision in the examined case. Therefore, the parties of the proceedings must provide evidence to get their rights. Because direct evidence is often difficult to obtain, most, if not all, legislations allow indirect evidence through judicial presumptions. The Iraqi project in the amended Evidence Act No. 107, 1979 discusses this topic in different articles. However, this discussion is indirect and is in different article. This causes confusion in the application of this law.  In addition, some law texts need amendments to keep pace with the developments in the society. Therefore, this study aims to solve these problems and come out with recommendations. Pages 590 to 600




Communication Barriers and its Effects in the Operations of Administrative and Academic Employees in Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College (TRAC)

Allan J. Abdurahmana, aTawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, Philippines, Email: a*abdurahmanallan@gmail.com

The purpose of the study was to identify the different communication barriers that affect the operations of administrative and academic employees in TRAC. This study aimed to determine (a) the extent of physical, social, and psychological communication barriers; (b) the effects of communication barriers in operations; (c) the significant difference in the extent of communication barriers, and the effects of communication barriers in the operations of administrative and academic employees in TRAC when data is grouped according to demographic profile variables; and (d) the significant relationship between the communication barriers and its effect on operations. This study employed a descriptive research design. Findings revealed physical, social, and psychological communications barriers were at a high level, as well as the effects of communication barriers in the operations. Both were not significant, and the hypotheses were accepted. Also, the significant relationship between the communication barriers and its effect in the operations of administrative and academic employees was significant, and the null hypothesis was rejected. Further, it was recommended that the top management should strengthen their strategic plans and programs. They also need to express to the employees the vision-mission, goals and objectives, plans and programs and the organisational structure of the company. Pages 601 to 619




Entrepreneurship Education and its Impact on Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Intentions among University Students

Hamidah Nayati Utamia, aFaculty of Administrative Science, Brawijaya University, Email: ahamidahn@ub.ac.id

In accordance with the Indonesian government's efforts to encourage the growth of young entrepreneurs, several universities in Indonesia (one of them is Brawijaya University, a state University in Malang, East Java) has set an entrepreneurship course as one of the mandatory courses in the bachelor’s degree. However, to date, little is known about the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate whether the entrepreneurship education provided to students of Brawijaya University can foster their entrepreneurial intentions. Specifically, this study analyses the effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions. This research was conducted using a quantitative approach. The population of this research is all active students of Brawijaya University who have taken entrepreneurship courses across 15 faculties. The data collection method was carried out using a survey questionnaire. A total of 473 students completed the survey. Partial Least Square (PLS) was utilised to analyse the data. The results of this study indicate that entrepreneurship education has significant effects on the student’s entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions. Pages 620 to 635




How to Become a Successful Influencer as a Positive Opinion Leader on Social Media

Achmad Hufada*, Fitri Nuraini Surahmanb, Fajar Nugraha Ashahidac, Nani Sutarnid, Soleh Anwar Purbae, Muhammad Iqbal Fasaf, Dini Handayanig, a,gFakultas Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, b,c,d,e Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, fUniversitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan Lampung, Email: a*achmadhufad@upi.edu

Micro Social Media Influencers are people who are just starting to be active in social media, especially Influencers on Instagram. More and more Influencers are popping up, but not all of them have the right tips for delivering messages on Social Media. Influencers also really need help and support from platforms that bridge with clients (brands). For example, a fashion e-commerce platform in Indonesia, Berrybenka, which last June-November held a project called Berrybenka Project 2017 (B-Project 2017). This project gives room for start-up selected Influencers to have the opportunity to work with clients who join under the Berrybenka platform. This article aims to describe how to make the work of a Micro Social Media Influencer and its clients optimal, taking the example of the B-Project 2017. The method used is a literature study, reviewing the characteristics of a good Opinion Leader and emphasising the things that Influencers must do to influence audiences positively. It can be concluded that in becoming an Influencer, you must have a complete package in interacting with others, as well as having creativity in creating the content. Pages 658 to 670




The Development of a Causal Relationship Model in Alternative Dispute Resolution by Means of Mediation in Provincial Courts

Suchanoot Phantaneeyaa, Siriporn Yamnillb, a,bFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Mahidol University, 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Email: asuchanoot.ph@gmail.combsiriporn.yam@mahidol.ac.th

This study aims to examine the consistency of a constructed causal relationship hypothesis model and the empirical data of the factors affecting the success in implementing the policy on alternative dispute resolution by means of mediation in provincial courts. The research collected questionnaire data from 230 personnel from a total 114 mediation and compromise units nationwide. The hypothesis model was constructed by synthesising of concepts, theories, academic papers, and related research then confirmed by in-depth interview method with experts. Findings revealed that a causal relationship hypothesis model fit the empirical data. Mediation success of model were; direct positive affected by disputant characteristics, mediator qualifications and disposition of implementers, respectively. Meanwhile, mediation success was direct negative affected by mediation process. Mediation success was also indirectly affected via disposition of implementers, including policy objectives, resources, and characteristics of the chief judge of the statistical significance .01. The variables in the model could explain the variation of mediation success 54% (R2 = .540). Disposition of Implementers had the variation 24% due to various variables (R2 = .240). Therefore, the success in implementing the policy on alternative dispute resolution by means of mediation in provincial courts should focus mainly on the Disputant Characteristics factor. Pages 671 to 689




Teofilo Garcia (The Living Treasure of the Ilokanos): His Language as a Communal Artist

Leticia M. Benabesea, aCollege of Teacher Education, Abra State Institute of Sciences and Technology, Bangued, Abra, Philippines, Email: aleticiambenabese@yahoo.com

This study, entitled Teofilo Garcia (The Living Treasure of the Ilokanos): His Language as a Communal Artist revolves around Teofilo Garcia, a resident of Sabulod, San Quintin, Abra.  He is laden with human values that helped him become what he is now. Ilokanos are popularly known to be industrious, thrifty, generous, kind, patient and God-fearing.  As an Ilokano, Teofilo possesses all these traits, which helped him achieve all his goals in life.  Having maintained these traits from his childhood to his present age, he was able to come up with a product named “Kattukong a Tabungaw” (Gourd Hat).  This is an Ilokano hat made out of the vegetable called “Tabungaw” (Gourd) now loved to be used as a hat or decoration in offices and homes by Filipinos and foreigners, not only in the Philippines but in other parts of the world.  The “Kattukong, a Tabungaw” made by Teofilo, is made from the round-shaped gourd harvested in his vast plantation in the place he named as “Third Mountain”, situated at Sabulod, San Quintin, Abra. There are a lot of advantages of observations, imitations and applications on what a person sees around him.  On the part of Teofilo, his presence during the time that his grandfather and his father were making a “Tabungaw Hat” gave him the chance to patiently observe, imitate and apply how to make one.  Just like any beginner, his first products were not yet perfect, but due to his persistence to make the best “Tabungaw Hat”, he became a successful artist in this field. These great evidences, even if they remain unsaid, serve as a language to prove that he is a very precious gem of the Filipinos. He gave justice to his belief that being wealthy is not the only way to be considered as a “National Living Treasure” and be awarded the Gawad ng Manlilihka ng Bayan administered by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, institutionalised through Republic Act 7355. This research hopes that the exquisite “Tabungaw hats of Garcia as stressed by Almosora (2012) will motivate the younger generation – those from the communities all over the Philippines to appreciate the Gawad Manlilikha ng Bayan awardees like Garcia as a source of inspiration and pride for a deep national identity, the “language” used to define the real Filipinos. Pages 690 to 702




The Hegemony Contra of the Kuta Indigenous Village Community against State Law in Maintaining the Existence of Balinese Indigenous Villages

I Wayan Wesna Astaraa, aFakultas Hukum Universitas Warmadewa Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, Email: a*wesna_astara@yahoo.com

This research aims to discuss the hegemony contradiction of the Kuta Indigenous Village community against state law and its meaning in an effort to maintain  Balinese Indigenous villages. This publication is the result of qualitative research through a case study approach. Data collection was carried out through a literature study of legal material related to the research topic, as well as observation and in-depth interviews with eight guidance informants who understood the research topic. The data obtained were analysed by applying theory effectively. The results of the study indicate: first, the people of Kuta Indigenous Village put up a fight (counter hegemony) by: (1) opposing the law of the country which eliminates an existence of indigenous villages (Law No. 5/1979) while maintaining the existence of the Kuta indigenous Village according to local indigenous village law; (2) opposing the politics of state law which privileges official villages and discriminates against indigenous villages; (3) opposing state law politics which intervenes in regulating the lives of indigenous peoples in the autonomous Kuta Indigenous Village, including rejecting the term Pakraman (Regional Regulation No 3/2001), fusing pecalang as jagabaya Kuta indigenous Village, enforcing the law in choosing indigenous objects, and protecting the Kuta indigenous Village Assets, including the Kuta Art Market and the Kuta Village Credit Institution / Lembaga Perkreditan Desa (VIC) by not complying with the Bali Governor Decree No.13 of 1999 to deposit Kuta VIC profits (5%) to the account of the Bali VIC Trustees Team. Second, the contra hegemony of the Kuta Indigenous Village community of the country's law has significance, namely: (1) maintaining  the existence of Balinese culture, which is rooted in the noble values of Hinduism; (2) maintaining  the existence of The Kuta Indigenous Village in particular, and traditional villages in Bali in general based on the Tri Hita Karana philosophy; (3) as a form of the Balinese Ajeg action, namely the efforts of the Balinese to uphold their cultural traditions based on the teachings of Hinduism, and remain a host in their own hometown. Pages 703 to 722




The Analysis of Food Symbols in the ‘Serarang’ Ritual of the Melanau Likow Community in Dalat, Sarawak

Noor Norazila Inaia, Mohamad Maulana Magimanb*, Norhuda Sallehc , Ahmad Nasir Mohd Yusoffd & Mangai Tugaue, Septian Aji Permanaf ,a,ePh.D candidate, Department of Social Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia, bSenior Lecturer, Department of Social Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia,  cSenior Lecturer, Faculty of Humanities, Arts and Heritage,  Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88100 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, d Senior Lecturer, Department of Government And Civilization Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor,Malaysia, Universitas PGRI Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: mdmaulana@upm.edu.my.

The Serarang ritual is a form of performance performed in the Melanau Likow community to be presented to Ipok. The presentation consists of symbolic elements based on each type of food served. These symbolic elements are involved with the belief and cosmological system that surround the lives of Melanau Likow. The main focus of this research is to analyse the symbol of food in the Serarang ritual from the viewpoint of non-verbal communication. This research used an ethnographic approach and the researchers also participated in the ritual. The data was collected through an in-depth interview with the main informant, Tama Kaul, and with the other ritual practitioners. The research was conducted in Kampung Medong, Dalat Sarawak. The data analysis found that the food that was delivered to Ipok had its own meaning and could be interpreted through shape, colour, and the way it was presented. The food in the Serarang tray means love, gratitude, prayer, and hope for more sustenance in the upcoming year. The research also found that the ritual is still practiced to this day by the Melanau Likow community and becomes the identity of its existence in the state of Sarawak. Pages 723 to 741




Low Carbon Behaviours in Office Buildings and the Behaviours’ Activation Attributes

Nor Kalsum Mohd Isaa*, Mohd Suhail Ahmad Sahimib, Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunosc, Mohammad Ashraf Abdul Rahmand Mohd Hairy Ibrahime, a,eDepartment of Geography and Environment, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia,  bDepartment of Landscape Architecture, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, cDepartment of Landscape Architecture, University of Putra Malaysia,  dFaculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Email: a*norkalsum@fsk.upsi.edu.my

Operational carbon emissions from buildings are well known to be one of the prominent contributors to Greenhouse gases (GHG). One of the solutions to reduce operational carbon emissions of buildings is to have occupants with low carbon behaviour (LCB). However, a number of initiatives and research to lower  buildings’ carbon emissions have mostly focused on the occupants’ behaviour in residential buildings rather than in office buildings. The objectives of this paper are to systematically review the available research on behaviour that could be adopted or adapted as low carbon behaviour in office buildings, to identify the behaviour’s activation factors by relating it to the Norm Activation Model (NAM) and to formulate a conceptual framework by highlighting their complex interactions. Literature related to the research was carefully selected according to low carbon behaviour-related keywords. The review results were then categorised by authorship, year published, journal, researched building and location, research method, behaviour change theory used, analysis used and low carbon behaviour and its activation attributes. Forty-two studies have met the authors’ inclusion criteria. A LCB conceptual framework was proposed at the end of this paper highlighting the factors antecedent to one’s personal norms, intentions and attitudes towards a holistic LCB framework. Pages 742 to 763




Effectiveness of Motor Skills through Traditional Children's Toys in Autistic Children

Imaniar Purbasaria*, Nur Fajrieb, Jayanti Putri Purwaningrumc, Hutomo Rusdiantod, a,b,c,dUniversitas Muria Kudus, Email: aimaniar.purbasari@umk.ac.id, bnur.fajrie@umk.ac.idcjayanti.putri.purwaningrum@umk.ac.iddhutomo.rusdianto@umk.ac.id

Autistic children are unique to communication, social interaction, and behaviour. Games help them to get to know work instructions, interact with friends, discipline, hone their pleasure, suppress their fears. The purpose of this study is to look at the response of children with autism in action therapy games, motor development, and sound sensitivity of game therapy in children with autism. The stages of the research begin with an exploration phase of different activities as a therapy. The next stage is the action stage, observing the child to see the self-protection and self-confidence of the child during the game therapy process.  The next stage is observation of defence efforts or the development of therapeutic measures. In the end, the goal of the research can be known as the success or therapeutic needs of autistic children—an autistic child functions as a thrusting toy with a thrust to make a sound. Rhythm-playing games with movement will focus the attention of children with autism so that changes in functional behaviour will feature in the game. Pages 764 to 782




The Need for Vocational Taxonomy for Vocational Teachers and Practitioners: An Initial Analysis

Ramlee Mustaphaa, Regina Lambinb*, Norhazizi Lebai Longc, Azlina Amat Yasind, a,b,c,dUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Malaysia, Email: b*geenalambin@gmail.com

The purpose of this study was to identify the need of vocational taxonomy for vocational instructors and practitioners.  Malaysia’s new Vision 2030 is for the people to attain quality life as a developed nation focused on relevant knowledge, high-skills, and the well-being of the people through various innovative strategies and transformations. The goal is to reach a balance of psychosocial well-being and economic sustainability of the nation. Taxonomy is an important tool in human civilisation. In an educational context, since 1956, Bloom taxonomy has been used to classify educational goals, objectives, and outcomes. However, the deficiency of the Bloom taxonomy is that it does not focus on the domain of psychomotor − which is the main domain in vocational education and training. Several theories are useful as the basis for vocational taxonomy. The relevant theories are cognitive, behaviourist, and psychomotor theories. Psychomotor theory is assumed relevant to explain psychomotor ability and domain. Furthermore, psychomotor domain is highly relevant to vocational education and training because it involves hands-on skills and tasks. The research design used in this study was the needs analysis based on experts’ opinions. Seven vocational experts were selected based on the specific criteria. The key result shows that based on the qualitative interview data − a new vocational taxonomy is needed. The vocational taxonomy is important to classify vocational domains from the lowest level which is the theoretical vocational knowledge to the highest level which is  inventive thinking. This vocational taxonomy is crucial for vocational instructors and practitioners. The vocational taxonomy could be used to map the subject content or curriculum, the level of teaching and learning, the practical tasks, and the vocational assessment. Pages 783 to 800




Data Acquisition via Virtual Advertising Operations (Vao) in Facebook

Nor Fazilah Noor Dina, Hishamudin Isamb, a,bPusat Pengajian Bahasa, Tamadun dan Falsafah, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Email: afazzy_ila88@yahoo.com.mybdin@uum.edu.my

The advent of social media usage has become a current global phenomenon, thus Asia’s involvement in social media use has formed a vast network. The popularity of social media platforms such as Facebook has increasingly become the means for users to enter cyber space as one way to create their social network. Besides having a role as a communication platform that enables Facebook to collect much data to be used for certain research fields, the extensive data available via social medium is called mega data or big data. Considering this, the paper explores an alternative data gathering methodology for the needs of certain research areas termed as Virtual Advertising Operations (VAO), and the application of VAO in a language study to identify the themes of teenagers’ language in Facebook. Considering Facebook’s popularity compared to other types of social media, the raw data gathered enabled the researchers to achieve their research objectives. Four steps have been carried out to analyse the data, assisted by the Virtual Advertising Operations in the Facebook namely; i) development of advertising page, ii) advertising process, iii) data downloading process, and iv) data screening process. This research methodology is considered as a tremendous change and an alternative, novel method that allows creativity, innovative and relevance to current trends. Pages 822 to 847




Analysis of the Reciprocal Relationship between Stock Market Indicators and Economic Stability Indicators: A Case from Iraq

Layla Bdaiwi Khudhaira*, Hussein Attia Hassanb, a,bFaculty of Administration and Economics, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq, Email: a*laylab.muttaq@uokufa.edu.iq

The paper aims to test the relationship between some indicators of the stock market and variables of economic stability in Iraq. The study seeks to test the validity of the hypothesis of a reciprocal relationship between some indicators of the stock market and the variables of economic stability represented by (growth, inflation and unemployment). To achieve this, some statistical models were used: the Dickey Fuller extended methodology (ADF) and the ARDL test to test the joint integration between the variables, in addition to the Granger causality test to measure the mutual effect between the study variables. The study uses quarterly data for the period (2004-2018). The results were analysed accurately to reach the objectives of the study and to discover the nature of the direction of the relationship between the variables. The results show that there is a common integration relationship between the indicators of the Iraq Stock Exchange and the variables of economic stability. The results also show that there is a reciprocal relationship between the market value index and both gross domestic product and unemployment. The results also show the absence of a reciprocal relationship between the Trading Volume Index and the variables of economic stability in Iraq. Pages 848 to 867




Reconstruction of Law Enforcement in Money Politics: The Election of Regional Heads Based on Progressive Law

Imawan Sugihartoa*, Mohamad Khamimb, Muntoha Nasuhavc, Imam Asmarudind, Moh. Taufike, Suci Hartatif, Azharig, a,b,d,e,fFaculty of Law, Universitas Pancasakti Tegal, Indonesia, cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Pancasakti Tegal, Indonesia, gUniversitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka, Sulawesi Tenggara, Indonesia, Email: a*imawan.sugiharto57@gmail.com

Law enforcement prohibiting the giving of money or other material to influence voters in both the legislative and regional head elections, although in practice  is invisible and  is no longer  a public secret, is  very weakly enforced.  Knowing the factors that influence the enforcement of money politics, knowing the shortcomings of law enforcement, and knowing the reconstruction of law enforcement of money politics in progressive regional head elections is based on law. This research was conducted by obtaining data through information that occurs in the community. In addition, literature studies in the form of books and journals are also examined as a form of strengthening theory and also as a reinforcement of allegations on the results and research discussions. From the results of the research, it is known that various factors that influence the law enforcement of money politics practices in regional elections currently consist of weak legal material factors, and it is the legal provisions governing the prohibition of giving or promising money or other materials to influence someone to choose or not choose a candidate. Pages 868 to 891




Neutrality Debate in Philosophy against The Integration of Science Technology and Religion

Ilyas Supenaa*, A Halil Thahirb, Sophia Fithri Al-Munawwarahc, Muhammad Afif Amrullohd, Dwi Noviatul Zahrae, Nurul Hananif, aFaculty of Da'wah and Communication, Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang, Indonesia, bInstitut Agama Islam Negeri Kediri, Indonesia, cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, dUniversitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan Lampung, Indonesia, eUniversitas Islam Negeri Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, Indonesia, fInstitut Agama Islam Negeri Kediri, Indonesia, Email: a*ilyassupena@walisongo.ac.id

The relation of social science and technology values of morality is a hot issue that continues to develop in the philosophy of science. Some think that science is value-free, while others think that science is bound by values. The aim of this article is to examine the implications of this view on the integration of science and religion. The method used in this research is a literature study by using several books and journals as a reference. In addition, consultations with several resource persons who are experts in the field of integration of science technology and religion were also carried out as a form of reinforcement of the final results of research. Based on the epistemological theory that divides the epistemology of Islam into bayani (text), burhani (empirical rationality) and irfani (inner experience) from Muhammad Abid Aljabiri, the model of integration of science and religion gave birth to three points of view. From the results, the revivalists who offer a strategy of Islamisation of knowledge. Departing from the revivalist perspective in understanding the Koran (bayani), they believe that science is not neutral, but subjectively bound by the values contained in the Koran (theocentric). Therefore, secular Western science must be converted to Islam. Second, modernist groups that offer universal science concepts. The neo-modernist groups that offer the integration of science and religion on an ethical basis make up the third viewpoint. Pages 892 to 908




Flipped Classroom Learning with Critical Problem-Solving Activities for Undergraduate Students

Sawitree Pipitgoola, Paitoon Pimdeeb, Somkiat Tuntiwongwanichc, a,b,cKing Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand, Email: a61603015@kmitl.ac.thbpaitoon.pi@kmitl.ac.thcsomkiat.tu@kmitl.ac.th

This study presents a guideline for flipped classroom learning with critical problem-solving activities for undergraduate students. The literature review synthesises research related to flipped classroom learning and critical problem-solving. The procedure for flipped classroom learning consists of five steps, namely learning introduction, learning through electronic media, formative, learning activities organisation, and summative. The flipped classroom learning procedures area is integrated with the critical problem-solving procedure, which consists of six steps, which are preparation, problem analysis, problem-solving design, problem-solving conducting, problem-solving evaluation, and presentation. This guideline integrates learning from both outside and within the classroom. For learning outside the classroom, students can learn by themselves through online media. Meanwhile, in-classroom learning involves learning activities which focus on critical thinking and problem-solving skills through active learning and evaluate both formative and summative to stimulate students to change themselves to reach their achievement targets. Pages 909 to 922




The Mediating Role of Organisational Change on the Impact of Organisational Resilience on the Performance of Hospitality Industry Organisations in Indonesia

Boge Triatmantoa*, Nanik Wahyunib, aEconomic & Business Faculty University of Merdeka Malang, bEconomic & Business Faculty Universitas Islam Negeri Maliki Malang, Email: a*boge.triatmanto@unmer.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to test and prove empirically the ability of organisational change to mediate the effect of organisational resilience on improving organisational performance in the hospitality industry. The population of this research is star hotels in Indonesia involving 216 managers as respondents. The research sample was determined using proportional random sampling. The data of this study were analysed using SEM (Structural Equation Model). The results of this study revealed that hospitality organisation performance can be improved when the organisation makes changes. This will trigger hospitality organisations to become more flexible. This means that organisational resilience has a significant ability to mediate the influence of organisational change on improving organisational performance in the hospitality industry. Pages 923 to 937




Integral Motion of Mohammad Natsir: Unity Efforts of People and Nation in the Republic of Indonesia

Hasanuddin Yusuf Adana, Husni Abdul Jalilb, Azmil Umur Hamdanic, Ida Friatna Muhammad Junedd, Muhammad Siddiq Armiae, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Sharia and Law, State Islamic University (UIN) Ar-Raniry, Indonesia, Email: ahyadan@ar-raniry.ac.idbhusni.ajalil@ar-raniry.ac.idcazmil.umur@ar-raniry.ac.iddida.friatna@ar-raniry.ac.idemsiddiq@ar-raniry.ac.id  

This article has originally contributed to knowledge as the topic of integral motion of Mohammad Natsir has not published earlier. The Integral Motion of Mohammad Natsir was his attempt to invite several factional leaders in the Indonesian parliament in 1950 to leave the Republic of the United States of Indonesia (RIS). RIS was formed by the Dutch and the head to the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI) based on the results of the Indonesian’s proclamation on 17 August, 1945. There were several objectives of the Mohammad Natsir’s Integral Motion. Firstly, the national goal was to strengthen and improve the quality of national integration and unity. Secondly, the state's goal was that to re-establish and strengthen the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI), and thirdly, the religious objectives were that to strengthen and improve the quality of the integrity and unity of Muslims Indonesia. The Islamic ummah and the Indonesian people have lack of knowledge and information about Mohammad Natsir's Integral Motion because of several factors: the Government of Indonesia during the old and new order often linked the pioneers of Mohammad Natsir's Integral Motion with the revolt of the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PRRI), the exclusion of Mohammad Natsir's Integral Motion material in national history lessons, such as the lack of books on Mohammad Natsir's Integral Motion, and the lack of public awareness and interest in reading the history of Mohammad Natsir's Integral Motion. Pages 938 to 950




Entrepreneurial Skills and Intention of Graduate Students for Business Start-ups: A Survey from India

Slima Pintoa, Prakash Pintob, Saad Znad Darwishc, Iqbal Thonse Hawaldard, aDepartment of Business Administration St Joseph Engineering College, Vamanjoor, Mangalore, India, bProfessor and Dean Department of Business Administration St Joseph Engineering College, Vamanjoor, Mangalore, India, cProf of Business Administration at the Kingdom University, Bahrain, dProfessor in the Kingdom University, Bahrain Email: apintoslima625@gmail.combprakashpinto74@gmail.comcSaad.Darwish@ku.edu.bhdthiqbal34@gmail.com

Entrepreneurship triggers the economic condition of a country. Entrepreneurship increases the standard of living and has provided opportunities to improve the standard of living. There are several studies on the relationship between the entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial intention of students. There are very few studies on the need and importance of entrepreneurial skills over the entrepreneurial intention of graduate students. This paper concentrates on the 537 graduate students of science, commerce, and arts. The reason for selecting these students is to understand the level of involvement in entrepreneurial activity and their preparedness to take up entrepreneurship as a career. Hypotheses were tested with descriptive statistics, factor analysis and chi-square tests. This study helps to understand the willingness of students towards entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on the entrepreneurial skills required to equip graduate students to choose entrepreneurship as a career. The role of institutions in increasing the interest of students towards entrepreneurship. Pages 951 to 970




University Education in KSA in COVID Times: Status, Challenges and Prospects

Malak Ibraheem Almansoura, Arif Ahmed Mohammed Hassan Al-Ahdalb, aPhD in Applied Linguistics, Department of English and Translation, College of Science and Theoretical Studies, Saudi Electronic University, Saudi Arabia, bAssociate Professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of English and Translation, College of Sciences and Arts, Methnab, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, Email: am.almansour@seu.edu.sabaa.alahdal@qu.edu.sa

As Coronavirus cases in the KSA grew, more and more economic sectors took an ongoing view of curbing the spread of the pandemic and isolating those already infected. The study generally assessed the Saudi-based university education in the times of COVID through the prism of Saudi Electronic University and Qassim University. It employed a quantitative and qualitative research design. Results revealed that the teachers and students of both universities assessed the status of online learning modality very favourably during the pandemic. The overall rating on the level of skill of teachers and students using online learning modality is also very favourable. This indicates that both students and teachers are capable of using and engaging themselves in the online learning mode. The assessment on the attitude and beliefs of the students and teachers on the online learning implementation, generally, both students and teachers assessed themselves to have a favourable attitude and beliefs. This shows that Saudi universities have already positively embraced the use of online learning well before the onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic. Students cannot apply the learning they gained to actual experience; online learning is somewhat boring, and technical difficulties emerged on the conduct of online learning for both universities. Suggestions were presented by the respondents to provide solutions to the identified problems on the status of online learning in the KSA. Pages 971 to 984




Exploring Research Engagement of Saudi University EFL Teachers: Capabilities and Challenges

Ahmed Yahya Almakroba, Arif Ahmed Mohammed Hassan Al-Ahdalb, aDepartment of English, College of Sciences and Humanities in Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia, bAssociate Professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of English and Translation, College of Sciences and Arts, Methnab, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, Email: aa.almakrob@psau.edu.sabaa.alahdal@qu.edu.sa

This paper adds to the existing knowledge on the foreign teachers' level of research capability, conceptions of research, and views on the hindrances to their research engagement in select universities of Saudi Arabia. It employed a quantitative design by administering an e-questionnaire to 48 foreigners researching as language teachers in the KSA. In the Saudi context, in particular Qassim University and Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, English is considered a Foreign Language (FL), which is a core requirement in all educational systems at all academic levels starting from preschool to post-graduate education. This study is guided by the view that promoting the climate of research through transformative and effective educational management will provide fresh avenues for enhancing the research capabilities of foreign language teachers in the KSA so as to take the lead in research findings dissemination that are anchored on knowledge-sharing. To stave off the stasis in research in the KSA, this study hopes to fill the gap in the literature, which will help address the needs of teachers for research capability enhancement. Pages 985 to 1001




Enhancing Students' Vocabulary through a Cross-Cultural Simulation Game

Majid Mohammad Al-Khataybeha, Arif Ahmed Mohammed Hassan Al-Ahdalb, aC.& I. Department, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Mutah University, Jordan, bAssociate Professor of Applied Linguistics, Department of English and Translation, College of Sciences and Arts, Methnab, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia, Email: amizmal2000@yahoo.combaa.alahdal@qu.edu.sa

Foreign language instructors and academics are facing huge hurdle to students' comprehension. Not only do they need to offer training in the target language, but they also need to find ways to optimise 'students' communication skills and time in the target language. The present study employed a quasi-experimental research design to ascertain the effectiveness of a cross-cultural simulation game (BAFA BAFA) in enhancing Saudi EFL vocabulary. The respondents were a class of 20 students. The findings of this study indicate that BAFA BAFA improved students' vocabulary, and that it has an effective English teaching process. It helped students quickly memorise phrases, made them enjoy, and encourage them to learn. It also created a spirit of competitiveness and cooperation in the learning and teaching process. It is also a smart thing for the teacher to teach vocabulary, but the teacher who wanted to teach word games using vocabulary needed to consider the time, and to take the students' expectations into consideration. Pages 1002 to 1014




Improving the Quality of Health Services through Development and Application of Fraud Detection Models

Nugroho M Wibowoa, Yuyun Widiastutib, Puti A Rahmac, Nanang F Rozid, Indra P P Salmone, a,bDepartment of Management, Universitas Wijaya Putra, Surabaya, Indonesia, cCenter for Health Policy and Management, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, dDepartment of Informatics, Institut Teknologi Adhi Tama Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, ePublic Administration Department, Universitas Bhayangkara, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: anugrohomardi@uwp.ac.idbyuyunwidiastuti@uwp.ac.idcputiauliarahma@gmail.comdnfrozy@gmail.comeindrapratamaps29@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to develop a healthcare fraud detection model and apply the model to detect potential healthcare fraud in hospitals in East Java Province, Indonesia. This study was conducted at the Regional General Hospital (RSUD) in East Java Province by employing purposive sampling technique. The data collection of this study was carried out using the method of documentation and interviews. By using interactive analysis, content and peer review, an analysis model for potential fraud detection can be formulated. This analysis of fraud detection model was based on four groups of potential fraud data, namely referral, costs, room utilisation, and encoding errors. In each group of potential fraud data, the types of claim data needed to analyse potential fraud, analysis techniques for detecting potential fraud, and decision algorithms for the presence or absence of potential fraud have been identified. The decision algorithm is based on the claim data trend and compared to the average value of the claim data for a certain period. The action research method was carried out by applying a potential fraud detection model of healthcare in hospitals through the creation of a Healthcare Fraud Prevention Information System for the National Health Insurance (JKN) Program in Hospitals (SIPADAKES). The analysis results of the potential fraud detection model using SIPADAKES at RSUD in East Java Province show that in the encoding error data group, all types of claim data were detected for potential fraud. This reflects that billing for diagnosis and treatment was more expensive than what the hospital did. The other findings identified as potential fraud were in the reference data group on the type of inpatient claim data with the 1-day length of stay (LOS) referred. In the cost data group, what was identified as potential fraud was an outpatient case with special procedures, inpatient cases with special drugs, outpatient cases with special drugs, and inpatient cases with special prostheses. Pages 1015 to 1029




Civil Society’s Participatory Models: a Policy of Preventing Land and Forest Fire in Indonesia

Rahyunir Raufa, Zainalb, Rendi Prayudac, Khairul Rahmand, Ahmad Fitra Yuzae, a,b,d,eGovernment Studies, cInternational Relations Department Universitas Islam Riau, Indonesia, Email: arahyunir.ip@soc.uir.ac.idbzainal.ip@soc.uir.ac.idcrendiprayuda@soc.uir.ac.iddkhairul.ip@soc.uir.ac.idefitra.ip@soc.uir.ac.id

Forest fires are one of the severe security threats and national disasters faced by people in Indonesia. Forest fires in Indonesia have occurred massively in several regions in Indonesia such as East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, Jambi and Riau Provinces. Forest fires in Indonesia are caused by natural and human factors. Natural factors are caused by the long and extreme dry season and human factors due to the conversion of forests into plantations and illegal logging. Therefore, we need the right policies in preventing forest fires in Indonesia. This paper uses the study of literature with policy theory. The research method used is descriptive qualitative method with interviews with research informants. The results showed that the Governor of Riau, as the head of the government, carried out various policies and activities, including conducting coordination meetings with elements of regional leadership through the Regional Leaders Communication Forum, enforcing legal sanctions for forest burners, forming a smoke disaster management team at the provincial, district/city level and district and conduct activities in the form of artificial rain. The novelty produced in this research is participatory civil society which is directly involved in assisting the government in the form of Community-based Fire Management as an effort to solve smoke disasters in Indonesia, especially in Riau Province. Pages 1030 to 1046




Mathematic Communication Skills for 1st Graders with Down Syndrome in Primary School

Dyah Worowirastri Ekowatia, H. Husamahb*, Erlyna Abidasaric, aDepartment of Elementary School Teacher Education, FTTE-Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, East Java, Indonesia, bDepartment of Biology Education, FTTE-Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, East Java, Indonesia, cDepartment of English Education, FTTE-Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, East Java, Indonesia, Email: b*worowirastri@umm.ac.id

Down syndrome (DS) is characterised by weak motor control, lack of ability to coordinate, but on the other hand, the person can still be trained to reach the ability to the point of the normal condition in terms of mathematic communication skills in learning mathematics. In order to analyse the mathematic communication skills of a student with DS, descriptive qualitative research was carried out, while the data collection was done by observation, interview, and documentation techniques. The research subject was one DS student in the 1st grade of elementary school. This study was conducted at SD Muhammadiyah 9 Malang, East Java, Indonesia. The results of the analysis stated that of the three indicators of the mathematic ability in the verbal production aspect, the DS student was able to master the indicators of asking and answering questions. Whereas in the mathematic communication skills of the written aspect, of the three indicators shown, only one indicator had been mastered by the student, namely declaring a situation into the form of a mathematical model, although that ability has to be improved. Pages 1047 to 1066




An Innovation of Psychological Instrument to Measure Floods Victims' Mental Distress

A. Nazilaha*, Nor Aizal Akmal Rohaizadb, Syaidatun Nazirah Abu Zahrinc, Raja Zirwatul Aida Raja Ibrahimd, Mazidah Mohd Dagange, a,b,d,ePsychology and Counselling Department, Faculty of Business, Economic and Social Development, University Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia, cPusat Citra Universiti & Institute Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: a*nazilah@umt.edu.my

Psychological testing is the process of measuring psychology-related variables by means of devices or procedures designed to obtain a sample of behaviour. It is a very important field of study to help people to categorise and to rank mental and human behaviour as well as to propose appropriate interventions and treatments. Realising the needs of measuring the psychopathology symptoms among Malaysian flood victims in the digital development era, e-Psychological Instrument for Flood Victims version I (e-PIFV-I) has been developed to provide a social innovation tool to solve community mental issues efficiently. The e-PIFV-I is a digital self-report inventory that has 84 items with 4 subscales, namely stress, anxiety, depression and trauma. Three types of validation studies have been done to validate the instrument. Study I is for face validity, study II is for content validity, and study III is for content coefficient validity. Results showed that e-PIFV-I has face, content and content coefficient validity. In the study III-a, results showed that the content coefficient validity for each sub-scale of e-IPFV-I ranging from moderate to very strong validity, whereas in the study III-b coefficient values were improved to a solid validity. This study supports the theoretical framework and provides practical implication in the field of mental distress. Pages 1067 to 1078




Minangkabau Migration in Aceh During the Colonial Era: The Reconstruction of Aneuk Jamee's Identity

Nelmawarnia*, Hetti Waluati Trianab, Martin Kustatic, Fadzilah Abdurrahman Rahmand, Warnise, Syafruddinf, Reflinaldig, a,b,c,e,f,gUniversitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol Padang, Indonesia, dUniversiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: anelmawarni@uinib.ac.idbhettitriana@uinib.ac.idcmartinkustati@uinib.ac.idddzila@upm.edu.myewanis@uinib.ac.id,  fsyafruddin@uinib.ac.idgreflinaldi@uinib.ac.id

The study aims to identify the history of Minangkabau migration and reconstruct the identity of Aneuk Jamee on the coast of Aceh during the colonial era. A historical approach was used where the data taken from interviews and document analysis of books, papers, journals, and other relevant writings, due to the limitations of primary sources. The finding showed that ever since the colonial era, there were three major waves of Minangkabau migration to Aceh. The first wave occurred in the 17th century, after Het Painans Tractaat in 1663. The second wave occurred in the 19th century, during or after the Paderi War in Minangkabau in 1921-1937. While the third wave occurred after 1958, Aneuk Jamee tribe emerged in Aceh along with the arrival of the Minangkabau migration to Aceh. It means guests or the children of the immigrant. They lived with the Minangkabau customs and culture they brought from their homeland. But over time there has been a process of cultural assimilation between Aneuk Jamee and the local community. The assimilation process had resulted in Aneuk Jamee to have their new identities. No longer declaring themselves to be Minangkabau people and not even Acehnese, they declared themselves to be Aneuk Jamee with their own language and customs. Pages 1079 to 1095




Does Transformational Leadership and Work Motivation Still Affect Employee Performance? Evidence from an Indonesian Electrical State-Owned Company

Romat Saragiha, Astadi Pangarsob*, M. Reyza Al-Fathc, a,b,cBusiness Administration Department, Telkom University, Jl. Telekomunikasi, Terusan Buah Batu, Bandung 40257, Indonesia, Email: asaragih@telkomuniversity.ac.idb*astadipangarso@telkomuniversity.ac.idcreyzaalfath3@gmail.com

This paper aimed to examine and analyse the consequence of transformational leadership and motivation on work performance at PT PLN UWP IV Electric Maintenance Center Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The novelty of this research is by testing the conceptual framework for the consequence of transformational leadership and motivation (need for achievement) on work performance in a different context, scope, and population than existing research. This research uses quantitative research methods with detailed causality research. The sampling technique in this study was saturated sampling, which was 40 employees at PT PLN UWP IV Electric Maintenance Center. The data investigation approach used is multiple linear regression. The consequence of this study confirms the influence of transformational leadership and work motivation on performance, both partially and simultaneously. The results of this paper are persistent with the theory of transformational leadership and the theory of motivation for achievement. This research contributes scientifically to the consequence of transformational leadership, and work motivation on work performance also change management. Pages 1096 to 1117




Business Performance Assessment to Improve Strategy, Process, and Capability of Export Products

I Gusti Ayu Purnamawatia*, Ni Ketut Sari Adnyanib, aFaculty of Economic, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Indonesia, bFaculty of Law and Social Sciences, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Indonesia, Email: a*igapurnamawati@gmail.com

This study aims to analye the performance of creative industry SMEs that export in Gianyar, Bali Province, using the Performance Prism method. The choice of method is based on the superiority of the Performance Prism method and the concept of managing SMEs, namely Tri Hita Karana. This research is a descriptive study of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data collection techniques, such as interviews, observation, questionnaires, and documentation studies, were employed in the study. The sample selection is adjusted to the characteristics of each different stakeholder. Data analysis techniques used were qualitative data analysis techniques, namely interviews to analye stakeholders and key performance indicators (KPI). The quantitative Analytical Hierarchy Process techniques was used to determine weights, Objective Matrix to score, and the Traffic Light System to group in colours. The results showed that the key stakeholders in SMEs were customers, employees, and the government and surrounding communities. The performance measurement system contains 21 KPIs, consisting of 6 Customer KPIs, 9 Employee KPIs, and 6 Government and Community KPIs. Implementation of the performance measurement system is then given a score by the Objective Matrix method, so that shows that the value of the current performance indicator is 8.88. Based on the Traffic Light System, it can be seen that there are three Yellow categorised KPIs. This means that the performance of SMEs has approached the target set but has not been able to achieve it. 1118 to 1137




Metapoetry in Modern Arabic Poetry

Abdulmuneam Jabar Obaida, aDepartment of Arabic, College of Education Ibn Rushd, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email: aabdulmuneam.j@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

The present paper introduces a conscious reading of the concept of poetry by the Arabic language poets. It is assumed that these poets introduce concepts related to Nature or Man or both, or the ambiguity of the concept of poetry and the difficulty of establishing a given definition of it remains to dominate the views of some of them. It verifies the hypothesis and deals with the aim of poetry creativity, whether it is for life's sake or art's sake alone. It finds out that the poets adopt the two views. It also investigates the issue of poetic creativity and its sources. It finds out that modern poets often follow the views of old poets, which indicates an awareness of the poetic process and an intention in taking the path of metapoetry. The paper assumes that it is a poetic purpose like elegy and praise, etc. and that poets deal with it in the way assumed and verified by this paper. Pages 1138 to 1154




Bias and Distinction in the Arabic Elegiac Poetry of Titanic

Abdulmuneam Jabar Obaida, aDepartment of Arabic, College of Education, Ibn Rushd, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email: aabdulmuneam.j@ircoedu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

The paper frames the two terms “tahayuz” (bias) and “tamayuz” (distinction) in literary criticism by introducing two corresponding concepts. The former is transferred from the field of sciences to the field of criticism, and the latter is given a specific concept, together with a practical application to rare Arabic poetry about the sinking of Titanic in the Atlantic Ocean. It presents negative and positive bias of poets, monitors distinction in this humanitarian poetry which is limitless and expressive of the humanitarianism of its poets, and also sheds light on the possibility that a given poet may bias in a certain poem and be distinct in another position. Pages 1155 to 1165




The Effectiveness of STAD, TPS, and CIRC Learning Strategies on Writing Skill

Kastam Syamsia*, St Nurbayab, Setyawan Pujionoc, a,b,cUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*kastam@uny.ac.id

This study aims to test the effectiveness of STAD, TPS, and CIRC strategies in learning to write news texts. The study is a type of quantitative research with a quasi-experiment method. The study was designed to use a control group pre- and post-test. The population of this study were eighth-grade students of SMP Negeri 3 Godean, SMP Negeri 2 Prambanan Klaten, MTs Negeri Goedan, and SMP Negeri 1 Seyegan in the Academic Year of 2015/2016 in Indonesia. The determination of the sample of this study was carried out by a simple random sampling technique. Before using the test instrument, writing the news text would first be tested for its validity and reliability. The data analysis technique used was the t-test with the help of the SPSS 16.0 version. The results of this study revealed that STAD, TPS, and CIRC strategies are effective in learning to write news texts. Pages 1166 to 1181




The Relationship between Leadership and Organisational Culture

Laila  AlKilania, Ahmad  Almaanib, Ahmad Areiqatc, Allam Hamdand, aDepartment of Physical Sports Sciences, College of Education, Princess Nourah  bint  Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia, bModern College of Business & Science, Oman, cBusiness School- Al- Ahliyya Amman University, Jordan, dAhlia University, Manama, Bahrain,

Leadership and organisational culture are viewed as cut out of the same cloth and respected the essential hierarchical components that assist firms with contending effectively and increase reasonable favourable position. We intend to analyse the interconnection between these components and lead a top to bottom hypothetical exploration paper concentrating on these components and the various factors identified with them. The investigation profoundly handles the hypothetical writing related to different meanings of culture and its connection with the administration and comes up at last with the outcomes and suggestions. Besides, the researchers examine whether economic situations, for example, the quality of rivalry and operational age and size, can decide the degree and the course of the relationship. Market rivalry appears to influence the course of the relationship, while operational age and size influence the pertinent degree. The discoveries uncover a solid connection between these two operational variables, while elements' coordination (identical cultural type and leadership style) implements this relationship. These outcomes are as per Hofstede's work 1980, which is the most broadly referred to work in presence on a similar theme. To make national–social profiles, Hofstede utilised a five measurements device (Power Distance, Individualism vs Collectivism, Uncertainty avoidance, Long-term orientation). Since no significant change has occurred in the market during the most recent five years (as far as deregulation or privatisation), administration and culture have adjusted through an oblivious methodology. A few examinations contend that leaders are influenced by social sort to serve the hierarchical technique, yet they additionally change culture by forcing new qualities, patterns, and conduct standards. Pages 1182 to 1206




Application of Open Innovation in Modern Organisations: Benefits and Barriers

Nnamseh, M. Pa*, Victoria Umanab, Nsikan Johnc, Enouh, R.Od, a,bDepartment of Business Management, University of Uyo, Uyo- Nigeria, cNsikan John, Academic Programmes and Research, Garden City Premier Business School, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, dDepartment of Business Management, University of Calabar, Nigeria, Email: a*Nsikiman5000@gmail.com

This paper examines the argument that open innovation is either a fad or a phenomenon. A massive amount of literature was reviewed on four open-innovation related themes - Drivers of open innovation, benefits gained by practicing open innovation, the challenges limiting its widespread adoption, and real life cases of open innovation approach. The findings reveal the following: First, motivation for openness includes the quest for increased ideas, limited complementary resources, and the perception of derived benefits. Second, open innovation enhances organisational performance in terms of increased internal knowledge base, continuous availability of ideas for product development and commercialisation, and increased bottom-line profitability. Third, the numerous real-world example of firms that openly innovate indicates that open innovation is a phenomenon and not a fad. The practical implication is that firms should strengthen their internal capabilities to seek external ideas, share information willingly, and collaborate meaningfully with external partners. Pages 1207 to 1217




An Analysis of Illocutionary Speech Acts of Government Officials of the Republic of Indonesia in the Face of Coronavirus Disease 19 Global Pandemic

Tommi Yuniawana*, Fathur Rokhmanb, Rustonoc, M.A.R Hakimd, a,b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia, Email: a*tommiyuniawan@mail.unnes.ac.id

This research aimed at analysing the type of illocutionary speech acts used by government officials of the Republic of Indonesia in dealing with Covid-19 global pandemic. The data of this research took the form of fragments of speeches suspected as illocutionary acts of government officials of the Republic of Indonesia in dealing with Covid-19 global pandemic in online media during January-April 2020. The data were collected using recording and documentation techniques. They were then analysed using pragmatic equivalence technique and heuristic approach. The research result indicated that the illocutionary speech acts of government officials of the Republic of Indonesia in dealing with Covid-19 global pandemic were: representative/assertive, directive, expressive, commissive, declaration. The scientific novelty of the study lies in language discussion of the current global pandemic Covid-19. Pages 1218 to 1233




The Effectiveness of a Team Accelerated Instruction Learning Model for Students' Writing Skills

Andri Pitoyoa*, Iwan Marwanb, aIndonesian Language and Literature Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Nusantara PGRI Kediri, East-Java, Indonesia, bIndonesian Language of Tadris Program, Faculty of Tarbiyah, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Kediri, Indonesia, Email: a*andripitoyo@unpkediri.ac.id

Learning writing on summarising the contents of books and writing observational reports at the elementary school level are skills that need to be improved because these skills are not obtained instantly. The application of innovative and effective learning models is needed so that students' writing skills can be better. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the Team Accelerated Instruction learning model towards students' writing skills. Sampling was carried out with a multi-stage area random sampling technique, totalling 128 students from 12 elementary schools in Kediri, East Java, Indonesia. The research method used in this study is the experimental method. The data collection uses tests, questionnaires, and documentation. The data analysis technique used paired sample t-test with the main data in the form of pretest and post-test scores. The results showed that there was an effect of the Team Accelerated Instruction learning model towards students' writing skills. The result of the post-test was the average score of students writing skills was 76.61 higher than the pretest score of 57.98. The result proved that the Team Accelerated Instruction learning model is effectively applied in the learning process. The steps of implementing Team Accelerated Instruction learning are group formation, placement tests, curriculum materials, group learning, team scores and recognition, group learning, fact tests, and whole-class units. Pages 1234 to 1245




Analysis of the Application of Lebak Kita as Information Media Regarding Public Facilities in Lebak District

Enjang Pera Irawana, aFakultas Ilmu Komunikasi, Universitas Mercu Buana, Indonesia, Email: aenjang.irawan@mercubuana.ac.id

The purpose of this research is to develop and analyse the implementation of a digital application as an informational public facility for people living in regencies in developing countries. In this paper, an approach related to the implementation of a smart city mobile application used by local government in Indonesia was developed. The object of this research was an application named Lebak Kita. Lebak Kita is a smart city application implemented by the Local Government of Lebak. This research used a qualitative approach, in which the researchers conducted a comprehensive interview, observations and documentation. The implementation of Lebak Kita aimed to catalyse Lebak Regency to become a smart city, thereby improving the quality of services to people. The implementation was still not massive among people because literacy about the use of information and communication technology (ICT) was still low. In addition, the biggest challenge in realising Lebak Regency as a smart city was that the Government had to prepare for the transition from conventional society to digital society (social adaptation) and continue to develop user-friendly applications. The implementation of a digital application as an informational public facility, if well designed, can improve the quality of government services to the public. The potential benefits obtained when the government implements digital applications are: facilitating the distribution of information to the public effectively and efficiently, facilitating the public to access the information needed, actualising continuous services to the public, supporting service systems with technical principles (namely fast and appropriate services), actualising the principle of profitability in government institutions (namely the existence of effective and efficient services), actualising the principle of accountability to the public, and creating participatory development. People are still confused when using digital applications in regencies in developing countries. Public literacy in using information and communication technology (ICT) is still very low, so this results in using digital applications that have been prepared for large scale, urban use. The government must increase literacy in using information and communication technology (ICT) before deciding to implement digital application as an informational medium. Pages 1246 to 1263




Technology Absorption in Entrepreneurial Aspirations and Capabilities

P. Eko Prasetyoa, Heni Siswantarib, aFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Semarang. Kampus FE UNNES Sekaran, Semarang 50299 Indonesia, bFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Jl. Ki Ageng Pemanahan No.19, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: apekoprasetyo@mail.unnes.ac.id, bheni.siswantari@pgsd.uad.ac.id

This study aims to explain the contribution of technology absorption as the main source and determinant in encouraging entrepreneurial aspirations and enhancing global entrepreneurial abilities. The main data source of this research is secondary data from 137 countries from the Global Entrepreneurship Development Index (GEDI). The methods and dimensions of the variables follow the measurement model (GEDI, 2019). The analysis model used the path analysis method, which was deferred from the linear hierarchical regression model of the standard form of the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model, to describe interactions both direct, indirect and total. The results of the research show that technology absorption factors are able to provide the most dominant, first and most significant contributions both to entrepreneurial aspirations and global entrepreneurial abilities. Meanwhile, the strongest level of correlation occurred between opportunity start-ups and competition. Attractive policy implications at the international, national and local levels support and create a culture of creative entrepreneurship that is able to absorb technology and innovation as well as a competitive environment to foster the competitive advantage of global entrepreneurship. Pages 1264 to 1277




Moral Education of Kindergarten Children in Rural Areas: A Case Study in Indonesia

Rukiyati Rukiyatia, Dwi Siswoyob, L. Hendrowibowoc, a,b,cUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: arukiyati@uny.ac.id, bdwi_siswoyo@uny.ac.id, chendrowibowo@uny.ac.id

Early childhood is the right time to introduce and grow moral education so that later, children become good people. This study aims to identify moral values developed by teachers, methods practiced, and the results achieved. The research involved kindergarten children in rural areas in the Special Province of Yogyakarta and Central Java, Indonesia. The research subjects were 140 teachers. Data was collected using focus group discussions. Data analysis employed an interactive analysis of Miles and Huberman's model. The results of the study conclude that 1) there are nine moral values developed by teachers: religiosity, independence, confidence, honesty, discipline, tolerance, social care, respect, and patience. 2) The teachers' methods are exemplary, habitual, advisory, tell stories, create dialogue, involve socio-drama, involve social visits, involve educational tours, facilitate, involve singing, involve the introduction of short traditions, and involve playing children's films. 3) Evaluation of moral education is carried out according to what is stated in kindergarten curriculum, which uses observation of children's daily behaviour. 4) Most children have achieved proper moral development, and some children get excellent grades. The most visible moral values for development are independence and self-confidence. For those who are Muslim, children can read the Holy Qur'an and memorise 20 short hadiths. Therefore, this study concludes that early childhood moral education at kindergarten in rural areas of the Special Region of Yogyakarta and Central Java has been successful. Pages 1278 to 1293




A Practicum Learning Management Model for Productive Materials Based on the Needs of Industry 4.0 in Vocational School

Hadromia*, Abdurrahmanb, Adhetya Kurniawanc, Andri Setiyawand, Achmad Faizal Bachrie, Khoerul Nofa Candra Permanaf, a,b,c,d,e,fMechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Email: a*hadromi@mail.unnes.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to assess the implementation of a practicum learning management model for productive material based on the needs of industry 4.0. This study employed research and development. From the results of the study, development was carried out to produce a practicum learning management model called MOMANTIKPROIN 4.0. Suggestions were conveyed to the heads of vocational schools to strengthen the partnership of vocational schools and industry, especially to conduct analysis of workforce competency requirements according to needs of industry 4.0. Pages 1294 to 1314




The Effect of Technology Enhanced Language Learning on Arabic-Speaking EFL Students’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools/UAE

Zuhrieh Shanaa, Amjad Owaisb, Youna Radwanc, Roman Tsarevd, a,b,cAl Ain University, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E, dSiberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia, Email: azoeshanaa@yahoo.com, bamjad.owais@aau.ac.ae, cyouna.radwan@gmail.com, dTsarev.sfu@mail.ru

This quasi-experimental study intends to find the electiveness of using modern technology, such as smart boards, computers, or educational channels via YouTube, on the academic achievement of Arabic-speaking EFL students in learning the English language and on students’ awareness and perception. The study involved two second grades of English language students, divided into experimental and control groups (a total of fifty eight students, n= 58). The same teaching techniques were used on both sections to cover the same writing, reading comprehension, grammar and vocabulary materials. Technology was used for the experimental group but not for the control group. Pre and post-test scores were compared to detect significant differences before and after the intervention. Teacher observations/notes were used as data collection tools. Additionally, a post-instruction base questionnaire to reflect the participants’ opinions about the effectiveness of technology-based instruction on English language skills was conducted to see if they had enjoyed the experience. Data generated from the study revealed significant improvement over a reasonable period of time. Moreover, technology-based instruction had an obvious impact on student’s academic performance and their perception of English language learning. Pages 1315 to 1336




Big Data and Digital Knowledge in Combating COVID-19

Caroline Paskarinaa, aUniversitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, Email: acaroline.paskarina@unpad.ac.id

COVID-19 has made us aware that we need to actively participate by changing our behaviour to slow the ongoing spread of the global pandemic. We learned from many countries that the mode of governing the transmission of this virus is led by data-driven citizen awareness and timely government responses. Through a literature study of early publications discussing the efforts to cope with the outbreak, this article finds the rise of data-driven awareness as a basis to construct knowledge and further influence collective behaviour. Big data plays a strategic role in constructing knowledge of COVID-19, communicating awareness of personal hygiene, and building shared commitment to act in the form of self-isolation or social distancing to protect vulnerable others. It goes even further by encouraging governments to take strategic steps in handling the problem. These findings confirm the significance of big data as an instrument for social mobilisation and governing in the time of crisis while emphasising the importance of integrating data science as a basis for evidence-based decision making for further public policy. Pages 1354 to 1367




The Board of Directors' responsibility for implementing corporate governance rules

Alkarar Habib Jahloula, aImam Al-Kadhim Faculty  (AS).Iraq,

Corporate governance is particularly important because these companies play an important role and an indicator in economic activity in most countries of the world, including Iraq and represent an important part of the economy, production and job creation, and this importance imposes an obligation on those responsible for it, specifically the Board of Directors to enjoy transparency in work and apply the rules of governance In order to protect the life of the company and the interests of its clients, and to preserve the local economy in general, therefore, the relevant laws committed the members of the Board of Directors to abide by the governance and the application of its rules, and otherwise they have legal responsibility and are neglected to perform a duty They are career and professional, and this is what we cover in this research. Pages 1368 to 1386




Treatment of the Losses According to Iraqi Penetrative Tax Legislation and International Standard (12) Income Tax and its Role in the Disclosure

Emaad Ghafoori Abood Al Najjara, aWasit University/ College of Administration and Economics, Email: aealnajjar@uowasit.edu.iq

The goal issues accounting standards that related to income tax no. (12), is development of accounting treatment and contents of the financial statements to achieve the disclosure, transparency and to improve measurement methods and disclosure. Therefore, it isn't committing apply this standard effects on credibility of financial statements in its disclosure, transparency and capability for comparison. So the attention of international standard (12) leads disclosure elements of tax variances that should be measured and disclosed. The tax variances are taking place like losses and carrying out them forward are one of the temporary variance which treated by the international standard as tax asset appears in the statement of balance sheet, while these variances didn't treat in Iraqi tax legislation, and it doesn't adoption applications of the General commission for tax which it's failure in disclosure, then it's not available suitable information related to mount of payable and deferred tax for beneficiary parts of financial statements to making economic decisions. The research has dealt with the variances arising from realized tax losses that can be carry forward which requires follow the tax impress in the future through carrying out the losses and their advantage to achieve tax savings for future. Pages 1387 to 1407




Islamic Consumer Personality and its Correlation with Islamic Banking Preferences in Riau Province, Indonesia

Mutiara Dwi Saria*, Mohd ‘Adli Zahrib, Zahri Hamatc, Ahmad Shaifful Anuard, Salimah Yahayae. a,Faculty of Social Sciences, University College Bestari, Terengganu, Malaysia, bOperation Division BUJ Technology Enterprise Sdn. Bhd. 15100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia cFaculty of Economics and Management, University College Bestari, Setiu, Terengganu, dCentre For Islamic Development Management Studies (ISDEV), Universiti Sains Malaysia. eAcademy Contemporary Islamic Studies, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Cawangan Terengganu, Malaysia, Email: a*mutiara_dwisari@yahoo.com, bm.adlizahri@gmail.com, czahri@ucbestari.edu.my, dshaiful_87@yahoo.com, esalimahyahya@uitm.edu.my

This research aims to determine the correlation between Islamic consumer personality and socioeconomics with Islamic banking preferences among the Muslim community in Riau. Islamic personality refers to the Islamic consumers’ personality index based on the criteria of faith (iman), worship (ibadah), trust (amanah), knowledge (ilmu), brotherhood (ukhuwwah) and gratitude (qana'ah). Consumer socioeconomics profile characteristics are gender, age, education, primary income and additional income. A quantitative study was conducted using questionnaires involving 437 respondents in Riau Province, Indonesia. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25, which involved descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation and multiple regression. The findings show that there is a positive correlation between personality and Islamic banking preference. The Pearson correlation analysis shows that the ukhuwwah criterion has the highest correlation value (r=0.565; p<0.01) and the Iman criterion records the lowest correlation value (r=0.412; p<0.01). Overall, the value of the correlation between personality and bank preference is high (r=0.524; p<0.01). In terms of consumer socioeconomics, multiple regression analysis showed a significant influence on Islamic banking preferences. Gender, age, primary income and additional income variables have a significant influence on Islamic banking preferences (p <0.01). Educational variables do not have a significant effect on Islamic banking preferences but still maintain a positive correlation. Pages 1408 to 1417




Adapted Bass Diffusion Model for the Spread of COVID-19 in the Philippines: Implications to Interventions and Flattening the Curve

Zeny L. Maureala*, Jovelin M. Lapatesb, Madelaine S. Dumandanc, Vanda Kay B. Bicard, Derren N. Gayloe, aCollege of Arts and Sciences, b,cCollege of Technology, d,eCollege of Education, Bukidnon State University, Philippines, Email: a*zlmaureal2014@gmail.com

Understanding the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most studied phenomena at present. Researchers were using various models to show their characteristics to make solutions. In this study, an adapted bass diffusion model was used to determine the time when the COVID-19 curve flattens in the Philippines. Further, it also determined the possible incidence of the second wave of infection. Also, it forecasted the number of infections per month and calculated the doubling time. Results revealed that the flattening of the curve is still not happening at present in the Philippines. The country is still facing the first wave. With this, sustaining and boosting its strategies in fighting the spread of the virus is a priority. Pages 1418 to 1437




Open-Book Management: An approach for Information Sharing to Reduce Organisational Anomie

Ismael H. Khalila, aDuhok Polytechnic University, Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, Email: aHadikh@dpu.edu.krd 

The primary motive behind this study is to enhance understanding of the relationship between open-book management as an approach for information sharing and organisational anomie. The study examined the effects of information sharing, training, and empowerment as principles of open-book management on organisational anomie. Data were collected using a questionnaire from 72 employees at the Administrative Technical Institute – Duhok Polytechnic University, and the hypotheses were tested using several statistical tools. The result of this study revealed that information sharing, training, and empowerment have a significant effect on organisational anomie. The implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research were discussed. The originality of this study stems from the scarcity of studies that investigated the relationships between open-book management as an approach for information sharing and organisational anomie. Pages 1438 to 1453




The Role of Supreme Court Judges as the Agent of Change in Improving the Quality of Decisions in the Realisation of Law and Legal Reform

Suparnyoa, aFaculty of Law, Universitas Muria Kudus,

Judicial issues in Indonesia are often in the spotlight because judges’ decisions are often regarded as not considering substantive truth but rather tend to consider normative truth. This article is intended to elucidate what the role of supreme court judges is in order to become the Agents of Change in realising the substantive decisions that become the foundation of legal and judicial reform in Indonesia, especially the decisions that are substantive and able to become jurisprudence for making the law decisions in the future. Supreme court judges, as the judge, supervisor, regulator, advisor and executor of administrative duties, have a strategic role in encouraging and creating law and legal reform in Indonesia. Pages 1454 to 1464




Imogiri Traditional Handmade Batik as a Representation of Cultural Capital in Indonesia

Sugiyamina*, Moh. Rusnoto Susantob, Heri Cahyo Nugrohoc, Dwi Susantod, Dio Pamolae, Insanul Qisti Barriyahf, Bayu Rahmat Setiadig, a,b,c,d,e,f,gArt Education Department, Universitas Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: a*sugiyamin@gmail.comgbayursetiadi@uny.ac.id

This research describes the traditional handmade batik style of Imogiri Yogyakarta, a new representation of cultural capital in Indonesia. This type of research refers to descriptive qualitative with a historical approach. The first step, the data collection process was carried out through various sources, 7 group of Imogiri batik craftsmen, national batik experts at the Indonesian National Batik and Crafts Centre, academics as well as batik researchers, and promoters at the Postgraduate Program at Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta when the thesis research process was carried out. The results of this study present that the revitalisation of handmade batik styles has been formed as an effort to represent new traditional handmade batik as well as a new representation of the cultural capital of traditional Imogiri handmade batik styles in Yogyakarta. Batik has been able to maintain identity, self-esteem, and cultural identity as social capital as well as Indonesian cultural capital. Pages 1465 to 1476




Bank Efficiency Analysis: Study of Indonesia’s Conventional Bank

Gatot Nazir Ahmada*, Lely Pramitasarib, I Gusti Ketut Agung Ulupuic, Dicky Irantod, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Email: a*ahmad72nazir@gmail.com

This study aims to examine the efficiency of the banking industry sector in Indonesia. Many efficiency tests have been carried out in Indonesia, but they only discuss technical efficiency. In this study, we discuss efficiency even further. The efficiency tested in this study includes technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, and cost-efficiency. Efficiency testing in this study uses BUKU 1, BUKU 2, BUKU 3, and BUKU 4 categories. Our finding shows that BUKU category has a varied effect on the bank efficiency. Pages 1477 to 1494




The Effect of Using Hybrid Training Techniques to Improve Digital Competency for Undergraduate Students in Thai Higher Education Institutions

Thamasan  Suwanroja, Chanaichon Damsrib, a,bNakhon Si Thammarat Rajabhat University, Thailand, Email: athamasan_suw@nstru.ac.thbchanaichon_dam@nstru.ac.th

Learning and teaching management in the digital society age has the main goal of focusing on the development of competencies and learning outcomes of learners to apply knowledge in real life. The purpose of the research is to develop the digital competency needed by 1st year undergraduate students of higher education institutions in Thailand with mixed training techniques. Through an experimental research process. The research methodology is divided into 3 phases. The 1st phase is a drafting of a mixed training program to develop digital competencies that are necessary for students. The 2nd phase is to check the quality of the draft training program to develop digital competency that is necessary for students from the group of informants, namely a group of experts of 5 people and the 3rd phase is to try a training course for the development of digital performance at essential for students. The sample group consisted of 80 1st year undergraduate students from all institutions of higher education in Thailand in the 1st semester of the academic year 2019, consisting of 80 people. The samples were selected by random sampling by dividing into 2 groups by drawing lots. Training with a mixed curriculum developed. And the group that received regular training. The research instruments were 1) the quality evaluation form of the composite training program to develop digital competency needed for students, 2) the mixed training program to develop the digital competency needed for students, and 3) the digital competency measurement form that required for students. The research found that the developed mixed training program has a very high quality. And can be used very well. As for the experimentation of the mixed training curriculum to develop the digital competency that is necessary for the students with the mixed training technique, it was found that after the training. The required digital performance mean scores between the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group at .01 level by using test statistics. In the case of variance from both populations that are not different (pooled variance t-test independent t-test), it is concluded that the development of digital competencies that are necessary for students with mixed training techniques can be used as a model for developing digital competencies. Necessary, all 1st year students of all faculties in higher education institutions in Thailand can be efficiently. And responding to the goals of learning management in the digital society era that focuses on the development of competencies and learning outcomes. Pages 1495 to 1519




Government Supervision of Co-operatives in the Perspective of Indonesian and Malaysian Law: Lesson Learned from Malaysia Experience

Herman Suryokumoroa*, Rika Kurniatyb, a,bLaw Faculty, University of Brawijaya Jalan Veteran, Malang, Indonesia, 65145, Email: a*hermans-fh@ub.ac.id

Cooperative in Indonesia is a form of implementing a democratic economic system under the Indonesian constitution's mandate. Cooperatives are designed to be the third economic pillar after the State Enterprises sector and the Private sector in Indonesian economic development. As an embodiment of the country, the government has a strategic role in developing cooperatives, including cooperative supervision. However, the role of state supervision in the development of cooperatives in Indonesia is still questionable. Studies related to how the system and function of control of cooperatives in Indonesia in particular and the Asia Pacific region, in general, are still minimal. Therefore, this study aims to analyse the role of the government in Indonesia's cooperative supervision by comparing the Malaysian cooperative supervision policy. This study employs a normative juridical research method with a comparative approach to analysis laws and regulations related to cooperative supervision. This study reveals that the role of government in cooperative supervision under Indonesian legislation is not as strong as in Malaysia. In Malaysian cooperative regulation, the role of the government is dominant. Malaysian Cooperative Societies Act 1993 regulated that the authority on supervision, examination, and liquidation of the cooperative lies with the government / Commission (SKM). In this paper, we suggest that Malaysia's cooperative supervision system could be employed as a learning material for the development of cooperatives in Indonesia. The Indonesian government's role as supervisors of cooperatives must be formulated in legislation to develop Indonesia's cooperative. The government should not only function as a builder but also the supervisor of the cooperative. Pages 1520 to 1536




Impact of Corporate Communication on Employee Engagement with Change: Insights from the Telecommunication Sector of Pakistan

Farzana Akmal Memona, Sobia Shahb, Imam Uddin Khosoc, a,b,cUniversity of Sindh Jamshoro, Email: afarzanamemon7@gmail.combsobiashah@hotmail.comcimam.khoso@usindh.edu.pk

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of corporate communication during an organisation’s structural change across the telecommunication sector of Pakistan that has experienced persistent planned changes. Structural changes in the study includes mergers, acquisitions and divestitures, focusing on how change leadership and change management relate to employees’ experience of the change processes and their outcomes across these change situations. Data was analysed through structural equation modelling employing the two-step method. Data were collected from telecommunication companies undergoing restructuring changes. Utilising Kurt Lewin’s three-step model, the study found that effective communication of change (unfreezing) creates employee’s readiness with change (moving) which then fosters employee engagement (refreezing). This study adds to the knowledge by suggesting the boundary conditions between corporate communication and employee’s readiness such that the relationship of corporate communication and employee’s readiness with change is stronger when employee’s openness is high rather than low. Pages 1537 to 1558




The Effect of the Application of Strategic Intelligence and its Relationship with Cyber Risk Management during the COVID-19 Pandemic Period

Ali Matar1*, Salahaldeen Nsour2, Amal Yousef3, Seema AbuKaraki4, 1School of Business, Jadara University, Irbid, Jordan, 2,4Jordan Phosphate Mines Co JPMC, Al, Jordan, 3School of Business, Emirates College of Technology, UAE, Email: 1*amatar@jadara.edu.jo

The study aimed to identify the impact of the application of strategic intelligence on the cyber risk management in Jordanian mining companies;  five dimensions of strategic intelligence were identified, which are: foresight, systems thinking, future vision (strategic), partnership, and motivation. To measure its impact on cyber risk management, a questionnaire was designed to measure the variables of the study and was distributed  to Jordanian mining companies; then the results were analysed during the Covid-19 pandemic period. Some of the most important results of the study were that there is an application of strategic intelligence in Jordanian mining companies on average of 70.8%. The most common application was the partnership with high implementation and relative weight of 78.1%. The lowest application of motivation with an average application rate, was 64%. It was noted that there is a focus by the management of Jordanian mining companies on partnership as a way to developed the company and achieve its vision and objectives and also focus on sharing the decision with each other or with other companies to get stronger. The study provides some implications to decision-makers to help them to rethink  the  information collected to see its current or future implications on the company. The study also recommended to senior management in the Jordanian mining companies to extrapolate the future to develop its strategy in the long term and to have a vision with holistic dimensions that determine the direction of their business. Pages 1559 to 1580




Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Saudi Married Women Using Oral Contraceptives

Shaimaa Ezzat Bashaa, Monira Abdulrahman Almeqrenb, aAssociate Professor, Department of Psychology, College of Education, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia; Faculty of Arts, Helwan University, Egypt, bAssistant Professor, Department of Psychology, College of Education, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia,

Email: aShaimaa_basha@arts.helwan.edu.eg, Shaimaa_basha@arts.helwan.edu.egbmaalmgrn@pnu.edu.sa

The present study aims at revealing the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms in Saudi married women using oral contraceptives, as well as examining the differences according the variables of age, education, duration of marriage, duration of using the medication, and symptoms accompanying the use of contraceptives.  Method: The research sample consists of 590 Saudi married women using oral contraceptives, whose ages range between 21-60 years (mean age = 35.74 7.62). The research instruments included: Anxiety scale and Beck’s Depression Inventory.  Results: The study found that more than half the research participants (52.2%) suffered above average anxiety symptoms, while 9.15% of participants had severe anxiety symptoms. Additionally, most participants (72.03%) did not have any depression symptoms, while 2.03% had severe depression symptoms. The study also found that anxiety and depression symptoms in Saudi women using oral contraceptives decline the higher the age. The results revealed that the higher levels of depression were associated with an increase in premenstrual syndrome (PMS), followed by a decreased libido. Finally, the lowest level of depression was associated with irregular menstrual periods. Moreover, severe levels of anxiety in Saudi married women using oral contraceptives were accompanied with severe levels of depression and vice versa. Pages 1581 to 1602




Pesantren Quality Management; Government Intervention in the Policy of the Pesantren Law in Indonesia

Dakira, Ahmad Fauzib, Khairil Anwarc, a,cState Institute for Islamic Studies, Palangkaraya, Indonesia, bDepartement of Islamic Education, IAI Zainul Hasan, Probolinggo, Indonesia, Email: adakir@iain-palangkaraya.ac.idbfauzi_nov4@yahoo.co.idckhairilanwar@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id 

This research praxis aims to describe the management of the quality of pesantren education in the wake of the disruption of government policies regarding the pesantren law. Therefore, government intervention can significantly influence the implementation of pesantren education in Indonesia. This research uses a library research approach, and practically produces several appeals; a) management of pesantren education after the enactment of the pesantren law gave birth to several aspects; as a form of government recognition of pesantren with its distinctiveness as an Islamic education; the development of pesantren is not only an internal responsibility of pesantren, but also the community and government; b) quality management of pesantren education is the result of construction of the values of al-Qur'an and al-Hadith, internalisation of these values, then gave birth to a proto type of quality management of pesantren that is different from general education, through three approaches: quality planning, quality control and quality improvement; c) management of the quality of pesantren education is carried out in continuous improvement, through several approaches namely: plan, do, check, and act, so that the quality that is built really matches the expectations of the community and strengthens the existence of pesantren education. Pages 1603 to 1620




A Preliminary Study to Recognise Loloda Nomads’ Identity: A Description of Loloda Community Folklore

Betsi Rooroha, Djoko Saryonob, Maryaenic, Yuni Pratiwid, aGraduate School Universitas Negeri Malang and Manado State Polytechnic, Indonesia, b,c,dIndonesian Language Teaching, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: aroorohbetsi@gmail.com">betsi.rooroh@outlook.com,roorohbetsi@gmail.combdjoko.saryono.fs@um.ac.idcmaryaeni.fs@um.ac.iddyunipratiwi_fsum@yahoo.com  

The glory of the Loloda kingdom was lost after it was annexed by the Sultanate of Ternate. This situation also impacts on the lack of attention of writers and researchers who study Loloda in general, and the ethnic culture of Loloda Overseas (OLP) in particular, though they have a noble cultural identity that needs to be preserved and passed down. This initial study of OLP cultural identity aims to reproduce and describe the folklore that is the treasure of OLP ethnic identity. The findings of this study are in the form of descriptions of 6 (six) story units of folklore. The 6 folktales are titled; The Ori Eating Tradition (Turtle), The Origin of the Kora-Kora Place Name, The Origin of the Aermadidi Place Name (Loloda Version), The Origins of the Tradition of Serving Loloda, the Tradition of Tooth Brutting, and the Foot washing Tradition. Pages 1621 to 1638




Nibitanisi Philosophy of Sumuri Ethnic in West Papuan Oral Tradition

Adolina V. Lefaana, Imam Suyitnob, Maryaenic, Yuni Pratiwid, aGraduate School Universitas Negeri Malang and Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Indonesian Language Study Program, Cenderawasih University, Indonesia, b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia,

This study aims at describing the philosophy of Nibitanisi as the Sumuri ethnic identity which was transmitted through oral literature. This research uses an ethnographic approach with participant observation, interviews, and document study techniques. The findings of the research show that Nibitanisi harmonises Sumuri's human relations with God, personality, nature, and society. In conclusion, the philosophy of Nibitanisi reflects the Grandmother May as the essence of Sumuri’s customs and ethnic life in West Papua. Pages 1639 to 1658




Service innovation: An empirical study of antecedents and outcome

Saowaluk Jitnom, Faculty of Business Administration, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Thailand, Email: saowaluk.ji@rmuti.ac.th    

Many service industries often build competitive development of high-quality products and services for reasons of competitive advantage. The objective of this study is to investigate the antecedent factors that affect service innovation and sustainable competitive advantage of the service industry. These antecedent factors consist of learning capability, customer orientation, and innovation orientation. This study was conducted based on empirical data. The sample used in the study was collected from 124 executives of service industry enterprises in Thailand by simple random sampling. Questionnaire was used as a tool to gather data. Subsequently, the data was analysed and reliability was checked by Cronbach alpha, with a value of 0.90. It was confirmed by factor analysis and the consistency of the model influence on the performance of Thai service industry was checked. The research data was analysed using regression analysis. The results verified the prediction of qualitative relationships to be an essential instrument that helped the service industry to improve its sustainable competitive advantage with the proposal of efficient learning capability design, and adaptation of innovation and customer orientation models toward the ever-changing digital economy evolution. Moreover, the results of this study were executed effectively, starting from participation in the management theory to a discussion of suggestions and conclusion for future research directions. Pages 1659 to 1677



The Influence of Manner of Articulation and General Features on Creating Secondary Characteristics of Sibilants

Tareq Zyadata, aArabic Department, Isra University Amman, Jordan.

Sibilance is one of the strong features which distinguish; “seen” “zai”, and “Saad”, 11th, 12th, 13th Arabic alphabets, known as sibilants. As these differ with regard to manner of articulation and some general features, this difference is noticed in their degree and type. This is the influence which prompted this research to investigate the influence of sibilance on the secondary features which distinguish each of them. I took into consideration scholars’ attitudes and their description of the place of articulation, general features, airstream flow, and what affects the articulatory system. The research adopted the descriptive analytical method in order to explain how sibilance in the “seen” figure (1) is shrill and heavy because of hissing and voicelessness, while that of “zai” figure (2) is audibly clearer for it is tense, due to ‘voicedness’. That of the “saad” figure (3) is tense and emphatic because of the closure resulting from the tip of the tongue moving up toward hard palate. Pages 1678 to 1695