The Effect of Brand Personality Perceived by Outdoor Ware Consumers on Brand Attitude and Brand Loyalty

Baek-Youn Kima, Young-Hee Hanb, Chun-Ho Yangc*, aProfessor, Dept, Martial arts & Guard, Howon Unviersity, Gunsan, 54058, Korea, bProfessor, Dept. Taxation, Namseoul University, Cheonan, 31020, Korea, cProfessor, Dept, Lesure Marine Sports, Seosan, 31962, Korea, Email: ahl4gyv@hanmail.netbhanyh119@naver.comc*healthyang@hanseo.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: The objective of this research is to examine the effect of brand personality of consumers on brand attitudes and brand loyalty. Methods/Statistical analysis: To achieve the research aim, this research involved a survey of 261 college students who had bought outdoor wears from March to May 2018. Data analysis revealed the following findings. Findings: First, it was established that attractiveness, self-expression, uniqueness, sense of identity, perceived by outdoor wear consumers, significantly impacts the brand attitude. Second, it was also established that attractiveness, self-expression, uniqueness and sense of identity, perceived by outdoor wear consumers, significantly affects brand loyalty. It was confirmed that brand personality perceived by real consumers of outdoor wears has significant effects on brand attitudes and brand loyalty. Through the systematic analysis of attributes related to actual buying behavior of outdoor wear consumers, this research provided the basis for developing effective consumer marketing strategies for makers of such brands. Improvements/Applications: Additionally, when applying brand personality to a sports site, consideration of brand personality depending on the objects or situation must be made. Therefore, research is necessary to comprehensively understand various personalities of outdoor wear brands, bearing in mind the consumers of different age groups. Pages 1 to 14




The Relationship between Motives of Participation in Weekend Program and Customer Trust among Taekwondo Trainees

Jong-Sik Lima, Chun-Ho Yangb*, aPh.D. Student, Dept. of Physical Education, Kunsan University,  Kunsan, 54150, Korea, b*Professor, Dept. of Leisure Marine Sports, Hanseo University, Seosan, 31962, Korea, Email: asik1009@hanmail.netb*healthang@hanseo.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: This study was done to examine the relationship between the motives of participation in weekend programs and customer trust among taekwondo trainees. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study conducted a survey on 273 taekwondo trainees who are in the fourth grade of elementary school or over. By using the SPSS 21.0 statistical program, this study performed a frequency, exploratory factor, reliability test, correlation, and multivariate regression analyses, and the findings were as follows. Findings: First, in the relationship between the motives of participation in weekend programs and customer trust, sub-variables of participation motives ― suggestion of parents, leisure activities, and improvement of athletic ability ― were all positively correlated with the sub-variables of customer trust, trustworthiness, friendliness, and integrity. The improvement of learning capacity was positively correlated with trustworthiness and integrity. Second, the suggestion of parents, leisure activities and improvement of athletic ability had positive effects on trustworthiness and friendliness. However, the improvement of learning capacity had negative effects on friendliness. Improvements/Applications: The suggestion of parents, leisure activities, improvement of athletic ability and improvement of learning capacity had positive effects on integrity.  Pages 15 to 27




 The Effect of Sensation-Seeking Tendency on Sports Socialization among Marine Sports Club Members

Kyung-Seok Hana, Chun-Ho Yangb*, aDirector of Hans Marine Research Institute, Anyang, 14059, Korea, bProfessor Dept. of Leisure Marine Sports, Hanseo University, Seosan, 31962, Korea, Email: ahanstrd@empal.comb*healthyang@hanseo.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the effect of sensation-seeking tendency of marine sports club members on their sports socialization. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study involved a survey that had 268 respondents. Frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability test, correlation analysis and multi-variate regression analysis, were done using a statistical program, SPSS21.0. The study established the following findings. Findings: First, among sub-variables of sensation-seeking tendency, disinhibition has a negative effect on dominance. Second, experience-seeking and thrill/adventure have a positive effect on activity. Third, boredom susceptibility, experience-seeking and thrill/adventure have a positive effect on security. Forth, experience-seeking and thrill/adventure have a positive effect on autonomy. Fifth, boredom susceptibility, thrill/adventure, and disinhibition have a positive effect on sociability.  Improvements/Applications: In conclusion, while disinhibition has a negative effect on activity, sensation-seeking tendency has a partially positive effect on sports socialization. Pages 28 to 41




The Effect of ‘Maniac’ Types on Cognitive Emotional Experiences Among Marine Sports Participants

Do-Wong, Hama, Kyung-Seok Hanb, Chun-Ho Yangc*, a,cProfessor Dept. of Leisure Marine Sports, Hanseo University, Seosan, 31962, Korea, bDirector of Hans Marine Research Institute, Anyang, 14059, Korea, Email: amarine@hanseo.ac.krbhanstrd@empal.comc*healthyang@hanseo.ac.kr

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maniac types among marine sports participants on their cognitive emotional experiences. Methods/Statistical analysis: To achieve this study’s purpose, a survey was conducted with 472 marine sports participants. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 statistical program for frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability test, correlation analysis, and multi-variate regression analysis. Findings: Findings of the analysis are as follows. First, the three types of mania (cognitive, emotional, and behavioural) had a positive relationship with their cognitive emotional experiences (self-confidence, pleasure, self-realization, and sense of immersion). Second, emotional and behavioral types had positive effects on self-confidence. Third, cognitive and behavioral types had positive effects on pleasure. Fourth, cognitive and behavioral types had positive effects on self-realization. Fifth, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral types had positive effects on the sense of immersion. Improvements/Applications: In conclusion, maniac types of marine sports participants have partially positive effects on cognitive emotional experiences. Pages 42 to 55




 Maintaining the Value of Human Diversity through Implementing Thariqah Alawiyah

Ali Ridhoa, Ali Khatibib, Ferdous Azamc, Abdillahd, Jacquline Thame, Eddy Yusuff, aGraduate School of Management, Management & Science University, 40100 Shah Alam, Malaysia, b,c,e,fPost Graduate Centre, Management & Science University, 40100 Shah Alam, Malaysia, dAccounting Department, Politeknik Negeri Jakarta, 16242 Depok, Indonesia, Email: aali@itkj.ac.idbalik@msu.edu.my, cdrferdous@msu.edu.my,   dabdillah@pnj.ac.id,   ejacquline@msu.edu.my,   feddy@msu.edu.my

This study discusses Tariqah Alawiyah conducted by qualitative methods, surveys, observation, and participation. The Ba 'Alawi sadah or Sadah Ba 'Alawi (Arabic: السادة آل باعلوي‎, romanized: al-sādatu al-bā'alawiy) are a group of Hadhrami Sayyid families and social groups originating in Hadhramaut in the southwest corner of the Arabian Peninsula. Meanwhile, Alawiyyin (Arabic: العلويّن‎; al-`alawiyyin) Sayyid term is used to describe descendants of Ali bin Abi Thalib from Husain ibn Ali (Sayyids) and Hasan ibn Ali (Sharifs). All people of Ba 'Alawi are Alawiyyin Sayyids through Husain ibn Ali, but not all people of Alawiyyin family are of Ba 'Alawi. The sources of data taken from books and interviews are related to the history of Ba'alawi, the Alawiyah tarekat teachings, the development of the Alawiyah, Ratib and the Alawiyah tarekat orders in the Hadhramaut region and Indonesia. This article/research uses a qualitative method by taking focus group discussions with the local community of alawiyah in Indonesia. Further, this article applies critical theory on the literature of Islamic management in order to know more about the geneology and history of alawiyah thariqah in the world. Based on this approach, we find a new concept of thariqah, especially in the context of Arabic/Islamic diaspora in Indonesia. Briefly, Rabithah Alawiyah is an Islamic organization engaged in social and socio-religious fields. In general, it belongs to Arab descendants who are direct descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. Rabithah Alawiyah is a business which managed to maintain and preserve the ancestry chain for the prophet Muhammad SAW. The results of this study aim to provide knowledge of history, teachings, wirid and dzikir, and the development of the Alawiyah Order in Hadhramaut and in Indonesia, which promotes morals and can be the axis of humanity in religion. Pages 56 to 71




 Effectiveness of Cooperative and Mastery Learning Styles on Handball Skills amongst Iraqi School Students

Ahmed Raad Yousifa, Syed Kamaruzaman Syed Alib, Hutkemri Zulnaidic, a,b,cDepartment Mathematics and Science Education, Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Email: apva180104@siswa.um.edu.mybsyed@um.edu,mychutkemri@um.edu.my

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cooperative and mastery learning styles on basic handball skills amongst secondary school students in Iraq. A total of 85 students participated in this study, which was conducted using a quasi-experimental research design. Particularly, basic handball skill tests were administered before and after a treatment process. The students were divided into three groups and were taught by the same teacher. The first and second experimental groups were taught via cooperative and mastery learning styles, respectively. Meanwhile, the traditional learning style was employed in the control group. Results showed that students under the experimental group scored significantly higher than those in the control group, after eight weeks. This study presents substantial evidence that learning styles can significantly and positively affect the basic handball skills of secondary school students. Pages 72 to 86




The Role of Islamic Religious Institutions in Halal Consumerism in Malaysia: A Review

Alias Azhara, aSchool of Law, UUMCOLGIS University Utara Malaysia Malaysia, Email: aaz.alias@uum.edu.my

Understanding and appreciation of the Islamic community towards halal products is simply inadequate. They are in need of protection and legal guarantees that really are enforceable (halalan thoyyiba). Halal is not merely the meaning of a product that can be eaten because it is not prohibited by Islamic law but it also includes the meaning of 'good' (thayyib) ie clean, holy, safe, good quality and not harmful. Hence the objective of this article is to study and link the role of religious institutions in the legal context and law of halal consumerism in Malaysia. Through its descriptive and content analysis, this article outlines the legal provisions relating to the establishment and jurisdiction of the Fatwa institutions and the Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) which also serves to ensure halal consumerism in Malaysia. In addition to the creation of halal guidelines that also serves as a general reference in the implementation of the responsibility of protecting the halal consumerism of Muslims, in particular in Malaysia. The authors conclude that the functions and roles of religious institutions, especially the National Fatwa Committee, JAKIM and the state Islamic Department of Religious Affairs (MAIN / JAIN) are crucial in ensuring the protection of halal consumerism in the Muslim community in Malaysia. Fatwa and guidelines are to be widely disseminated to the community and given a great deal of understanding to entrepreneurs, traders and consumers. Pages 87 to 100




Psychometric Properties of Mymica Multiple Intelligence Instruments Among Delinquent Student in Primary School

Syuzianti Shaaria, Mohd. Effendi @ Ewan Mohd. Matoreb, a,bFaculty Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia, E-mail: asyuziantishaari@gmail.combeffendi@ukm.edu.my

The lack of empirical evidence on the psychometric testing among Multiple Intelligence instruments (MI) has become a serious problem in term of its application. Measurement instrument of MI in the context of delinquent student in primary schools or MyMICA, that has been tested by using Rasch Measurement Model, is believed to improve the validity and reliability of the items significantly. Hence, this research aims to investigate the properties of psychometric test items for MI instruments. That is the Malaysian Checklist for Adult (MyMICA) using the Rasch Measurement Model in the context of delinquent students in primary school. A total of 112 students from eight primary schools in Hulu Langat district, Selangor were involved in this study. Respondents were selected through the purposive sampling technique. The findings proved that a total of 62 items met the main assumptions of the Rasch Measurement Model which are i) item fit, ii) unidimensionality and iii) local independence. Whereas, 19 items have been omitted. The reliability index and the separation index for MyMICA instrument shows a high value. Therefore, this research shall be contributing significantly to the aspects of testing items for MI instruments by using the Rasch Measurement Model. Thus, MI instrument of MyMICA could be applied in the context of delinquent student in primary schools in Malaysia. Pages 101 to 118




Product Attributes Affected Manufacturing KPI to have Better Control of Quality: A Further Case Study of a 500-Workers Sheet Metal Manufacturer in China

Pit-yan Lia, aQuality Director, Best Ideal Limited, Hong Kong, Email: ahpyli@yahoo.com.hk

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) is identified to monitor the organization’s performance and strategic alignment. The choice of what should be the proper KPIs has quickly become a major field of study in recent years. All of these are either technically too complicated for most staff, while they carry out their usual daily duties, or are too administratively delayed in the sense that data (or the KPIs) have to be separately collected, slowly gathered, and collectively analyzed before they would turn into information that is meaningful to the top management. This paper is a study of manufacturing standard KPIs and product attributes to see if there is any correlation between them. Research data had been collected from a medium-size, traditional 500-worker sheet metal manufacturer located in China, in a period of over 9 months (including 98 shipments, each shipment had around 250,000 pieces of products). Using various analyses tools such as t-tests and k-means clustering, factor analysis, linear regression and logistic regression were performed for data analysis to assess the effect of different combinations of product attributes (size, complexity - no. of production steps involved no. of manpower and no. of stamping machines, model types – New vs. Old models) to standard KPIs, like defect rate, yield loss, productivity, worker efficiency and etc. The analysis results showed only standard KPIs itself was just a performance measurement without helping the manufacturing business to make a profit. However, using product attributes together with KPIs, these could forecast the defect rate and yield loss. This helped Sales and Marketing to strategically target types of orders from customers, finally enhancing the organizational profit. Pages 119 to 133




 Promoting Active Learning in the ESL Classroom: Tertiary Level Students’ Perspectives on Lecturing Approaches

Noor Alhusna binti Madzlana, aDepartment of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Malaysia, E-mail: anooralhusna@fbk.upsi.edu.my

The present study explores students’ experience in teaching English as a Second Language (ESL). Its approaches range from traditional to interactive lectures which include e-learning tools. The purpose of different lecturing approaches is to promote active learning as part of learner-centred education, among tertiary students. This exploratory study examined responses from over 70 ESL students about their preferences in the lecturing presented to them. Results indicated that the students selected the game-based online platform, “Kahoot!”, as the best lecturing approach for understanding the course. Pages 134 to 144




Islamic Estate Planning (IEP): Key Factor for Muslim Women Not Having Estate Planning Products

Sarimah Basaha, Putri Rozita Tahirb, a,bFaculty of Management, DRB-HICOM University of Automotive Malaysia, Email: asarimah.muamalat@gmail.combputri@dhu.edu.my

Islamic Wealth Management (IWM) is one of the services available in Islamic Financial Institutions and is applicable to all ages through its comprehensive financial planning cycle: wealth creation, accumulation, purification, protection and distribution. Customers are generally exposed to the first three stages of the wealth cycle but wealth distribution receives less attention especially from Muslims due to over reliance on fara’id distribution laws. Muslim’s frozen assets in Malaysia has increased to over RM60 billion in January 2018, due to a longer process taken for the cases under fara’id and with a lack of will writing. This paper investigates the relationship between Financial Obstacle, Lack of Knowledge, No Major Life Events, and Islamic Estate Planning (IEP) Product. Google forms were sent to Muslim women in the banking industry already exposed to IWM or Wealth Management (WM) . A Descriptive Analysis, Pearson Correlation and Regression findings revealed that Financial Obstacle, Lack of Knowledge and Non-Importance of Products are contributing factors to these women not having any Intention to have any Islamic Estate Planning products.  The findings expose that despite respondents having had major events in their life, it still does not have significant correlation with the intention to have IEP products. Pages 145 to 159




 Religiosity and Sustainable Development: Application of Positive Psychology

Azlina Abu Bakara, R.Zirwatul Aida R.Ibrahimb, Mazidah Mohd Dagangc, Intan Safinas Mohd Ariff AlBakryd, aFaculty of Human Development, Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI),Malaysia, b,cFaculty of Business, Economy & Social Develoment, University Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Malaysia, dFaculty of Language & Communication, Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI), Malaysia, Email: aazlina.ab@fpm.upsi.edu.mybzirwatul@umt.edu.mycmazidah@umt.edu.mydsafinas@fbk.upsi.edu.my

Positive psychology emphasizes human strength and potential, as much interest in building the best things in life as in repairing the worst. One of the four pillars in positive psychology is resilience. Resilience refers to a set of individual-level variables that protect well-being under stressful circumstances. Resilience also implies ability to resist, effective coping, recover from, and succeed in the face of adverse life experiences. This paper attempts to test empirically the model of resiliency and the importance of religiosity in developing resilient adolescents by using structural equation modelling (SEM). The adolescents’ conception of resiliency measures dimensions such as active skills, future orientation, risk taking and independence while religiosity is examined through one’s ability to cope and become involved in religious activities. This study was done on a total sample of 308 adolescents from the east-coast of Malaysia. The Resiliency Belief Scales (Trammel, 2003) and Religiosity Scale (Boswell, 2003) were employed in this study. Analysis of the items resulted in a well-fitting model with composite reliability (CR) of .64 and variance extracted (VE) of 72% (χ²/df = 1.199; GFI = .943; CFI = .989; RMSEA = .025; AIC = 259.806). The direction and magnitude of the factor loadings were substantial and statistically significant. This shows that the model fits with the sample of data in this study. Religiosity explains 70% of variance in resiliency. Pages 160 to 168




Exploring the Factors Impacting the Leadership Styles within the Public Sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Hessa Sultan Ashoora, Abdulmonem M. Al-Shirawib, Adel M. Sareac*, a,b,cCollege of Business and Finance, Ahlia University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain, Email: aadelsarea@yahoo.com/asarea@ahlia.edu.bh

Leadership is the action of leading a group or an organization. The purpose of this study is to explore factors that impact the Leadership style in the Public Sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Leadership is considered to be one of the most powerful and effective sources of empowerment to people and organizations alike. To be able to achieve this objective, 18 interviews and 2 focused group discussions were conducted with Managers, Directors and people of experience in this field, an abundance of information was collected and analyzed therefore, yield our findings. Our study has revealed that characteristics like creativity, motivation, innovation and improvement along with skills like influencing and inspiration in leaders have a great impact in shaping the leadership style in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Pages 169 to 180




Probing the Influence of Internet of Things (IOT) Usage on the Grassroots Innovators’ Sustainability: A Malaysian Perspective

Sharmila Mohamed Salleha*, Norzaidi Mohd Daudb, aFaculty Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, bInstitute of Research Management & Innovation (IRMI), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, Email: a*sharmsalleh@gmail.com

This paper aims to investigate the basis of the influence of Internet of Things (IoT) usage on the grassroots innovators’ sustainability in Malaysia. The study provides the basis for a framework for futher study on the issue. The result provides that the determinants of IoT usage is important to ensure the sustainability of grassroots innovators. The IoT usage can be used elsewhere in many organisations in improving skills and services. The study is an attempt to construct a new framework using The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)  - perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of us (PEOU), Unified Theory of Acceptance (UTAUT) – performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions) and Use of Technology and Diffusion Innovation Theory (DOI) - relative advantages, complexity, observability, compatibility. Efficacy expectation is used to measure the usage behaviour. The novelty of this study results from an operational experiment converted into academic research and it is the first study in Malaysia of this kind. Pages 181 to 195




Relationships of Organizational Culture and Proactiveness on Managerial Career Adaptability in Vietnamese Telecommunication Enterprise

Pham Thi Kim Ngoca, Nguyen Thi Kim Chib, aDepartment of Management Science & Law, School of Economics and Management, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, VIETNAM, bPhD at School of Economics and Management, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Lecturer at Posts and Telecommunications Institute of Technology, Hanoi, VIETNAM, Email: angoc.phamthikim@hust.edu.vnbchintk@ptit.edu.vn

Responding to fast and dramatic changes of the telecom industry, managers need an adaptability to deal with the changes in transition from technical to management positions, changes of technology, changes of organizational environment, change of business environment, etc. to survive and develop. In Vietnamese telecommunication enterprises, in the restructuring and transforming towards the optimal business model process, adaptability of managers in the telecom enterprises is a critical factor that influences the firm’s performance. This research found that the organizational culture and pro-activeness have positive impacts on career adaptability of Vietnamese telecom managers and the career success of managers. Findings shown that there is a difference between the tenure, age, managerial experience, educational level, specialization on the career adaptability of managers in Vietnamese telecom enterprises. Some alternative solutions were also given to strengthen the career adaptability for the managers in the Vietnamese telecom industry. Pages 196 to 211




The Influential Factors of Investment Decision Making in Malaysian Publicly Listed Companies

Arifha Mohamada, Nor Suziwana Tahirb, Yarina Ahmadc, a,b,cFaculty of Administrative Science and Policy Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA, Email: a*arifhamohamad@gmail.com

Individual shareholders make investment decisions based on their main objectives, in reducing risk with high return. This study seeks to identify the influential factors of investment that affect the individual shareholders’ investment decision making, specifically in the Malaysian Publicly Listed Companies (PLCs). Using quantitative measures, questionnaires were distributed to the individual shareholders during the company’s Annual General Meeting (AGM). This study managed to collect 680 respondents from the survey. It was found that accounting information, personal financial needs, advocate recommendations and images of the company are the drivers that affect individual shareholders’ decisions to invest in a certain PLC. Meanwhile, individual shareholders in Malaysia did not rely on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in their investment decision. The limitation of this study is its respondents were exclusively individual shareholders, while leaving out other investors. Due to the numbers of constraints, such as incurred huge costs, required human effort and time shortage, this study only managed to collect a sample from the trading services sector, industrial product sector and consumer product sector traded by individual shareholders as a representation from a group of individual shareholders’ trading shares in the Malaysian PLCs. This paper provides new insight into the development of financial and non-financial factors to the investment decision making in the Malaysian Public Listed Companies (PLCs). Thus, it is recommended to analysts the implication of other factors that might be influencing investment decision making other than individual shareholders. Pages 212 to 229




Successful Factors for Teaching and Learning Using Mobile Applications

Najwa Hayaati Mohd Alwia, Zalisham Mohd Jalib, Nurkhamimi Zainuddinc, Rozhan M. Idrusd, a,b,c,dFaculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia,

Research education evolves day by day and has offers many new techniques to impart information and knowledge. One of the important discussions nowadays is ubiquitous engagement activities for students; learning in innovative ways. Hence the introduction of mobile applications as innovative ubiquitous engaging teaching and learning method. This review examined articles on mobile apps for teaching and learning at schools and up to higher institutions. A content analysis was used to analyse successful factors for teaching and learning via mobile applications. This review found that mobile apps improve knowledge accessibility, engagement of students, varieties of options, borderless education and yet allow collaborative between students and teachers. Furthermore, this paper gives insights on some items to be considered when developing mobile apps for T&L. Pages 230 to 238




The Implication of Mihnah Khulq Al-Quran on the Status of Hadiths Assessed By the Hadith Scholars

Mohd Nor Adli Osmana, Muhamad Aidil Zalib, Adnin Yahyac, Roshimah Shamsudind, a,bPhD candidate, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, cMasters graduate, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, dSenior Lecturer, Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Kemanusian, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang,

The Mihnah Khulq al-Quran that went on for a span of 15 years during the Abbasid Caliphate undeniably had had a tremendous effect on the assessment done by some Hadith narrators when they were forced to express their stance on whether or not the recitation or utterance of al-Quran is a creation, resulting in polemics from among themselves. Hence this writing aims to present an overview upon the aforementioned unfortunate occurrence apart from analyzing the criticism amongst the hadith scholars that impacted the rijal al-hadith as well as studying the standing of hadith scholars involved in the event. In order to achieve the above goals, this research applies a qualitative study method by analyzing relevant documents and thereafter analyzing the data based on inductive and deductive methods. The findings of the research show that the dispute between the hadith scholars stems from their misunderstanding of the intended purpose of the hadith. This research therefore is of significance as it lays out the foundations and principles of the scholars at the material time. Apart from the academic points, this research also offers a glimpse into understanding the fragmentation of the dark history that prevailed during the Abbasid Empire rulership. Pages 239 to 247




Employee Commitment to Change: A Literature Review

Nurfadillah Ahmad Mahmmuda, Dr Hazlinda Bt Hassanb, Dr Sarah Shaharudinc,

In management theory and practice, employee commitment to change is an important issue. Nevertheless, there are vastly different approaches to the concept and theory, including the affecting factors and results of employee commitment to change. As yet, there is no authoritative or definitive approach. This paper has reviewed and summarised the findings of previous studies, based on Herscovitch & Meyer’s Three-Component Model of commitment to change, formulated in 2002. The varying degrees of change commitment have been explained in light of several underpinning theories, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour, Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Model, the Social Exchange Theory, the Social Cognitive Theory, the Broaden-and-Build Theory, the Conservation of Resources Theory and the Implicit Change Leadership Theory. The paper has also examined the various viewpoints on the influencing factors (or antecedents) and end results of employee commitment to change. Ultimately, the literature review has shown that there were several limitations in previous studies, including inadequate research on individual factors and job factors in light of commitment to change. Pages 248 to 261




 The Influence of High-Power Distance on Turnover Intention and Emotional Exhaustion among Information Technology Workers in Korea: The Mediating Effects of Compulsory Citizenship Behavior

Xiu Jina, SangWoo Hahmb*, a,bDepartment of Business Administration, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea, Email: b*bload@ssu.ac.kr

Korean corporations are characterized by high power distance. In such environment, problems including all types of irregularities and even corruption scandals have emerged, and many negative outcomes have arisen as a result of the abuse of power. Based on this reality we conducted this empirical study that focuses on the negative aspects of power distance, unlike the many studies that emphasize the positive aspects of power distance. In order to emphasize the negative role of power distance, we examined the changes in emotional exhaustion and turnover intention caused by the recognition of power distance among information technology(IT) workers in the Korean IT industry. To clarify the root cause of power distance leading to turnover intention job burnout, we focused on compulsory citizenship behavior and verified it through its mediating effects. The results suggest that workers' negative perception of power distance increases compulsory citizenship behavior, whereby management uses coercive mechanisms to make workers perform extra tasks. Such behavior leads to turnover intention and emotional exhaustion. Finally, this study provided practical suggestions for mitigating this situation, and discussed future directions of research. Pages 262 to 278




The Influence of Knowledge Sharing on Employees' Creativity in Small and Medium-Sized Korean Enterprises: The Mediating Effect of Job Variety and the Moderating Effect of Intrinsic Motivation

TaeSik Rheea, Xiu Jinb*, a,bDepartment of Business Administration, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea, Email: b*soohua1122@126.com

This is an empirical study which aims to improve employee's creativity in small and medium-sized Korean enterprises. Organizations are increasingly demanding that employees display higher levels of creativity, and today’s global society is constantly seeking the development of technology and innovation. It suggested that improving employee's creativity play a key role for organizations. It emphasizes knowledge sharing among employees or between supervisor and subordinates could enhance employee's creativity. In addition, knowledge sharing is able to induce seamless communication between employees, a process which also increases job variety. In turn, increased job variety leads to high levels of employee creativity. According to this, this study identified and verified the mediating role of job variety and also focused on intrinsic motivation as a way to increase the influence of job variety on creativity in order to improve creativity. It emphasizes that if job variety and a higher level of intrinsic motivation interact with each other, then employee's creativity will be higher. It also suggests ways to enhance employee's creativity and sets out practical implications for small and medium-sized Korean enterprises. Finally, future study directions for improving the performance of small and medium-sized Korean enterprises were suggested. Pages 279 to 299




The Effects of Person-Organization Fit, Person-Job Fit, and Person-Supervisor fit on Work-to-Family Enrichment

Fusheng Zhenga, SangWoo Hahmb*, a,bSchool of Business Administration, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea, Email: b*bload@ssu.ac.kr

This study examined the effects of person-organization fit, person-job fit, and person-supervisor fit on work-family enrichment by using the person-environment fit theory. Furthermore, this study examined the difference in influences in these relationships. The results of this study showed that person-organization fit, person-job fit, and person-supervisor fit have all positive effects on work-family enrichment. Also, person-organization fit had the greatest effect on work-family enrichment, and person-supervisor fit was a greater factor than person-job fit. This study surveyed workers in Korea. Finally, 227 data surveys were collected and an empirical analysis was conducted. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of the most environmental fit and to reveal the most important detailed dimensions to improve work-family enrichment. Furthermore, this study will explore which of the three is more most important. Pages 300 to 315




Analysis of the Reasons Contributing to Hong Kong’s Economic Development

MyeongCheol Choia, aDepartment of Global Business, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea,

Hong Kong, which was a small village in the 19th century; it used to be called the Pearl of the Orient in the 20th century. Formerly a British colony, it continued to develop after its return to China in 1997. Currently, it is the center of the World trade and  finance, and is recognized as an Asia-centered city. This study analyzed Hong Kong’s success factors in terms of companies, industries, location conditions and policies. Hong Kong has developed its financial services, trading, and logistics industries based on geographical advantage and deregulation. The tourism model is based on high-end shopping and business trips. Commercially exploitable underground resources and natural tourism resources are limited, but Hong Kong is considered to have intangible resources and competitiveness in terms of excellent education and transportation infrastructure, and is a fusion of eastern and western culture, diverse cultural backgrounds, and tolerance, and English and Chinese are used widely. Hong Kong has the advantages of convenient transportation, high transportation density, and infrastructure. Among Hong Kong’s success factors are four major strategic industries (finance, logistics, tourism, and professional services), that are well developed and provide a global business environment. Pages 316 to 328



Effective Leadership Model: Needs Analysis Study of Leaders in Higher Educational Institutions of Majlis Amanah Rakyat (‘MARA’)

Norazizah Che Mata, Muhammad Faizal A. Ghanib, Muhammad Nazri Che Jaafarc  aFaculty of Maritime Management UniKL MIMET, bFaculty of Education University of Malaya, Email: Norazizah@unikl.edu.my

This study aims to identify the views of leaders in advanced higher educational institutions. The value of the Leadership Model and the importance of leaders having effective leadership qualities in higher educational institutions of Majlis Amanah Rakyat (‘MARA’) will also be discussed. For the purpose of achieving the objectives of this study, structured interviews were done on ten leaders in higher educational institutions of MARA. The results of the interviews conducted were supported by the results of previous studies and a set of questionnaires were developed as instruments for the first round of the Delphi method. In addition, advancing leaders in higher educational institutions must implement the characteristics of effective leadership to form an excellent institution. Pages 329 to 340

Transformation of Topeng Malang Through Digitalization and Characterization as Augmented Reality Prototype Assets in Order to Preserve Indonesian Culture

Andy Pramonoa, Wida Rahayuningtyasb, Adzrool Idzwan Hj. Ismailc Betty Dewi Puspasarid, Richi Muammar Andinie, Ardyka Dirga Cahyaf, Rakha Bayu Pratamag, a,b,e,f,gFakultas Sastra Universitas Negeri Malang Indonesia, cUniversiti Utara Malaysia Kedah Malaysia, dSTT Atlas Nusantara Malang Indonesia, Indonesia, Email: a*andy.pramono.fs@um.ac.id

Traditional art in Malang cannot be considered as separate from the cultural impulse in that environment. The most famous Traditional Art is Topeng Malang, however, this type of art is now declining and losing space to modern art. One way to maintain the Topeng Malang culture, especially in the form of masks, is through digitalization and the characterization of Topeng Malang. The character forms in the Topeng Malang are divided into several groups: Raden, Dewi, Begawan, Patih, and Buto. There are several studies related to Topeng Malang but, to date, no research has implemented Topeng Malang in augmented reality media through mobile platforms. This study uses descriptive and procedural research models through the method of observation, interviews, and documentation to triangulate and validate data. Observation data consists of visual data, library data, and target audience data. The contribution of this research is to improve the introduction of Topeng Malang through mobile applications with augmented reality techniques. By changing the design of Topeng Malang into an augmented reality asset with local wisdom in Malang, there will be recognition, pride, and improvement in the image of Indonesian culture. Pages 341 to 356