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Recent Developments and Changes in the Governance of Regional Legal Products in Indonesia: Supervision, Evaluation and Clarification Mechanisms

Retno Saraswatia, Aprista Ristyawatib, Rigan Sasunu Basworoc, a,b,cFaculty of Law, Diponegoro University, Semarang,

After Constitutional Court Decision No. 137/PUU-XIII/2015, the issue of cancelling regional regulations can only be reached through a judicial review mechanism by the supreme court. The minister of home affairs and the governor no longer have the authority to cancel regional regulations. Meanwhile, regional regulations are the authority of regional governments in carrying out regional autonomy. In the context of the unitary state, the central government has the right to supervise regions, including the formation of regional regulations. This research will focus on the weaknesses and strengths of existing mechanisms and the construction of weaknesses. Through a non-doctrinal approach, it was concluded that in the context of the unitary state, the central government still has the right to carry out regional regulations through evaluation and clarification mechanisms. It also has the authority to provide register numbers as its final control. The advantage is that at present, the supervision of regional regulations is quite strong and effective. The weakness is the potential accumulation of cases of cancellation of regional regulations (both provincial and district/city regulations throughout Indonesia). Philosophical supervision of regional construction emphasises legal certainty. The effectiveness of time is involved with the smooth running of local government, strengthening competence in mastering local regulations and the number of judges in the supreme court. Pages 1 to 9

 

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The Importance of Self-Motivation in the Forethought Phase of Self-Regulated Learning

Muhammad Nur Wangida, aAssociate Professor, Educational Psychology and Guidance Department, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: am_nurwangid@uny.ac.id

This study focuses on the aspect of self-motivation as an influential part of the implementation of forethought in self-regulated learning. Self-motivation consists of self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, goal orientation, outcome expectations, and activation of knowledge. This study was conducted by providing a scale of self-motivation and forethought in self-regulated learning. The results showed that not all aspects of self-motivation have a significant impact on the implementation of self-regulated student learning. Goal orientation had a significant impact on the implementation of students' self-regulation, followed by self-efficacy, activation of knowledge, outcome expectations, and intrinsic interest/value. This means that knowledge of learning goals is a crucial factor for encouraging self-regulated learning. Furthermore, self-efficacy had the role of arousing the psychic energy to act after learning needs and obligations (self-regulated learning). The process and rationalisation of the findings are discussed in this article. Pages 10 to 22

 

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The Effect of Declining Financial Allocations and Government Funding on the Financial Achievement of Projects Implemented in the Investment Plan Budget (An Applied Study on Al-Muthanna University’s Investment Projects)

Maytham Abed Kadhima, Basim Mohammed Merhejb, Abdulamer Jbar Abdulahc, aCollege of Management & Economics, Al- Muthanna University, Iraq, bCollege of Literature, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq, cMuthanna Education Directorate, Al-Muthanna, Iraq, Email: aMaytham.almusaway@gmail.com,  bbasammohmmed2014@gamil.com,  cammercom@gmail.com

This research aims to clarify the low rates of financial achievement of projects implemented within the budget of the investment plan. These are a result of the decrease in financial allocation and government funding. This research will do so by analysing financial statements according to the annual allocation of existing projects in the chosen research sample. It will also analyse the percentages of financial achievement of these projects and identify the reasons for the differences in the amounts allocated and funded from one year to another. This research reached important conclusions: The lack of financed amounts greatly affects the percentage of material completion of annual investment projects. It found a direct relationship between government funding and rates of financial achievement. These are increased by increasing the amount of funds. The research also reached important recommendations: There is a need for continued government support, the continued flow of financing and the search for other sources. This will help to continue the implementation of investment projects and work to increase annual allocations. As a result, these actions will reduce the period of completion of projects and take advantage of those projects for the purpose they were established as soon as possible. They will also develop projects and increase their numbers. This is because their importance affects the financial position of individuals. Job opportunities provide for crafts and other occupations during the construction period of projects. There is a need for increased financial support by the Iraqi Ministry of Finance in order to accelerate the implementation of projects in Iraqi universities generally and new universities especially. Pages 23 to 42

 

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Financial and Administrative Corruption and Its Economic Effects (Iraq as a Case Study)

Mohamad H. Rashama*, Aqeel H. Jaberb, Sabah R. Mahdic, a,b,cCollege of Administration and Economics, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq, Email: a*rashem1955@yahoo.com

The phenomenon of administrative corruption is one of the most dangerous phenomena facing countries, especially developing countries. It results in paralysis in the process of construction and economic development, including the destruction of the economy and a country’s financial and administrative capacity. As a result, the state is unable to meet the challenges of reconstructing aging infrastructure. This type of corruption is the most dangerous as it destroys the development process. The depletion of resources and capabilities as well as imbalances in infrastructure underpin the development process. This leads to a threat to the sovereignty of the state due to its large debts. These are due to its inability to achieve sufficient outputs to bridge these debts. This phenomenon has received the attention of many researchers and interested people. Opinions have agreed on the necessity of establishing an institutional framework aimed at reducing the size of this phenomenon and combating it through serious and specific steps in various forms and manifestations. These involve all areas of life to accelerate the process of economic development. Pages 43 to 54

 

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Effects of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) on Indonesian Exports and Imports to ASEAN Countries

Ngatnoa, aDepartment of Business Administration Diponegoro University Semarang Indonesia, Email: angatno_fisip@yahoo.co.id

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), which took effect from January 2016, on Indonesia's exports and imports to ASEAN countries. The data used are exports and imports for 36 months before AEC and 36 months after AEC. To analyse the data, paired sample test and moderation regression analysis (MRA) were used. The results showed that there were no differences in the average of exports and imports between before and after AEC. When viewed from a trend,  there is a significant difference, where before, AEC showed a downtrend; conversely, after AEC,  there was an uptrend. Suggestions for further research need to be studied more broadly, not only in Indonesia, but  in all ASEAN countries. Besides that,  more research is specifically required on exports and imports for SMEs. Pages 55 to 72

 

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Semiotic Analysis of the Poso Terrorists Violence Codes

Lukman S. Thahira, aFaculty of Ushuluddin, Adab and Dakwah, IAIN Palu, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, Email: aLukmansthahir65@iain.ac.id

This article is the result of  research on Poso terrorists, which took  approximately one year. The objectives are: 1. To recognise the violence codes of Poso terrorists used before and after committing the acts of violence. 2. By knowing the linguistic codes, it is expected to become an early warning system for protecting the community from  acts of terrorism. The main problems of the study are: 1. What are the Poso terrorist group code systems when committing violence? and 2. How to understand the meaning of Poso terrorist violence codes? To  resolve this problem, the analytical framework used is the semiotics of Ferdinand de Saussure and Charles Sander Peirce. The study employs three different data collection techniques: observation, in-depth interviews and documentation. The selection of informants, i.e. 5 former terrorists, was carried out with purposive sampling, where samples were determined by specific characteristics already known. The data obtained were analysed through the process of data reduction, data presentation and conclusion drawing / verification. The findings of the research are: first, there are 11 language code systems used by Poso terrorists when committing violence. Second, the meaning of the Poso terrorist semiotic code system can only be understood through structural, language, social and contextual relations. Pages 73 to 89

 

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Thinking Processes of Prospective Teachers in Modifying Tasks

Puji Subektia*,Toto Nusantarab, Subanjic, Makbul Muksard, Abdur Rahman As’arie, a,b,c,d,eState University of Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*puji.subekti.1803119@students.um.ac.id,  btoto.nusantara.fmipa@um.ac.id,  csubanji.fmipa@um.ac.id,  dmakbul.muksar.fmipa@um.ac.id,  eabdur.rahman.fmipa@um.ac.id

Success in compiling questions is a critical aspect for prospective teachers in learning activities. The ability of prospective teachers to modify tasks is a phenomenon that needs to be investigated further. Research conducted by Vistro (2009), shows several innovation techniques that are used to generate new problems in mathematics. But  this is not enough for the development in modifying the given tasks. Most of these are limited to modifying changes in the quantity of subjects involved in the task. This study aims to analyse the thinking processes of prospective teacher students in modifying questions. The subjects were 30  fifth semester prospective teacher students, and six students were  selected  for conducting purposive sampling to review processes detected in conducting the thinking process. Selected students were prospective teachers who answered unusual questions. The results of this study are students' thought processes in modifying questions so that they can produce innovations in building new tasks. Pages 90 to 106

 

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Creation of Smart Cities - Perception and Strategies towards Liveable Futures

Rashmy Moraya, Vanishree Pabalkarb, a,bInstitute of Management Studies, Symbiosis International (Deemed) University, Range hills, Khadki, Pune, 411020, Maharashtra, India, Email: arashmy.moray@sims.edu,  bvanishree.p@sims.edu

The concept of creating has been talked about lately, in spite of this, there is ambiguity on understanding what goes into the creation of a smart city (Angelidou 2015; Hortz 2016).  Smart city creation is an innovative technique,  certainly bound to reap  abundant success with advancements in technology, it is relatively new, and can be seen as a successor of information (Yigitcanlar 2006). The creation of the smart city concept clubbed with technology makes a city a better place, that is liveable and offers a vision for sustainable development.  The demand for such cities is multiplying with time, carrying different dimensions like better quality of life, optimum utilisation of resources, saving on time and energy, comfortable life, being environmentally friendly , thereby creating a smart city that is developed for a liveable future. Against this backdrop, an attempt has been made to assess the perceptions and strategies of creating a smart city. Primary data was collected through a developed questionnaire based on the existing literature and the data was analysed using a non – parametric test to obtain the results. The study comprehends that there is no universally accepted definition  for creating a smart city. It means different things to different people. The paper contributes to the growing body of knowledge on creativity, and sustainable development for liveable futures through the concept of smart city based on the perception people carry about the smart city they live in. Pages 107 to 134

 

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Firm Size, Firm Age and the Readability of the MD&A Report

Tubagus Algan Roistona, Iman Harymawanb*, a,bDepartment of Accountancy, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Email: b*harymawan.iman@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of firm size and firm age on the management discussion and analysis (MD&A) report readability of companies in developing countries. This study uses a sample of 568 observations from 550 listed firms on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2014 to 2016 to examine how the firm size and firm age affect the MD&A report readability of companies. This study found that the larger the size and the older the age of a firm, the higher its MD&A report readability score.  For investors or stakeholders, the results of this study indicate that firm size and firm age can affect the readability of MD&A report, so that investors or stakeholders can analyse fraudulent financial reporting carried out by managers or bad news hidden by the manager. Therefore, they can determine whether they should invest in the firm or not. This kind of study is still rarely done in companies in developing countries, so it can be used as a comparison of the openness level of a manager in conveying information in financial reports between developing and developed countries. Pages 135 to 149

 

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Fostering Organisational Dynamic by Promoting Creativity of Employees in the Public Sector

Ahmed Al-Asfoura, James Rajasekarb, Ahmed Al Mashrafic, aBusiness Department Chair & Professor Oglala Lakota College Kyle, SD. United States of America, bAssociate Professor of Management College of Economics and Political Science Sultan Qaboos University P O Box: 20    P C 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, cCollege of Economics and Political Science Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box: 20    P C 123 ,Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, Email: aaalasfour@olc.edu,  braja@squ.edu.om,  ca7med@hotmail.com

Creative performance among employees, manifests itself in an organisation’s ability to continuously generate new knowledge, improve product performance, offer new products or services, all of which add value for customers. Today, public organisations face the challenge of creating environments conducive to freeing employees’ creativity. To study the factors stimulating creativity, a public sector in Oman was studied. A survey was administered to 88 employees. Several factors believed to be predictors of creativity were examined. These include organisational climate and culture, individual attributes, job characteristics, and leadership. Regression analysis was used to analyse the data. Several of the examined attributes exert zero or little influence on individual desire to submit creative initiatives. This pioneering study, in the Sultanate of Oman, will help employees be creative in public sector undertakings, improving organisational performance in general, and improving the quality of service to the general public in particular. Pages 150 to 172

 

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Private Pawnshop Registration as an Effort to Develop Small and Medium Enterprises in Indonesia

Siti Malikhatun Badriyaha, R. Suhartob, Kashadi Kashadic, Mahmudah Mahmudahd, Amiek Soemarmie, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Law, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia,

This study aims to reveal the facts of the development of private pawnshop businesses in Indonesia and provide an analysis of the pawnshop business model as an effort to develop small and medium industries. At first, the main purpose of holding a pawnshop was to help small and medium-sized communities. At present, the pawnshop has experienced rapid development, not only reaching the middle to lower class, but also having become a necessity for the whole community. Pawn is also directed at providing capital in business development, especially small and medium enterprises. The mortgage business includes pawns managed by pawnshops and private pawns. In the past, private pawns had no regulation and supervision, so there were frequent irregularities in the principles of pawning and an imbalance in legal relations. This has the potential to cause losses for the parties. Since the Regulation of the Financial Services Authority concerning the Mortgage Business, private mortgages have been regulated. One of them is the obligation to do business registration and permission. The research method used is a mixed method that combines qualitative and quantitative research. The research approach uses legal pluralism which integrates normative, sociological and philosophical research. Data testing uses triangulation techniques. The results of the study show that registration of private pawnshops is still not widely carried out. This resulted in difficulties in supervision. This lack of registration is due to various factors, including the provision of minimum capital that cannot be met by micro, small and medium enterprises, whereas in practice many private mortgage businesses are included in these criteria. This has the potential for the emergence of constraints in the development of small and medium enterprises, the number of illegal private mortgages that have the potential to cause irregularities and imbalances. In addition, it will be difficult for the government to supervise the implementation of private pawnshops. Pages 174 to 185

 

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An Empirical Assessment of the Relationships between the Manufacturing Sector, Economic Growth and Changes in Price Indexes: The Case of Poland

Daniel Francois Meyera, aTrade research entity, NWU, Private Bag x6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa,

The manufacturing sector, as a traditional economic sector, is still the backbone of the economies of many countries around the globe. The sector contributes as much as 16.9 percent to global employment, 15.7 percent to global GDP and had a growth rate of 1.9 percent in 2017. The focus of this study is on the manufacturing sector in Poland. Manufacturing in Poland, an upper-middle income country, is also still the dominating economic sector in the country, contributing 17.6 percent to GDP and had a growth rate of 6.1 percent in 2017. The primary aim of the study was to analyse the causal relationships between the manufacturing sector, economic growth, and changes in price levels (CPI, PPI and PMI) in Poland. A quantitative methodology was used in an econometric time series analysis of the relationships between the variables. The results of the analysis confirmed both long and short-run relationships between the variables. It was also established that all the independent variables caused changes in the manufacturing sector. Conclusions were listed based on the analysis and include the importance of the industry for economic growth and the impact of changes in prices should be limited as it has a negative impact on the main sector. Pages 186 to 203

 

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Modelling the Effects of Changes in the Exchange Rate, Oil Price and Real Wages on the Trade Balance in South Africa.

1Thomas Habanabakize, 2Daniel Francois Meyer,  1,2TRADE research entity, North-West University, South Africa, Email: 126767007@nwu.ac.za, 2Daniel.Meyer@nwu.ac.za

Trade, which includes exports and imports, is one of the main engines of economic growth for both developed and developing countries. International trade is however affected and influenced by many factors, such as the exchange rate, commodity prices, production factors, etc. The purpose of this study was to analyse the responsiveness and relationship between the trade balance and factors such as the oil price, the exchange rate and real wage shocks. The study employed quarterly data covering the period from the first quarter of 1994 to the fourth quarter of 2018. The study adopted various statistical and econometric approaches and these approaches included an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, an error correction model and the Toda-Yamamoto causality test. The results from the ARDL model suggested long-run cointegration amongst the variables. The regression analysis revealed that all explanatory variables negatively impact on the trade balance. However, the magnitude of their effects differs from one variable to the other. Comparing all independent variables, the exchange rate was found to have the strongest long-term effect on the trade balance compared to the effect of both crude oil price and real wages. Interestingly, the error correction model (ECM) results indicated that the exchange rate can positively affect the trade balance. Additionally, the Toda-Yamamoto results demonstrated that both the exchange rate and oil price shocks can assist in forecasting trade balance fluctuations in the short-term. Based on these findings, and since South Africa has no control over the oil price, it is imperative that the South African Reserve Bank implement strategies that may stabilise the exchange rate, in an attempt to increase opportunities that facilitate a positive trade balance, which is required for economic growth.

 Pages 204 to 220

 

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The Implementation of Industrial Training for Students with a Disability: The Role of Adaptability in Enhancing Their Workplace Well-Being

Zainoriza binti Zainuna*, Abdul Rahim Razallib, Arasinah Kamisc, Kway Eng Hockd, a,b,c,dUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia, Email: a*zzainoriza@yahoo.com

An industrial training program for schools by the Malaysian Ministry of Education has been in place since 2017. The Upper Secondary Industry Apprenticeship program [PIMA] was implemented in vocational schools in 2010 as an extension to the industrial apprenticeship program. This industrial training is a career transition to prepare students for the workforce. In the context of special education students, they are also required to seek relevant knowledge and training so that they could acquire a career. Industrial training should provide an equal opportunity of education for diverse students as stipulated in the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013 to 2025. Industrial training plays an important role in enhancing students’ career well-being and helps develop their potential, interests, and skills. The purpose of this paper is to assess the implementation of industrial training for students with disabilities. It is also designed to examine the role of adaptability in enhancing their workplace well-being. The results and implications were discussed critically. Pages 221 to 235

 

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Achieving Customer Loyalty Through Dimensions of Service Quality

Raheem Sharrad Amera, aThe University of Mustanisirya /College of Administration & Economics, Email: adr_raheem_sh@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

This study aims to identify the diagnosis of the relationship between  dimensions of service quality and its role in achieving customer loyalty using an exploratory and analytical study of a sample from  Al-Rafidain and Al-Rasheed banks. Many banking organisations have realised that customer loyalty gives them a strong justification for survival and growth, so their inability to achieve that loyalty may make them unable to continue and compete for a long time, especially in light of current challenges, as competition is the main feature in  global trade. As a result of these challenges, banking organisations have to consider the philosophy of customer loyalty that achieves a competitive advantage, which contributes to achieving high levels of profitability. The study community was identified and identified within the framework of banking organisations. A number of Al-Rafidain and Al-Rasheed branches were identified in the capital, Baghdad, as the community for conducting the study, from which a random sample of clients was chosen. One hundred people were surveyed  by questionnaire, designed to accord with the standard scientific requirements and conditions, with the necessary honesty and reliability tests. In addition, a number of non-parametric statistical tools that suit descriptive study variables were used for data collection, analysis and statistical treatment, with the help of ready statistical programs (SPSS). Establishing an appropriate arrangement for the dimensions of quality of service in alignment with the determinants of customer loyalty, contributes significantly to achieving the possibility of providing appropriate quality services that meet the needs and tastes of customers. The current study concludes that the policies adopted by banking organisations for each of the variables of quality have been clearly reflected in the level of quality of the service provided, with a case of relative difference in the impact of quality variables.Pages 236 to 247

 

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Modelling Volatility in Financial Time Series Using ARCH Models

Saif Hosam Raheema, Fadel Hamid Hadi Alhusseinib, Taha Alshaybaweec, a,b,cDepartment of Statistics Faculty of Administration and Economics University of Al Qadisiyah, Email: aSaif.hosam@qu.edu.iq,  bfadel.alhsiny@qu.edu.iq,  ctaha.alshaybawee@qu.edu.iq,

Time is the most important factor which maintains success in business, finance and other fields. It is hard to keep up with the pace of time.  One such manner, which deals with time based data, is a time series model. Time series model is an adequate model when there are serially correlated data. The field of financial time series has exploded over the last decades.  In general, financial time series suffer from the problem of instability in the mean and variance. In such a case, the Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (ARCH), is an appropriate approach that clearly models the change in variation over time in a time series. Explicitly, an ARCH approach models the variance at a time step as a function of the residual errors from a mean process. In this study, the ARCH models such as ARCH, GARCH, EGARCH (TGARCH) were used to model the volatility in the financial time series. The best model is the one that has the lowest value of Akaike (AIC) and Schwarz (SIC). Pages 248 to 261

 

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Buzz Marketing and its Role in Achieving Market Share

Hassan Jabur Alwana, aDept. of Materials management, Technical Institute of Babylon, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University-Iraq,

The rapid development of marketing strategies requires organisations to find suitable marketing methods to reach customers. Specialists believe that the use of the buzz marketing method is one of the critical methods that contribute to achieving a high market share for organisations. The researcher wants to raise company management's attention to modern marketing methods such as buzz marketing. The current study used an independent variable where its dimensions formed (marketing noise, planting ideas, incentives and rewards) and the market share was used as a dependent variable, and it was unary variable. The study aims to define the conceptual framework for hummingbird marketing as well as knowing the extent of the possibility of the men's clothing factory in Najaf to use this type of modern marketing. A questionnaire was distributed to 51 marketing managers in the researched organisation. The study reached some conclusions. The most important of the conclusions are: (1) the company management is interested in creating a marketing hype for its products among customers because of its positive contribution to achieving a high market share; and (2) the most important thing that the researcher recommends is the necessity of the attention of the marketing managers in the research organisation for the external environment with the competing products it carries, especially foreign products that flooded the Iraqi market at comfortable prices for the customer. Pages 262 to 282

 

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The Effect of Using L1 in EFL Classrooms: The Case of Iraqi EFL Primary School Learners

Mayada Rafaa Awada, Lihadh A. Mubarakb*, Mammon Sami Salehc, aM.A. Candidate, University of Babylon, b,cCollege of Education for Human Sciences, Dept. of English Language, University of Babylon-Iraq, Email:  b*hum.lihadh.abdual@uobabylon.edu.iq

The use of the first language (L1) in EFL classrooms is one of the most controversial issues in English teaching. The present study is an attempt to find out the effect of using Arabic, as an L1, on the pupils' exam achievement. It first reviews the role of Ll under some major language teaching methods. Then it presents the rationale for using L1 in English language teaching classrooms. This includes motivation, psychological effects and the influence of L1 on second language acquisition. The current study is an experimental one in which a comparison between two groups was made: one group was taught using Arabic, and the other was taught using only English. The results of the study revealed that there is a positive effect of using Arabic in EFL classrooms on the learners' answers in the post-tests. Pages 283 to 292

 

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The Dichotomy of The Critic Abdil Hadi Al-Fartousi's Vision

Souad Shaker Shnawaaa, aCollege of Education For Humanities - Department of Arabic Language - Al-Muthanna University - Iraq, Email: asoadshakeer@gmail.com

This study revealed the dichotomy of the vision, which is in the book (The dichotomy of the vision) by Dr Abdul Hadi Al-Fartousi about a common phenomenon among all texts studied in this book. The dichotomy elements like capacity, depth and appearance are varied within the text due to the influence of external elements. The widest and deepest extent of the dichotomy of the vision has reached its climax in (Ya'yaa Suhaim) by the pre-Islamic poet. The dichotomy was in the poet's vision on the psychological, ideological, and political levels. It was also a vision of the poet Mortada Faraj Allah, which was represented by the glare of the pillar of hope and the extinction of the frustration pillar. The psychological face was fragmented, and the ideological face is manifested. The dichotomy of the vision of Abdel-Zahra Zaki was embodied in the continuous succession of the union and separation in the (Auntha al-Ferdos) myth as an expression of the permanent process, in contrast to the legendary (opchadya) myth that presented the union as a goal that they hope to achieve. As the poetic visions of al-Mutahaser poet have formed the outcome of the two poles of the conflict, the cultural incubator Najaf (place) and the winds of change (time) have destabilised the constants without killing, embodying the dichotomy of al-Mutahaser poet between the modernity of vision and the pattern of the form. As a picture of the poet's estrangement from society, the female was the dominant and the pillar upon which the text was based. These words have varied, as they came with Untha (female) four times, once by the term A'arya (naked), once by the term al-Halima (dreamer), eleven times by the pronoun of the absent female pronoun, which was on three semantic fields, so thirteen names belonged to the field of the body, eight names belong to the field of the soul, while five of them belong to fields outside the female such as their candles, dirt, walls and her day. Pages 293 to 307

 

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The Aesthetics of Intertextuality in the Cubist School: Picasso as a Model

Talib Sultan Hamzaha*, Khudair Jasim Rashidb, Ali Hadi Mubarakc, a,b,cCollege of Fine Arts - University of Babylon-Iraq, Email: a*talibsultan1969@gmail.com

The current study deals with the aesthetics of intertextuality in the Cubist school Picasso as a model that sheds light on the aesthetics of intertextuality and what it involves in reformulating artworks of various periods of time. The artist employs in his style and what these works relate to a multiple vision to allow the artwork to give birth to new artistic work from the previous work, creating a design with precise compatibility between the shape with all its elements. The other shape determined by the artist's vision and style in coordination with him, to constitute for him that work related to his awareness of human heritage and the features of the present moment and even the foreseeing of the future in the formation of new artwork. Therefore, any difference in that compatibility would make the artwork become a tradition of those works. Perhaps the artist Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) is one of the most influential artists who began to become aware of the basic construction of the artwork, in terms of the exact, tight fit between the previous and the subsequent, to find the link between them in the concept of intertextuality, to give a new value with a cubic, disjointed view of those works, and to breathe life into them when dealing with them in the cubic form. The study included the problem of the extent to which the aesthetics of intertextuality can be demonstrated in the works of the artist Picasso at the Cubist School. As for its significance, it is represented in reading previous artworks with a modern critical view of the new artwork, and also included the research objective of identifying the aesthetics of intertextuality. It also included results, conclusions and recommendations.Pages 308 to 329

 

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Electronic Payment Systems in Iraq and Their Role in Reducing Settlement Risks with a focus on RTGS

Maha Mezher Mohsin Al-Rubayea, aAL-Mustansiriyah University/College of Economics and Administration/ Department of Finance and Banking Science, Email: amaha_alrbaay@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

The Central Bank of Iraq relies on a set of electronic systems of expediting the provision of services and ensuring their quality, including the RTGS system, which is the backbone of settlement operations between customers and banks. The RTGS electronic payment system is an essential part of the Iraqi payment system that is concerned with ensuring the immediate effective settlement of high-value payment orders issued by system participants. Despite the great facilities provided by RTGS to settle the payments immediately. The system involves its natural elements of weakness that may lead to the occurrence of risks, and at the same time, it includes power factors that prevent these risks from occurring. It will be a management risk in banks dealing cautiously with the facilities provided by the system without reaching the risk situation. The ability to exploit the strengths inherent in the system to avoid potential risks. The research methodology required five axes. The first axis included the research methodology, while the second axis was exposed to the RTGS system and the relationship between the operation of the system and the occurrence of risks. The third axis was about the role of the RTGS system in reducing settlement risks. The application is the field of the fourth axis, while the fifth axis included the conclusions and recommendations.   One of the most important conclusions reached by the research is that the effect of using the RTGS payment system in reducing settlement risks is greater than the effect that leads to its fall. One of the most important recommendations was to work on modernising electronic payment systems in a way that enhances their work, and to accommodate large, diverse and multiple transactions in the economic activity of institutions and banks involved in it, and obligating all banks to join it. Pages 330 to 350

 

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The Allusion to Women's Emancipation in Helen Fielding's Bridget Jones's Diary: A Case Study

Muntadher A. Mohammeda, aAl-Imam Al-Kadhum University College for Islamic Science, Email: amuntadhera08@gmail.com

The current paper sheds light on the allusion of women's emancipation in  Helen Fielding's novel  Bridget Jones' Diary. The novel has intertextual connections to Jane Austen's novel Pride, and Prejudice as both of them share identical thematic and structural principles. Fielding's novel is written in the form of a diary, and it belongs to the Chick Lit genre which has increasingly attracted the attention of several literary figures over the past few years. This genre tackles feminist issues and is targeted towards contemporary young women. It obviously considers the status of women in the contemporary society. Chick Lit writers break the restriction of the conventional literature by reinventing traditional literary works as in the case of Bridget Jones' Diary, which resembles Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice respectfully in many aspects. Ultimately, the article falls into several viewpoints explicated profoundly to manifest such an entity. Pages 351 to 362

 

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The Role of Electronic Marketing in Supporting Quality as a Competitive Precedent (An Applied Study in a Sample of Iraqi Banks)

Ali Fadhal Jebur Alboyosifa, Ahmed Najah Hadib, aDepartment of Religious tourism , College of Tourism Sciences, Kerbala University, Iraq, bDepartment of Accounts , College of Medicine , Kerbala University, Iraq, Email: aali.fadhil@uokerbala.edu.iq,  bahmad.hadii2018@gmail.com

The research aims to study electronic marketing and quality, as a competitive precedent consistent with environmental variables. It also aims to demonstrate the role of electronic marketing, in supporting quality consistently with the rapid and successive changes accompanying the business environment, so that products and services can meet the needs and desires of customers better than competitors. Two hypotheses are put forward: (1) provide the requirements for implementing e-marketing in Iraqi banks, (2) that e-marketing can help support quality. E-marketing appears a competitive strategy consistent with the modern business environment. The research sample comprised employees of the Rafidain Bank and the Rashid Bank, being administrators, accountants, auditors and financial analysts. The data related to the fiscal year ending December 31, 2019. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to employees. A set of statistical methods was used to analyse the data collected. The most important conclusion is that electronic marketing can support quality and thus help in verification; a competitive advantage.Pages 363 to 382

 

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The Impact of Financial Discipline on Monetary and Fiscal Policies (Iraq asa Case Study)

Malath Abdul Jabbar Abbasa, Wissam Abdulkadhum Abdulridhab, Mohammed Mohaisen Abdulridhac, aCollege of Administration and Economics University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, bAl-Furat Al- Awsat Technical University Technical Institute of Diwanya, Iraq, cDepartment of Finance and Banking  , college of Administration & Economics, university of Babylon ,Iraq, Email: aMalath.jabar@qiu.edu.iq,  bdw.wsm@atu.edu.iq,  cMoh642935@gmail.com

The current research aims to study several knowledge bases, to then draw a hypothesis about financial discipline. Financial discipline, monetary policy and financial policy are surveyed, in addition to showing the impact of financial discipline on both monetary and financial policies in a manner that achieves economic goals as well as the pursuit of economic growth and development in general. One hypothesis is: That financial discipline can affect both the monetary and financial policy of the state, in a way that helps achieve economic development. To achieve the goals of the research and test its hypothesis, the research relied on descriptive analysis to track and investigate its material. Further, a statistical approach was applied using time series analysis (1996-2015), to derive results and indicate the impact of financial discipline on monetary and fiscal policies. The most important conclusion was that under financial discipline, total spending does not exceed its limits set in the state’s general budget. Further, the financial deficit does not exceed a specific percentage of the gross domestic product. Financial spending thus remains within the capabilities and resources available to the state. The research also concluded that financial discipline can affect monetary and financial policies in a form that achieves economic goals.Pages 383 to 401

 

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An Analysis of the Reading Material of the First Grade of Elementary School: A Study in Indonesia

Fitri Puji Rahmawatia, Sarwiji Suwandib, Andayanic, Markhamahd, aPhD scholar, Department of Indonesian Language Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, b,c,dDepartment of Indonesian Language Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia, Email: afpr223@ums.ac.id,  bsarwijiswan@yahoo.com,  cbu_anda80@yahoo.com,  dmarkhamah@ums.ac.id

The objective of this study was to describe reading material used by first grade students of Elementary School in Indonesia. The qualitative method with content analysis was utilised as an approach in this study. The research instrument was derived from a document analysis sheet, namely the Pintar Bahasa Indonesia textbook. It was analysed as to the theoretical basis of language feasibility, content, graphics, and presentation. The research data were collected through document analysis. Semantic validity became a technique to validate the data. Reliability was measured for stability and reproducibility. The data analysis technique used in this study was content analysis scheme. The results showed that this textbook had fulfilled the criteria for language, content, graphics, and presentation feasibilities, to teach reading and writing materials to first grade students of elementary schools. Some components in content feasibility are incomplete, especially in the technique of delivering reading and writing material that is still not comprehensive, so that this book is still considered difficult for the students who cannot read and write at all. There are still many inaccuracies of language components in writing, punctuation, and symbols. In terms of the layout, the book is not dynamic, the proportion of images with sentences, and typography of letters still need an improvement because they is not dynamic, and the font size is not large enough. In terms of book presentation, there are still sheets without images or illustrations so that they are less attractive to the students.Pages 402 to 420

 

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Institution-Industry Linkages (IIL): A Value Addition Route for Academic Entrepreneurship

Titto Varghesea, T R Gurumoorthyb, aPost-Doctoral Fellow, Under MHRD, RUSA 2.0 Scheme Faculty of Management, Department of Commerce Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India - 630 003, bDean, Faculty of Management, Professor and Head, Department of Commerce Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India - 630 003, Email: atito.135@gmail.com,  bkirthigurum@yahoo.co.in

A significant body of work already highlights the relevance of curriculum, internships, trainings, Soft skills, collaborative research and informal relationships, to university–institution linkages. This study identifies relevant sources and applications of university-institution linkages which leads to entrepreneurial skills. The impacts of sources are systematically reviewed to examine their relevance to entrepreneurial formation. We present a conceptual model developed through systematic review of exploratory researches by academic and industry researchers. We considered research work conducted after the year 2000 which contributed to the development of university-entrepreneurial frameworks in WOS and SCOPUS. Each identified source and application is validated by two significant reviews. This study concludes by identifying future research needs and gaps for imparting entrepreneurial skills, in all educational institutions. The theme of ‘Structured Entrepreneurial Course’ is to be amalgamated into the course structure, depending on the course outcome of academic programmes.Pages 421 to 441

 

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Human Oppression and Transformed Religion in Deborah Ellis' 'The Breadwinner'

Hasanain  Ali Kareema, Fazel Asadi Amjadb, a,bFaculty of Literature and Humanities/ Kharazmi University/ Iran,

Afghanistan has lived a long period of conflicts and wars in which human rights are violated. The era in which the Taliban seized power is one of the worst in terms of human rights and freedom. The violation of human rights and the restriction of freedom in Afghanistan during the Taliban regime. This is one of the most important topics among the novelists' themes, including Deborah Ellis in her novel 'The Breadwinner'. Based on the views of Adorno, the authoritarian personality, this paper aims to analyse the religious and social aspects addressed by Ellis' novel. The study focuses on the events and characters who practised the extremist policies against moderate people. The study adopts the socio-religious framework to explain the impact of the transformation of religion to a "social cement" by extremists and the social and political deterioration. The aim of this transformation is to suppress any potential threat to the authority of the group that takes a distorted view of religion as a source of its authority. Pages 442 to 454
 
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Shakespeare's Sonnets’ Sequence and the Theme of Eternity

Aqeel  Muslim Mohd Al-Mamouria,  Muslim Mohd. Al-Mamourib, Ali Ahmed Mohammedc, a,bAl-Mustaqbal University College, cGeneral Directorate of Education/Babylon, Iraq,

This research deals with the sonnets as poems of fourteen lines with a distinctive rhyming pattern. The iambic pentameter is used in these poems. There are two basic types of sonnets: the Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet and the English (Shakespearean) Sonnet. Shakespeare has a sequence of 154 sonnets, the first group (1-126) addressed to his friend the Earl of Southampton, the fair lord; and the second group (127-154) to the dark lady. Shakespeare wanted to eternalise his friend through his writing. His poems included the theme of immortality through love, time, children, and the problems of life. The research also focuses on the sonnet, meaning, development, types, and it concerned with Shakespeare's sonnet: structure and themes and the immortality in the sonnet sequence. Pages 455 to 470
 
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Using Modern Videoconference to Hear Witnesses at Criminal Cases: A Comparative Analytical Study

Tayil Al- Shiyaba, Hakem Al-Serhanb, Faisal Al-Shawabkehc, a,bAssociate professor in criminal law, Al-Ain University, college of Law, UAE, cAssociate professor in public law, Al-Ain University, College of Law, UAE.,

The present study addresses a new topic in the UAE and Jordanian criminal procedures represented in the use of modern video communication (Videoconference) to hear witnesses, to highlight the advantages of using this method. The topic discussed the definition of videoconference and the reasons for using these methods in criminal justice facilities. Likewise, the legislative basis for resorting to these means to hear witnesses in the Jordanian, Emirati, and French legislation. The findings show that Videoconference is one of the effective and advanced means for conducting remote investigation or trial as it is characterised by speed, reducing costs, and protecting accused persons, witnesses, and juvenile victims. It also results in keeping pace with the UAE and Jordanian legislations technological development and introducing that in criminal justice facilities as is the practice in Western legislation. The present study sums up a set of recommendations. Pages 471 to 479
 
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The Effect of Functional and Administrative Sagging on the Production Process

Ibtihal  Faris  Alia, Maysoon Ali Hussein Al-Obaidyb, a,bDepartment of Banking and Finance, College of Administration & Economics, University of Babylon, Iraq, Email: aBus.ebtihal.faris@uobabylon.edu.iq,  bmuson71@yahoo.com

Contemporary systems are exposed to conditions that impede their keeping pace with their activities. These may fall within the framework of organisational obesity. Examples include throwing large numbers of employees into the career field to supplement those systems with new blood, in addition to recruitment, and filling vacancies or bridging vacancies, and the apparent response to the demands of workers from work. Justifications may vary. However, there are many problems, among them the prevalence of situations that may portend a deviation of the functional floor and make it closer to desertification and drought than greening it. The present problem of research was manifested in a question of its content: "Does a slack career leave negative effects and consequences in reality preaching? Fulfils and makes the job a source of drought for the production process?" A questionnaire collected data, and a number of statistical methods were used including the SPSS program, described below. The research concluded that the ‘sagging career’ leaves different effects on the dimensions of the productive process in the field of research. The research reached the senior management’s conviction of the importance of reducing career sagging, and providing confidence and internal commitment between senior management and workers. As to recommendations, a plan was formulated to eliminate disguised unemployment, through appointment according to competencies and qualifications, which leads to the eradication of favouritism and administrative corruption. Pages 480 to 502
 
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Parliament Auto-Control on Legislative Work

Mohammad Taha Hussein AL-Husseinia, aDean of the College of Law & Political Science Al-Kufa University –Iraq, Email: amtahaha@yahoo.com

Auto-control is not limited to management only, but rather includes other public bodies in the country, including Parliament. It has the power to impose its control on its legislative works. There are two types of constitutional regulation for this oversight: one type that engages another side with Parliament in monitoring its legislative works, and another that limits control to the Parliament itself. Pages 503 to 514
 
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Recognising Illocutionary Forces of English Imperatives by Iraqi EFL Learners: A Pragmatic Study

Hisham Adnan AlMumara, Dheyaa Al-Fatlawib, Sami Abbas Al-Asadic, aDepartment of Regional Planning, College of Physical Planning, University of Kufa, An Najaf City, Iraq, bDepartment of English, College of Arts, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq, cDepartment of English Language, University College of Imam Kadhum, Ad-Diwaniya Branch, Iraq, Email: ahushama.jasim@uokufa.edu.iqbdheyaa.alfatlawi@qu.edu.iqcsan1953al@gmail.com

English imperative sentence is used to perform a variety of illocutionary forces in different contexts. Recognising these illocutionary forces may be problematic to L2 learners of English. This study investigates the Iraqi EFL learners’ recognition of the various illocutionary forces that are performed by the English imperative sentence. A Multiple-Response questionnaire was designed to include all the types of imperative illocutionary forces discussed in the literature and their respective individual forces. These types were Obligatory wilful directives, Non-obligatory wilful directives, Non-Wilful-Directives, and Non-Directives. The questionnaire consisted of 30 different everyday-life situations, each of which contained an imperative utterance. For each situation, some illocutionary forces were given as choices to select. One hundred Iraqi undergraduate EFL learners took part in the experiment whose performance was compared to that of 12 English-native-speaker participants. Results showed that learners were not as efficient as native speakers in recognising the illocutionary forces performed by English imperative sentences, especially the indirect forces. This finding applied to all the types mentioned above of imperative illocutionary forces. Learners have not reached the native-like level in this regard. However, the only exception was the case of ‘ordering/commanding’ force, which is the direct force of the English imperative sentence, wherein learners were as adequate as native speakers in recognising it. Pages 515 to 536