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Adoption of Knowledge Creation Model in Team-based Project to Support Student Engagement

Ivy Chan1, Yui-yip Lau2, Wing Sze Wincy Lee3, 1,2Division of Business and Hospitality Management, College of Professional and Continuing Education, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 3Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The Education University of Hong Kong

The extant studies suggest educators and policymakers use different instructional methods and endeavours to promote student engagement. This exploratory study aims to evaluate the adoption of the Socialisation, Externalization, Combination, and Internalization (SECI) model for guiding team-based projects and its impact on students’ engagement.  We collected self-reported data from 64 college students who enrolled in a business subject and measured their perception on emotional, behavioural and cognitive engagement. Results indicated that students had higher engagement in the emotional aspect compared with behavioural and cognitive. Throughout the team-based group project development, it is noted that students are repositioned as autonomous learners who can steer their goals, efforts and knowledge. Pages 1 to 15

 

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A Culturally Relevant Picture Book for Children’s Early Literacy

Rita Kurnia, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Riau, Indonesia, Email: rita.kurnia@lecturer.unri.ac.id

This research aimed at designing a picture book which is based on local folktales to support children’s early literacy. With observation and one group pre-test post-test experimental design, the main field test was carried out to a total of 120 preschool children aged 5 and 6 years old. Of the total, 43 children were chosen as the control group, while the other 77 children were as the experimental group. An independent sample t-test was used to determine the score difference between the two groups.  The findings show that there is an improvement in reading readiness among the experimental group. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of the local folktale picture book developed in this study can give a positive impact on children’s early reading development. The implication of this study is expected to shed light on the importance of local culture in children language development. Pages 16 to 34

 

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The Effectiveness of the Learning Stations Strategy on Developing Mathematical Power and Mindfulness for Elementary Classroom Student Teachers at Al– Zaytoonah University of Jordan

Dr. Ziad Nemrawia, Dr. Mofeed Abu Mosab, aAssociate Prof. Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Faculty of Arts / Department of Education, bAssociate Prof. Arab Open University, Faculty of Arts / Department of Education, Email: adrziadnemrawi@gmail.com

This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using the learning stations strategy in developing the mathematical power and mindfulness of elementary classroom student teachers at Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan. The purposive research sample in this study consisted of two groups of elementary classroom student teachers: an experimental group (30 students) who studied geometrical topics by means of the learning stations strategy and a control group (28 students) who studied the same geometrical topics via traditional methods. To achieve the aims of this study two tests were designed to measure mathematical power: a mathematical knowledge test and a mathematical processes test. In addition, a mindfulness scale was also utilised by the researchers in this study. Pre- post-tests were conducted on both groups; moreover, the data was analysed using independent samples and Eta square.  The results revealed the effectiveness of learning the stations strategy in improving both mathematical power (i.e. mathematical knowledge and mathematical processes) and mindfulness for elementary classroom student teachers. Pages 35 to 56

 

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E-Learning in Higher Education; Challenges and Opportunities

Khalid Salim Al Jardani, A’Sharqiyah University, Email: khalid.aljardani@asu.edu.om

The paper highlights aspects related to E-learning covering its definitions, and its main factors. These cover the learner’s motivation, the learner’s attitudes, technology, readiness of materials, and the learning context, followed by the key challenges and opportunities of using E-learning within higher education. The paper also highlights some studies from different parts of the world including Oman, highlighting students’ perceptions towards E-learning. A good mix of both traditional and E-learning needs to be worked harder towards before being pushed into to an E-learning situation only, the context of Coronavirus being an example. Pages 57 to 64

 

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Negotiation Level Between the EU and the GCC

Cuneyt Yeniguna, Hani AlBasoosb, Gubara Hassanc, aDirector of International Relations and Security Studies Graduate Programs, Founder Head of Political Science Department, College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, bPolitical Science Department, College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, cPolitical Science Department, College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, Email: acuneyt@squ.edu.om, acuneytyeni3@gmail.com, bhani.adam@squ.edu.om, cgubara@squ.edu.om  

EU-GCC relations started thirty years ago, but proceeded very slowly. After the first agreement between the two institutions in 1998, the EU transformed, the GCC slowly changed, the international system dramatically converted and rules between two parties were amended by the ENP of the EU. Although both sides need each other, obstinate policies caused cessation of relations several times. According to some scholars, the GCC is becoming a periphery region for them, however the GCC still needs the EU as a first market in total trade. Bilateralism, cultural differences, the GCC’s loose integration and lack of EU leverage in the Gulf could be lined up as some reasons for the non-progressive relations. Recent developments such as Trump’s election, Brexit, the Qatar crisis, 5+1 Iran Nuclear Deal and Russia’s growing interest to the Gulf are affecting EU-GCC relations negatively. In this study, historical and recent developments and their effects on the EU-GCC relations were examined; and lastly some alternative solutions are discussed. Pages 65 to 75

 

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The Making of an Egyptian Social Media Influencer

Hanan Ezzat, University of Rovira i Virgili, Spain

This qualitative study, set against the backdrop of Egypt, examines how social media influencers construct their online identity and build their online persona. Social media, which have been primarily developed in the West, have infiltrated the Egyptian society; they have opened doors to different forms of personae and content such as social media influencers. In Egypt their numbers have increased, and they have become an important part of the social media scene. They aim to build their audiences and fan bases with the ultimate objective of monetising their presence. This study focuses on nine Egyptian social media influencers, through employing in-depth interviews, and seeks to explore how they construct their online identity and how they build their distinct personae. The analysis revealed that they build a distinct online person for themselves to impress their audiences and fans. Moreover, they perform authentically; they seek to be perceived as authentic and to display this authenticity they undertake a number of processes. Pages 76 to 93

 

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International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS 9) and International Accounting Standard 39 (IAS 39) from 2003 to 2019: Bibliometric Analysis

Abdallah Al-Hanandeh*1, Aniza Othman1, Norhamimah Mastor1, Ibrahim ALnohoud1, 1Department of Accounting and Finance, Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia, Corresponding Author: Abdalla_hanandeh@yahoo.com

International standards are one of the main pillars of financial accounting operations through their ability to control and regulate financial calculations, as it is in the literature review. Consequently, the International Accounting Standard 39 (IAS 39) and the International Financial Reporting Standards 9 (IFRS 9) have a direct impact on the accounting operations of banks and financial institutions. This study aimed to determine the status of the IAS 39 and IFRS 9, identify its main areas, and assess available evidence. In this paper, we focussed on our research study on the web of science for the period 2003-2019. The research was based on the following keywords: "IAS 39" or "international financial reporting standards 39" and "IFRS 9" or “international financial reporting standards 9" and "expected loss model" or "ECL model". From 121 papers found, twenty full publications are included in this study. The results of the selected articles divided into three clusters: standards, risk, and management. Also, the finding is most of the researches cover European and developed countries. Moreover, most of the previous studies examined the impact of IFRS 9 from the theoretical perspective and few studies cover 1-year's impact.  Pages 94 to 117

 

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Financial Sector Development and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: ARDL Model

Awad Mohamed Osman a, Kamal Eldin Hassan Ibrahim Eldaw b, Anas Satti Satti Mohamed c, Nagwa Ibrahim Albadaly d, Nadia Osman Ahmed Eissaea,b,dDepartment of General Courses, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.  cDepartment of Business Administration, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia ,Email: amhussein@iau.edu.sa a, kamaluog@gmail.com b, assmohammed@iau.edu.sa c nelsayed@iau.edu.sa d needaosman@gmail.com e 

This paper investigates the impact of financial sector development on economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period 1985-2018; the study utilises the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to examine the short-run and the long-run relationships between five financial indicators namely: the stock market capitalisation, the total value of stocks traded, the domestic credit to the private sector, the broad money supply, and trade openness on per capita growth rate. The model proves a co-integrating relationship between the variables of the study. The empirical results reveal a positive significant relationship between the per capita growth rate and the total value of stocks traded and trade openness in both the long and short run, while the stock market capitalisation showed a negative significant counter effect. The broad money supply is negative in the short-run and positive in the long-run. The domestic credit to the private sector is found to be statistically insignificant in explaining the per capita growth rate in both the short and the long run. These results are interpreted in terms of the dominance of the oil sector and the high degree of openness characterising the Saudi economy. The development of the Saudi stock market and banking system will enhance the growth of the non-oil sector and the diversification of the economy leading to economic growth. Pages 136 to 152
 
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‘Readiness’, Talent Management and Adaptive Solutions to enable Teachers in Indigenous Schools to Improve their Teaching

Tina Doe, Royce Willis, Lewes Peddell, David Lynch, Tony Yeigh, and Sarah James, Southern Cross University, Australia

This paper provides an insight into an explorative school-improvement program, known as the Indigenous Schools ‘readiness’ Program (ISRP) which sought to deal with educational challenges in a novel, yet evidence-informed manner. Specifically, the program sought to engage a school’s teaching staff, what is referred to as the Talent in the program, to deal with localised Indigenous school challenges by having them conceptualise and deliver their improvement plans through three inter-related elements: ‘readiness’, Talent and Adaptive Solutions. The paper suggests that despite the best intentions of parties involved, establishing and maintaining such a program, at least to the point of being able to properly implement and evaluate it, requires that the schooling context, i.e., the community in which it serves, has first created the required community conditions. In effect, engaged its own adaptive solution to inherent challenges. Pages 153 to 167
 
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Influence of Leadership and Integrity on Employee Performance with Organisational Commitments as Intervening Variables

1Charles Bohlen Purba, 2Heru Prasetyo, 1,2Mercu Buana University, Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: 1Charles.bohlen@mercubuana.ac.id, 2heruprasetyo_14@yahoo.com

This study aims to analyse the influence of leadership and integrity on employee performance with organisational commitment as an intervening variable. The data collection method in this study used a questionnaire with 120 permanent employees in the Department of Money Management, Bank Indonesia. Data analysis used descriptive statistics using SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The analytical method used was descriptive analysis, and the test instrument used was SEM AMOS in this study using four variables, twelve dimensions and twenty-four indicators. The results showed that leadership and integrity have a significant effect on organisational commitment and also on employee performance. And organisational commitment has a significant effect on employee performance. The findings in this study are that it turns out that the factor that has a more dominant influence on organisational commitment is integrity, while leadership is most influenced for employee performance. Pages 168 to 182
 
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The Root of Samurai Culture and its Core Values for Educational Management Purposes

Aji Setyantoa*, Bambang Budi Wiyonob, Burhanuddin Burhanuddinc, Mustiningsih Mustiningsihd, aFaculty of Cultural Studies Universitas Brawijaya (FCS-UB), Malang, Indonesia, b,c,dFaculty of Education Universitas Negeri Malang (FIP UM), Malang, Indonesia, Email: aadjie_s@ub.ac.id, bbambang.budi.fip@um.ac.id, cburhanuddin.fip@um.ac.id, dmustiningsih.fip@um.ac.id

This article aims to describe the history of the Samurai and Bushido, its core values, sources, and the bushido values overshadowing Japanese success after World War I/II and the tsunami tragedy. The topics are developed through reviewing literatures from previous documents and research concerning the importance of positive Japanese culture on education. Results show that the bushido values are rooted from Buddhism, Shintoism and Confucius and include justice, courage, virtue, politeness, honesty, sincerity, honor, and loyalty. Those values strongly influenced Japanese society and government style to make the country survive after the two wars and the tsunami attack in 2011. Further studies are expected to investigate how teachers of the third countries adopt the related values in shaping their student character. Pages 183 to 202
 
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The Impact of Strategic Planning on the Methods of Crises Management in The Jordanian Ministry of Health

Khaled Khalaf Alafia,  Kawkab Musbah Al-Tmimi, Kawther A. Karainb, Khitam Ibrahim Mohammadc, Abdal malik Ali Alootomd aAssociate Professor, Department of Management, The World Islamic Sciences & Education University, Amman, Jordan, P. O. Box 1101 Postal Code 11947, Amman, Jordan. bAssistant Professor-The German Jordanian University. cProfessor, Faculty of Nursing, Jordan University of Science and Technology. dPhD Candidate, School of Business, University of Technology, Sydney. Email: aallafykhaled99@yahoo.com

This study aimed to assess the relationship between strategic planning and the methods used in crises management, along with the impact strategic planning has on such methods within the framework of the Jordanian Ministry of Health. In order to achieve the objective of the study, a descriptive approach was adopted. A questionnaire was distributed to the sample of the study consisting of 70 employees in the Jordanian Ministry of Health. The results found were as follows: 1. There is a high level of strategic planning and crises management in the Jordanian Ministry of Health. 2. There is a significant relationship at the level of significance (α 0.05 0.05) between the implementation of strategic planning processes and crises management methods in the Jordanian Ministry of Health. 3. There is a significant effect at the level of significance (α 0.05 0.05) for strategic planning in the degree of use of crises management methods from the perspective of administrators working in the Jordanian Ministry of Health. Pages 203 to  230
 
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Women on the Board and Environmental Sustainability Reporting: Evidence from France

Kaouthar Chebbia, Meqbel Mishary Aliedanb, Abdulaziz Mohammed Alsahlawic, aDepartment of Finance, School of Business, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia, bDepartment of Business Administration, School of Business, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, cDepartment of Finance, School of Business, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia, Email: aKchebbi@kfu.edu.sa, bmaliedan@kfu.edu.sa, camalsahlawi@kfu.edu.sa

According to the perception that women pay more attention to the environment and stakeholder concerns than men and may possibly affect the decisions about environmental issues. This study investigates whether a gender diverse board is associated with environmental sustainability reporting.  Using a sample of 833 French firms-year observations over the period 2010-2019, we show that the presence and percentage of women on the board of directors are positively associated with environmental disclosures. These results are robust to using alternative estimation methods, and GMM approach that control for endogeneity issues. We further examine the ESG, social and governance disclosures and provide evidence that women on the board are more likely to enhance corporate, social and governance sustainability reporting. Overall, our findings offer valuable understandings for the regulators and practices and significantly adds to understand the importance of corporate voluntary disclosure in a specific European setting, i.e., France. Pages 231 to 258
 
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The Impact of Using Physical-Kinesthetic and Social Intelligence Strategies on the Development of Multi- Intelligences Among Fifth Graders in Jordan

Bassam A. Mismara*, Suha Edlibib, a,bThe University of Jordan, Email: a*b.mismar@ju.edu.jo

This study investigates the impact of using an educational program based on the strategies of physical-kinesthetic and social intelligence. The study population consisted of all fifth graders in the schools of the Islamic Educational College in Amman, Jordan male and female students (N = 250). The study sample was chosen from the study population students (n = 70), and they were all fifth-grade female students from in the academic year 2019-2020. Four tools were used on both the control and experimental groups. The results show that there are statistically significant differences at the level of significance (α < 0.05) between the performance averages of the two groups in favour of the experimental group. The employment of the proposed educational program contributes to the development of the rest of multi-intelligences of fifth-grade female elementary students as well as the achievements in science, math, and fitness. Pages 259 to 277
 
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Impact of Brand Name on Purchase Intention: A Study on Clothing in Karachi, Pakistan

Asif Kamran1, Mansoor uz Zafar Dawood2, S Kashif Rafi3, Fawwad M. Butt4, Kaleem Akhtar5, 1,3,4,5Faculty of Management Sciences, Department of Business Administration, ILMA University, Karachi, Pakistan, 2Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Software Engineering, ILMA University, Karachi, Pakistan, Email: asifkamrankhan@gmail.com

This research revolves around those important factors which are making consumers brand conscious in Pakistan. It will also impart the significance of key factors and their impact on the purchase intention of the customers.  The era is strong in the branding world. Due to continuous changing and fickle trends in the advancement of technology, many businesses have modified their products and strategies just to satisfy their customers and keep their brand alive and of high value in the market.  In the current era, many people have become brand conscious and think wearing brands will make them different and unique in their social circle. If we talk about brand awareness among the people of Pakistan, then it is the outcome of brand preference. Multiple brands have emerged in Pakistan in the last decade and this makes the competition fierce among different giant clothing brands. Thus, the main problem of my research will figure out the reasons behind the increase in brand awareness among the people of Pakistan. The study will provide a legitimate analysis of the reasons behind brand awareness and magnify the understanding of the current awareness regarding brand in the Pakistani context. This research project will also have a greater significance for the Pakistani entrepreneur to establish those strategies and mechanisms which can help them to understand the behaviour of the Pakistani consumer in a more effective way. Pages 278 to 293

 
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The Impact of Activating Electronic Platforms by The National Centre for Crisis Management During the Corona Pandemic (Covid-19) on the Users’ Satisfaction – 2020

Wesam Ibrahim AL_Abdallat1, Mohannad Sami Tawaha2, Mohammad Abdel- Hammed Ali Al-Hussein3, 1,2,3Al _Balqa' Applied University (BAU), Email: 1W.alabdallat@bau.edu.jo, 2tawaha2001@bau.edu.jo, 3mohammad_jawarneh@bau.edu.jo

This research aimed to investigate the impact of activating electronic platforms by The National Centre For Crisis Management during the Corona pandemic (Covid-19) on the users’ satisfaction with the provided services. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher used the quantitative research method because of its relevance to conduct social and behavioural research. The study population consisted of all platforms users from different sectors. While the study sample individuals were randomly selected, their number was 180 because of the huge numbers of users. 150 questionnaires were found to be usable to perform the statistical processes, 83.3% which is a good percentage. Secondary data was collected from the previous related studies to crisis management, while the primary data was collected through the use of the Arabic version of the questionnaire after confirming its validity and reliability. SPSS,27 software was used to calculate means, standard deviations, and frequencies, and ANOVA analysis, simple regression and multiple regression were used to find the correlation between the variables. Based on the analysis, a number of suggestions and recommendations were presented to the National Centre for Crisis management. Pages 294 to 312
 
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Gingival Condition of Dental Students with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

Agus Susantoa*, Khairunnisa Nibras Ramadhantib, Nunung Rusminahc, Chandra Andi Bawonod, a,c,dDepartment of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Padjadjaran University, Indonesia, bDental students faculty of dentistry, Padjadjaran University, Indonesia, Email: aagus.susanto@fkg.unpad.ac.id

The use of fixed orthodontic appliances is one of the risk factors that facilitate the accumulation of plaque which can cause inflammation in the gingival area or gingivitis. Students of the Faculty of Dentistry have learned information about how to maintain oral hygiene to avoid various risks of dental and oral diseases, one of which is gingivitis. This study aims to determine the description of gingival conditions in students of the Faculty of Dentistry, Padjadjaran University who wear fixed orthodontic appliances. This study was conducted with a descriptive survey method using cross-sectional design. The subject of this study were 64 Padjadjaran University Faculty of dentistry students who used fixed orthodontic appliances and sampling was done using a total sampling technique. Examination of gingival condition was carried out using a periodontal probe, mouth mirror and examination form, then evaluated with Löe and Silness Gingival Index. 63 students (98.44%) had mild inflammation and 1 student (1.56%) had moderate inflammation. Gingiva condition in Padjadjaran University Faculty of Dentistry students who used fixed orthodontic appliances are in a mild inflammatory state. Pages 313 to 321
 
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Service Blueprint Elements of Food Delivery Entrepreneur for Economic Achievement - A Case Study of Entrepreneurs at Nakhon Ratchasima Province

Adisak Suvittawat, School of Management Technology, Suranaree University of Technology

The emergence of the online food delivery business has created food service delivery entrepreneurs to create a new experience of food service delivery. The service innovation comes from service blueprint elements which consists of 6 key parameters. The purpose of this study is to find out the service blueprint basic elements, which is important for many food service delivery entrepreneurs. Food service delivery entrepreneurs require their service innovations because customer needs are always changing and accessing information from customer is  easy. The six service blueprint elements, which came from literature reviews and observation under Thai context, were explored. The methodology of this research was commenced with a literature review. The survey results were analysed by a mean and SD model. The correlation has been used to confirm the relationship between service innovation and service blueprint elements. The exploratory research was focused on 60 entrepreneurs who are in the food service delivery business. Data was collected by way of questionnaires. The results show a correlation between service innovation and elements of service blueprint. Pages 322 to 335
 
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Is Business Model Transformation the Future Strategy of the Ideal Telco's Business Model?

Librita Arifiania, Harjanto Prabowob, Asnan Furintoc, Wibowo Kosasihd, aDoctor of Research in Management, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta Barat, Indonesia, b,c,dDoctor of Research in Management, Department of Management, BINUS Business School, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta Barat, Indonesia

This paper aims to evaluate the relationship between business model transformation (BMT) and firm performance. It proposes modeling the transformation process and outlines why and how a business model is important during the development process through the future strategy of an ideal telecommunications business model with influencing factors that emerge as important business value drivers for internet service providers in Indonesia. The research data was collected by conducting a preliminary questionnaire survey of 73 ISP companies with ISP top management respondents. Furthermore, to strengthen the hypothesis and enrich the conceptual paper that is more comprehensive, in-depth interviews were conducted with 7 of the companies. This paper provides a conceptual research framework model and insights into how effectively a company has adapted its traditional core business to transform due to disruptive innovation and new life to old business. Define driven factors influence BMT then lead to firm performance, such as Integrative Strategy and technology orientation that positively affect BMT and Firm Performance. This paper fulfills the need and expands knowledge of the BMT process, which is activated through the reconceptualization of Business Model Innovations into Business Model Transformation with paradigm shift innovations. This study highlights that BMT needs to be framed with Integrative Capability and technology orientation to create added value for customers. However, previous research states that IC does not affect OT in various service industries. Reconceptualizing IC by embracing new dimensions of risk prevention, this research will create strong collaborations with OT and BMT. Therefore, IC alone is not enough, and organizations need OT to strengthen BMT and achieve optimal performance.  Since this research approach was chosen, the research results can be used as a reference for designing a transformation business model. Therefore, researchers have further explored the proposed proposition with a large-scale quantitative survey through the resulting model framework and used it as a basis for designing new business models. Pages 336 to 358
 
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Integration of Dick and Carey Design in String Ensemble Class Instructional Material Design

Shafizan Sabria*, Mahayuddin Abdul Rahimb, a,bDepartment of Music and Music Education, Faculty of Music and Performing Arts, University Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA, Email: ashafizan@fmsp.upsi.edu.my

The adaptation of systematic instructional design models by faculty members in higher education is an emerging field; research conducted on its impact is needed in order to foster better educational practices. This paper portrays the processes involved in designing instructional material for teaching intermediate university-level string ensemble classes. The designing process, which involved the Dick and Carey systematic design of instruction, is presented in detail for reference and any future replication purposes. To date, relatively little research has documented the application of the Dick and Carey design system in a Malaysian educational setting, despite the range of available articles. This article would be of great benefit to Malaysian educators to have examples from local Malaysian practice settings upon which they can reflect, personalise and adopt these approaches in their teaching practice. Pages 359 to 388
 
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Clarification of Honesty Value in the Learning Process of Forensic Accounting and Investigative Auditing

Nur Sayidaha, Sulis Janu Hartatib, Mustika Winedarc, Aminullah Assagafd, Muhajire, a,c,dFaculty of Economics and Busines, Dr. Soetomo University, b,eFaculty of Education, Dr. Soetomo University, Email: asayidah36@gmail.com

This article aims to explain changes in the awareness of the value of honesty in accounting learning for student . The research samples for this research project are students who take courses in forensic accounting and investigative auditing at two universities, namely University of Dr. Soetomo and University of Tujuhbelas Agustus 1945. Researchers collected data with open questionnaires at the beginning and end of the semester. Value clarification techniques were used by researchers to internalize he value of honesty to students. The results of the post-test showed that there was a change in the student’s awareness of the value of honesty. The students realised that dishonest behaviour is terrible, goes against religious teachings, is harmful, and contradicts professional ethics. The research contributes to motivating lecturers to develop a learning innovation process that provides content on the value of honesty, especially for accounting students. The goal is that students, as prospective accountants, always follow the principles of a professional code of ethics when they become accountants. For higher education management, this research result suggests developing a creative curriculum to reinforce the value of honesty or other values following the campus culture. The researchers conclude that the government needs to make innovative educational policies regarding character in higher education to eradicate corruption. Pages 389 to 407

 
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The Importance of ‘Pragmatics’ in Interpreting the Intent Speech in English and Arabic languages

May Al-Shaikhli1, Khaleel Bader Al Bataineh2, Abd Alaziz Jomah Al Fawareh3, 1,2,3Department of English language and Translation, Amman Arab University, Jordan

The explicit meaning of speech may not express the intended meaning and may lead to ambiguity in speech communication. The current study aims to explain how pragmatics can facilitate an understanding of the speech communications and convey the intended meaning. Furthermore, the study shows how encapsulated (implicit) meaning in many phenomena of pragmatics may fundamentally influence the nature and the quality of translation between Arabic, and English languages. In this regard, the study demonstrates the pertinence of pragmatics theories for translators’ work by providing authentic examples of translation between Arabic, and English languages. It argues how a pragmatically oriented process can perform the balance in human communication to avoid breakdowns of communication. Pages 408 to 428
 
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Role of High-Performance Work Systems in Employees’ Performance and Turnover Intentions in a Mediation Framework of Psychological Contract Breach

Muhammad Farhan Khana, Dr. Owais Muftib, Dr. Gohar Saleem Parvaizc, Dr. Shandana Shoaibd, aPhD Scholar, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, b,c,dAssistant Professor, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, Emaiil: afarhankhan1517@yahoo.com, bowais.mufti@imsciences.edu.pk, cgohar.saleem@imsciences.edu.pk, dshandana.shoaib@imsciences.edu.pk 

This study addresses the debate in the literature of strategic human resource management (SHRM) about the causality of high-performance work systems on employee outcomes, like performance and turnover intentions, and the potential dark side of high-performance work systems (HPWS). SHRM theories, including the resource-based view and social exchange theory, have explained the causality aspect but there appears to be lack of concrete empirical evidence. This study offers a more complex framework by investigating the role of HPWS in employees’ performance and turnover intentions with the mediation of a psychological contract breach (PCB). Data were collected via questionnaire using stratified sampling, and after developing the strata, simple random sampling was performed. Data were subsequently analysed in SPSS and AMOS. Findings of the study suggest that HPWS significantly predicted employees’ performance. There was significant negative relationship between HPWS and turnover intentions. Moreover, HPWS did not predict PCB as the relationship was insignificant. PCB had an insignificant relationship with employees’ performance. Moreover, PCB predicted significant negative relationship with turnover intentions. This study offers significant findings and suggestions for bankers and theorists regarding SHRM and HPWS. Pages 429 to 452
 
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The Provided Counselling Services for Students with Disabilities in the Jordanian Universities

Ahmad Khaled Mohammad Khazaleha, Hanada Omar Mohammad Abzakhb, Mo’en Salman Alnasraweenc, Rami  A. Tashtoushd, Mohannad Khaled Alshboule Rami Ibrahem Al-Shogranf, Nusaiba Ali Almousag, aAl al-Bayt University, bAl-Balqa Applied University  c,ef,g Amman Arab University, d Yarmouk University  Email: mueen@aau.edu.jo

This study aimed to identify the counselling services provided to students with disabilities in Jordanian universities. The sample of the study consisted of 244 male and female students. A questionnaire was used as a tool for the study, and its validity and consistency verified. The results of the study show that the services provided to students were at an average level. The results also show the presence of statistically significant differences on the total score, and in the field of academic and professional services, in favour of females. The results did not show a statistically significant difference according to the type of disability. Pages 452 to 470
 
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Factors Affecting Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure in Companies Listed on the Vietnamese Stock Market

Thi Thuy Hang Ta, Ph.D.a, Thu Hien Hoang, Ph.D.b, Thi Phuong Lan Hoang, Ph.D. c, Huong Giang Dang, Ph.D.d, Thi Thu Hang Nguyen, Ph.D.e, aUniversity of Labour and Social Affairs, Vietnam, b,c,d,eUniversity of  Economic and Technical Industries, Vietnam, Email: ahangulsa@gmail.com, bhthien@uneti.edu.vn, chtplan@uneti.edu.vn, ddhgiang@uneti.edu.vn, ethuhang@uneti.edu.vn

This study investigated the practice and disclosure of corporate social responsibility of Vietnamese enterprises, as well as the factors affecting corporate social responsibility disclosure. This paper used regression analysis to examine 516 observations from annual reports and sustainability reports of enterprises listed on the Vietnamese stock market from 2006 to 2017. The results showed that the extent of corporate social responsibility disclosure of Vietnamese businesses is low. Firm age, legal regulations, financial efficiency, strategic posture toward corporate social responsibility, and the type of company are factors that positively influence the extent of corporate social responsibility disclosure in Vietnamese enterprises. Pages 471 to 489
 
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Impact of Financial and Social Performances on Lending Interest Rate: Evidence from Microfinance Institutions in Vietnam

Thuy T. Danga, Nguyen Xuan Trungb, Tran Ngoc Diemc, aVietnam Institute for Indian and Southwest Asian Studies, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, 1 Lieu Giai St., Ba Dinh Dist., Hanoi, Vietnam, b,cVietnam Institute for Indian and Southwest Asian Studies,

Email: athuy0183@gmail.com, btrungnguyenxuan@gmail.com, cngocdiemtran1993@gmail.com

This paper focuses on assessing the impact of financial and social performance on the lending interest rate of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Vietnam during 2012-2016. Data collected is mainly from 26 MFIs in Vietnam through the Microfinance Information Exchange (Mix Market) and the Vietnam Microfinance Working Group (VMFWG). Financial performance is evaluated through variables of data such as return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and operational self-sufficiency (OSS), whereas social performance is measured by indicators such as average loan size (AVGLS) and number of credit clients (CC). For MFIs, the lending rate is a weighted average of the interest rates actually received by the MFIs from their clients. The authors also used some control variables to capture variations in size, age, funding cost (FC) and legal status. This paper applies panel data estimation techniques to calculate the correlation between selected variables. Research results indicate three financial performance varibles: ROA, ROE and OSS, which have a significantly positive impact on MFIs’ lending interest rate in Vietnam, whereas a variable size in social performance variables creates a significant negative impact on the lending interest rate. Moreover, legal status and AVGLS have a significant inverse relation with the lending interest rate. However, variables, in terms of depth outreach and breadth outreach, make different impacts on the lending interest rate, mainly due to the way MFIs operate, that is, they are more specialised than other financial institutions. Pages 490 to 504
 
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Historical Science of Kazakhstan: Before and After the Collapse of the USSR

Ayagan Burkitbay G.a, Satanov Arstanb, aDoctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Academician of the Academy of Education, "Institute of State History" of the Science Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan, bPhd-student, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan, Еmail: aburkit.ayagan@gmail.com, barstanbs@gmail.com

The article describes the developments in the field of historical research in Kazakhstan since the collapse of the USSR. The paper attempts to analyse historical scholarship development trends to provide an overview of current research patterns, methodology, and shifting theoretical paradigms. The authors collected data using various methods, including a comprehensive literature review and analysis of primary historical sources, and these findings are presented in descriptive form. Contemporary historical scholarship in Kazakhstan is presently engaged in very active and innovative research. Among the tangibles, developments achieved over the past few years include preparing a new generation of thoroughly revised updated textbooks. Besides, many field studies have unearthed new archaeological discoveries in Kazakhstan's territory that could revolutionise how future historians view the past. These discoveries are significantly altering the way scholarship understands ​​the societal-historical interaction with the physical landscape of the entire region. Further progress is being made using interdisciplinary methodologies. Pages 505 to 522
 
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Human Health and Worker Productivity: Evidence from Middle-Income Countries

Hafiz Muhammad Abubakar Siddiquea, Ghulam Mohey-ud-dinb, Adiqa K. Kianic, a Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology Islamabad, Pakistan and GIFT University, Gujranwala, Pakistan, bThe Urban Unit, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, cFederal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology Islamabad, Pakistan, Email: abakar343@gmail.com, bdr.moheyuddin@urbanunit.gov.pk, cadiqakian@gmail.com

This study strives to scrutinise the influence of various indicators of health status on labour productivity. It is primarily the worker’s health condition which determines the economic growth rate of a country. The study investigates to what extent these indicators of health influence output per person for 75 middle-income countries (MIC) for 1991-2016. The empirical results exhibit improved health status is associated with increased productivity. Results also reveal that physical capital and education has a positive impact on productivity, whereas participation in the labour force has a negative impact on output per person. An important finding of this study is that the impact of health on productivity is considerably greater in upper-middle-income countries (UMIC) in comparison to lower-middle-income countries (LMIC). The main findings of the study are robust to other determinants of productivity. This study suggests that policy makers should focus on improving the health in MIC. Pages 523 to 544
 
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Evaluation of The Performance of Financing Formulas in Islamic Banks: Field Study Applied on the Islamic Banks Operating in Sudan

Anas Satti Satti Mohammeda, Osman Saad Shidwanb, Kamal Eldin Hassan Ibrahim Eldawc, Manal Mohamed EL Mekebbatyd, Ahmed Osman Ibrahim Ahmede and Mohamednour Eltahir Ahmed Abdelgadirf, a,b,d,e,fBusiness Administration Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia,cGeneral Courses Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

The problem of the study was represented in the main question: Do the financing formulas (Murabahah, Musharakah, Mudarabah) in Sudanese Islamic banks have credibility with researchers and clients? Do they respond to the needs of clients as in the other financial institutions? The study aimed to evaluate the performance of financing formulas (Murabahah, Musharakah, and Mudarabah) of Islamic banks operating in Sudan, in terms of taking into account the Sharia aspects when applying Islamic financing formulas, as well as the extent to which the Islamic financing formulas achieve the objectives of the Islamic bank, and its ability to meet the needs and desires of the clients. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher designed two questionnaires. The first questionnaire consists of 17 paragraphs, addressing a sample of Islamic banks employees. As for the second questionnaire, it consists of 11 paragraphs, addressing a sample of Islamic banks' clients. Among the most important findings of the study: The level of importance of considering the Sharia aspects when applying Islamic investment formulas (Murabahah, Musharakah, Mudarabah) was high. The level of achieving the objectives of the Islamic bank when applying the Islamic investment formulas (Murabaha, Musharakah, Mudarabah) was high, as the value of β the regression coefficient reached 0.245, which means that the interest and increase in the use of Islamic investment methods (Murabahah, Musharakah, Mudarabah) in Islamic banks by one degree, leads to an increase In achieving the objectives of the Islamic Bank by 0.245. The level of realising Islamic investment formulas (Murabahah, Musharakah, and Mudarabah) to meet the needs and desires of clients was high, as the value of β the regression coefficient was 0.386, which means that the interest and increase in the use of Islamic investment methods (Murabahah, Musharakah, and Mudarabah) in Islamic banks by one degree, leads to an increase in achieving and meeting the needs and desires of the clients by 0.386. Among the most important recommendations of the study: to issue standard indicators for evaluating Islamic investment formulas in Islamic banks, to provide data and information on the applications of Islamic investment formulas in Islamic banks, and to work in raising the efficiency and developing the skills of bank employees on the application of Islamic investment formulas. Pages 545 to 563
 
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Evolution of Theatre in Bangladesh as a Form of Democracy: A Post-War Analysis

Diana Ansarey, Department of English, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences,  University of Malaya, Malaysia. Email: diana.ansarey69.um@gmail.com

The current research considers theatre as a forum that voices the historical eminence of a country’s culture and looks at how theatre has morphed into a democratic platform representing the voice of the people after the Liberation War (1972 – 1973) in Bangladesh. The present paper analyses the historical transformation of Bangladeshi theatre from 1972 to 2018 and observes the influences of western concepts of theatre in the context of Bangladeshi society and culture. It also discusses the ripple effects of the Kolkata theatre industry on the theatre culture in Bangladesh. It does so by being informed through numerous interviews conducted with key theatre workers and visionaries who have played pivotal roles in elevating theatre in Bangladesh and positioning it on par with other countries in the global market. This study acknowledges such contributions and realises how theatre has been carved into a medium for the people to opine on issues in Bangladesh that plague them, be it in the past, present, or future. Pages 564 to 577
 
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The Effect of Using Edmodo in Teaching the Course of Producing and Using Teaching aids on Developing the Trend Towards 21st Century Skills among Students of The College of Arts, Imam Abdurrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

Hayam A., Abouelmagda, Aliaa I., Ammarb, aCurricula and method of teaching Home- Economics, Department of Curricula and Teaching Methods, Faculty of Education, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt. bInformation systems, Department of libraries and Information, Faculty of Arts, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Employing E-Learning and virtual learning as a tool for empowering and motivating innovative learning and teaching processes is becoming a vital part of a twenty-first-century education. Edmodo is one of the E-Learning sites that is currently being utilised by teachers and students in many higher education institutions worldwide. This study focuses on the effectiveness of the use of Edmodo in teaching the course of production and use of teaching aids in developing the trend towards twenty-first-century skills among students of the College of Arts, Imam Abdurrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected using a quantitative data collection method. Altogether 30 students responded to a measure intended to measure students’ trend towards twenty-first-century skills. Overall, the findings indicated that the size effect of teaching the course using Edmodo on developing the trend towards the twenty-first-century skills ranged between 0.87% - 0.95%; this confirmed that teaching the course of production and use of teaching aids using Edmodo has a significant impact in developing the trend towards the twenty-first-century skills among students of the eighth level at the Department of Libraries at the College of Arts in Dammam. Pages 578 to 603
 
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A Structural Equation Model of Consumer Engagement in Online Retail Businesses Employing Augmented Reality Applications

Thadathibesra Phuthonga, aFaculty of Management Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand, 76120, Email: thadathibes@ms.su.ac.th

Nowadays technological changes and the adoption of digital technologies are transforming retail businesses and shopping experience. Augmented reality is a type of digital technology useful in developing a new concept of retail stores wherein traditional and digital store elements synchronise. This research examines a model of consumer engagement in the context of online retail business with augmented reality applications. The sample comprises 400 consumers who have experience using augmented reality for online retail business. The data was derived via a questionnaire. The descriptive statistics were analysed in terms of frequency and percentage. Furthermore, structural equation model analysis was performed using the Partial Least Squares technique. The results show that consumer engagement was influenced by the digital service experience through hedonic value and utilitarian value due to perceived ease of use, social influence and personal innovativeness, which were all causal factors. Moreover, results indicated that perceived risk does not affect the hedonic or utilitarian value, and personal innovativeness does not affect utilitarian value. This study reveals the importance of understanding the factors that affect consumer engagement with online retailers in augmented reality applications. The study recommends that online retail business entrepreneurs use augmented reality applications to enhance consumer engagement. Pages 604 to 622
 
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Digital Entrepreneurial Intention among Undergraduate Business Management Students

Thadathibesra Phuthonga, aFaculty of Management Science, Silpakorn University, Thailand, 76120, Email: athadathibes@ms.su.ac.th

The intentions of university students enrolled in business management programs to pursue careers in digital businesses are related to their image of entrepreneurship as a career alternative. Universities play a significant role in developing motivation and competencies in students, and helping them to engage productively in entrepreneurial activities. This study examines the antecedents of digital entrepreneurial intentions among business management students in Thailand, using data collected from 400 business management students via self-administered questionnaires. The study uses the partial least squares structural equation modelling approach to examine the relationships between personality characteristics, professional entrepreneurial motivation, and digital entrepreneurial intention. The findings indicate that the most influential antecedent affecting digital entrepreneurial intention is conscientiousness through intrinsic professional entrepreneurial motivation. The implications of the study are meaningful for educational institutions, business incubators and other stakeholders, and highlights opportunities for further research. Pages 623 to 642
 
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Hazardous Covid-19 on Seaweed Returns in Indonesia Using Smart PLS

Rafiqoha, Arkas Viddyb, Zulfikarc, aFinancial and Banking Study Program of Politeknik Negeri Samarinda, bBusiness Administration Study Program Politeknik Negeri Samarinda, cFinancial and Banking Study Program of Politeknik Negeri Samarinda, Email: afiqopolnes@yahoo.com, b*viddy.arkas@yahoo.com, cizul_msahumbis@yahoo.co.id

The research objectives of this research are to explore the effects of Covid-19 on seaweed returns in the border area of Indonesia.  The exogenous variables are resources, buyers and seaweed price, while the intervening variable is government policies and endogenous variable in seaweed returns. The data collected is from 93 of  the seaweed farmers who occupied the border area called Amal Beach, Tarakan island.  The method of this research is path analysis; Partial Least Square software was used as the instrument to estimate the data.  The study found that resources, buyers and price have no significant effect on government policies, and it is also found that buyers, price and government policies have no significant effect on seaweed returns, while only the price of seaweed returns has a significant effect on seaweed returns in the Border Area of Indonesia. Pages 643 to 655
 
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Creative Drama: Procedure of Improving Renewable Energy Knowledge through New Alternative Learning Skills

Nuttakit Iamsomboona*, Pimnapat Bhumkittipichb, a,bDepartment of Social Sciences and Humanities, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Thailand, Email: a*nuttakit_i@rmutt.ac.th

Creative Drama is a procedure of learning which can be used as a tool for improving children and youth in various dimensions along with permitting them to progress their ideas and imaginations through languages and physical movements in free-style role-playing.  Teachers will play a role as an activity supervisor who motivates creative expression and has the children and youth as central figures. This article aims to present the procedure of creative drama for improving the learning skill of renewable energy in Wat Khok Ket School (Serm Som Boon Wong) at Plai Pong Pang Sub-district, Amphawa District, Samut Songkhram Province; the population contained 18 persons. The data was collected by using a semi-structured interview conducting to one of the teachers from the science department while pre-posttest and group discussion will be conducted to the rest of 17 eighth-grade students who voluntarily participated in the creative drama activity which included 6 processes: 1) Preparation, 2) Sparking Creativity, 3) Constructing Story, 4) Rehearsal Performing, 5) Performing 6) Feedback. The results of the satisfaction survey will be calculated into percentage, mean, median, and the t-test dependent group value. The result of the study indicated that the additional learning of science in middle school in topic “Renewable Energy and Utilization” through creative drama, leading students to learn more effectively according to the 80/80 standards. For the conclusion, the learning activity should be conducted as follows “Decreasing study but Increasing Knowledge” so students can practice being the person who has simultaneous learning for their entire life; in addition, parents should participate in students’ learning also. Pages 656 to 668
 
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The Association of Arch Height Index and Arcus Pedis on Agility:  An Overview of Sport Science College Students

Fajar Awang Irawan1*, Limpad Nurrahmad2, Dhias Fajar Widya Permana3, 1,2,3Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Sport Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: fajarawang@mail.unnes.ac.id1, limpad.edu@mail.unnes.ac.id2, dhiaspermana17@mail.unnes.ac.id3

The purpose of this study was to classify the Arch Height Index (AHI) and Arcus Pedis to the agility. 48 participants with good health and had no ankle and knee injuries were involved in this study. This study used descriptive quantitative method with a test and measurement approach and one-shot case study design. The Wet Test was used to measure AHI and Arcus Pedis, while agility was measured by using the Dodging Run Test. The results showed that the AHI data had an average 0.149 (± 0.125), Arch Index 0.371 (± 0.072), and agility test was 15,436 (± 0.493). The study found that there was no significant relationship between Arch Height Index and agility. AHI and Arcus Pedis were not a determining factor in the results of agility tests. This study concludes that Arch Height Index and Arcus Pedis has no association with the results of the agility. Monitoring in increasing agility needs to be prioritised for performance improvement. Pages 669 to 676
 
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Self-reported Creativity and Job Satisfaction - How Individual and Social Creativity Relates to Job Satisfaction

Per Eisele, Associate professor, Göteborg University

The aim of the present study was to explore the relationships between perceived individual creativity, social creativity and job satisfaction. Self-reported creativity was measured with a recently validated creativity scale and job satisfaction through the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). Participants (N=168) were randomised from a list of employees at one workplace and consisted of 73 men and 95 women with a mean age of 33.16. The results indicate that participants who perceive themselves as individually creative score their job satisfaction differently from participants who perceive themselves as socially creative. People scoring high on individual creativity also score high on job satisfaction, while self-reported social creativity correlates negatively with job satisfaction. This has been reported in earlier studies with other dependent variables and the result are being discussed. Pages 677 to 686
 
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The Assumptions About Women in Khmer Royal Court’s Accessories Shown in Apsara Sculptures at Angkor Wat

Miss Aeaknaree Kaewvisita, Asst. Prof. Dr. Thanasit Chantareeb, Dr. Kittisan Sriraksac, Dr. Preechawut Apiratingd, a,c,dFaculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand, bFaculty of Architecture, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand, Email: aAeaknareekaewvisit@gmail.com, bthacha1@kku.ac.th, ckitisri@kku.ac.th, dPreechawutap@kku.ac.th

This article is a part of a study of Apsara Sculptures at Angkor Wat: ‘From the Philosophical Symbol and Aesthetic to the Accessories Design’. The research aims to study the styles of outfits and accessories and to surmise the Khmer ladies of the court’s traditional use of various materials as accessories, as shown in Apsara sculptures at Angkor Wat. The study site is Angkor Wat, Siem Reap, Cambodia. This study shows the beauty of craftsmanship and the meaning of materials or arts of the time, reflected through different types of traditional outfits and accessories shown on the Apsara sculptures. These representations of traditional Khmer ladies in court outfits during the Angkor Wat period shown on the Apsara sculptures raise questions about the use of materials for making accessories. The analysis is based on iconography and symbolic interactionism. The relationship between the outfits and the accessories shown on the Apsara sculptures at Angkor Wat were analysed to find the most possible tradition of accessory materials used by Khmer ladies of the court. The diffusion theory of culture is also used to analyse the connections of religion and other factors including tradition, culture, environment, life, role of the ladies of the court, and social context. The findings from related documents and field interviews suggest that there is a connection between the Apsara sculptures’ outfits and accessories and the traditional outfits of the ladies of the court at that time. The findings also suggest that it can be assumed that the materials used to make accessories were both natural and metal materials, depending on the wearer’s caste, social contexts, environment or life. The beautiful crafting of these materials as shown on the Apsara sculptures at Angkor Wat also reflects the social and the cultural, and the perspectives of local people. Pages 687 to 701
 
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The Reconstruction of Architecture in Vat Phou, Champasak District, Lao PDR

Hawa Wongpongkhama, Dr. Kittisan Sriruksab, Asst. Prof. Dr. Preechawut Apiratingc, a,b,cFaculty of Fine and Applied Arts, Khon Kaen University, Nai Muang Subdistrict, Muang District, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand, E-mail: ahawawongpongkham@gmail.com, bkitisri@kku.ac.th, cpreechawutap@kku.ac.th

This article is part of research titled Reconstruction of Architecture in Vat Phou, Champasak District, Lao PDR, which aimed to study the Khmer architecture of Vat Phou, Champasak District, Lao PDR. The tools used in the research were field surveys and interviews with art and architecture history experts. The data was analysed and compared with other architecture in a similar period to that within this study.  The analysis will be presented in a three-dimensional reconstruction using diffusion theory as the guideline to study the Khmer architecture of Vat Phou, Champasak District, Lao PDR. This reconstruction will help viewers to imagine ways to preserve ancient sites that are considered valuable heritage of the nation. The research result shows that the Khmer architectural form of Vat Phou, Champasak, Lao PDR, is in line with Khmer beliefs, which were the beliefs and culture related to the deities. The temple was built as a place to pay respect to the deities and for holding religious ceremonies. The result is in line with cultural diffusion theory, which has helped provide an explanation of the interaction between two groups of people with similar cultures and where both parties accepted the cultures. Pages 702 to 721
 
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Preserving Design Identity through Heritage-Inspired Reflexive Design

Ayman Fathy Ashoura*, Wael Rashdanb, aCollege of Fine Arts and Design, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE, bCollege of Architecture & Design, Department of Interior Design, Al Ghurair University, Dubai, UAE, Email: a*ayman009@hotmail.com, bwrushdan@hotmail.com

A community’s cultural identity is reflected in its diverse sources of heritage and its ability to integrate them into the social environment. Many theoreticians believe that globalisation poses a real threat to cultural identity, especially since modern designs are more likely to focus on a more synthesised global aesthetic. To maintain cultural identity, many designers have integrated elements from their heritages into their contemporary designs. This article offers a review of literature on globalisation, design identity and heritage design, then discusses a selection of design examples related to the preservation of local identity. This study explores how critical regionalism, through heritage-inspired design, can be applied to modern designs. The results identify three heritage-inspired designs aimed at preserving the respective community’s cultural identity, according to the concept of reflexive modernism, therefore implying that such design directions may help preserve design identity. Pages 722 to 742
 
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The Key Factors Affecting Investment in Middle East, The Case of Iraq

Dr. Dina Al-Waely, The World Islamic Sciences and Education University, Jordan, Email: dr.dina_alwaely@yahoo.com

This study aimed to identify the key factors affecting investment in the Middle East (ME) and Iraq particularly. The study has used the descriptive analytical approach, where a questionnaire was employed as the study instrument, to examine the hypotheses for the key factors affecting investment in ME, the case of Iraq, with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) used in processing. The population of the study consisted of the purposive sample from 500 clothing retailers in Basra and from 217 clothing retailers in Basra as it is classified into its demographic characteristics. The results showed that the key factors affecting investment in Iraq was high. Furthermore, the level of investment in Iraq was also high. The results also showed that there is a statistically significant impact of factors affecting investment (infrastructure, governance and risk aversion) on the investment (stability of the investment environment and investor satisfaction) at the level (α ≤ 0.05). Pages 743 to 762
 
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Early Childhood Learning from Home: Implementation of Distance Learning in Early Childhood Education during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period in Indonesia

Muhammad Hasbia, Nurjannahb, Lathipah Hasanahc, aDirectorate Early Childhood Education, Ministry of Education and Culture, Jakarta, bLecturer Departemen of Early Childhood Education, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta, cPostgraduate Student, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Jakarta

Email: bnurjannah@unj.ac.id; clatifahasanah@yahoo.com

This article describes a survey about activities learning from home conducted by Early Childhood Education and controlled by the teachers.  The survey results show data about implementation of early childhood learning from home, techniques for applying learning from home, parental involvement, obstacles, and teacher salary during the pandemic.   Data collection was carried out online throughout Indonesia in 34 provinces and 512 regencies.  Survey respondents are teachers of early childhood education, with a total of 10601 teachers.  The survey results are (1) the teacher makes learning plan for children’s activities at home during the covid-19 pandemic; (2) for children’s learning activities at home, according to the teacher, the assignment technique through parents (SMS/telephone/WA) is more effective than other techniques; (3) many learning activities that children do at home with parents are drawing/coloring activities; (4) for documentation of children’s learning from home, many parents sent photos of children’s activities; (5) parents accompany the children and are active in the implementation of learning activities with children at home; (6) the obstacles by teachers to implementation children’s learning activities from home are unstable internet networks, lack of parents ICT skills, and limited playing media/online teaching materials; (7) during the covid-19 pandemic, it shows an unbalanced financing of early childhood education institutions, where the institution’s income comes from parents’ payment and the fact that more parents don’t pay the children’s education cost, while teacher salaries are paid in full. Pages 763 to 778
 
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The Effectiveness of an Intensive Reading Program According to the Response to Intervention and Evidence-Based Practices in Treating Dyslexia

Ahmad Abdallah Rababah, Assistant Professor of Special Education, College Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, AL-Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, E-mail: aarababah@iau.edu.sa

The current study was concerned with revealing the effectiveness of an intensive program according to response to intervention to treat dyslexia. The sample of the study consisted of (25) male and female students with dyslexia, who were formally classified by the Ministry of Education, and chosen intentionally, They are students from the evening center offers reading reinforcement programs, whose ages range between (7-12) years, (7) are Female, (18) Males. The current study followed the quasi-experimental research with a one-group pretest-posttest design. The program application period according to the second stage of response to the intervention was (11) weeks. The results of this study revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in the posttest measurement of the performance of the study group (25 male and female students) due to the effectiveness of the intensive program in treating dyslexia. Pages 779 to 794
 
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The Art of Teaching in Fusion Classroom Learning Situations

Dr. Nidal Zaki Amarin, Faculty of Arts, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Jordan

Fusion classroom learning situation and/or fusion courses evolved from blended learning and open education movements. The development of online movement or e-learning has gained in popularity in the last two decades as an effective approach for accommodating an increasingly diverse student population and enriching the learning environment with the incorporation of online teaching resources (Serrano et al., 2019). Fusion classroom is an effective approach to learning situations that combines features of traditional learning situations and computer assisted instruction. Additionally, this article aims to increase awareness of teachers and instructors about how to engage traditional methodology that can be transformed into a fusion courses so as to increase and develop learner interaction with both face-to-face and online courses, whilst being time effective for the educators. Pages 795 to 810
 
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Understanding the Relationship between the Dimensions of the National Identity and its Ethics among a Sample of University Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Moneerah Mohammad AlMeraba, Ahmed  Hamzab, aPrincess  Nourah  bint  Abdulrahman University / Associate Professor of Psychology, bKing Salman Institute for Studies and Consulting Services, Majmaah University/ Associate Professor of Psychology

The research aims to identify the relationship between the national identity dimensions and ethics among a sample of students from the University of Princess Nourah has in the light of the number of variables (age - average household income-Cumulative rate- Marital status), was used descriptive method, formed the research sample of (229) Student, was used a measured trend towards ethics, the preparation, the researchers, the cultural identity of young Saudi university scale, the preparation of praise hyena, the alpha was used Alpha-kronbach stability coefficient, factorial analysis of the dimensions of assertive national identity and ethics. The study found there are significant statistical differences according to the national dimensions of the identity of the income level and age, except for the axis of tolerance, the absence of significant statistical differences between the sample responses according to marital status and the cumulative rate, and there is a significant statistical difference on the dimensions of ethics scale according to income level and age, the absence of significant statistical differences between the responses of members of the sample following the social situation, the absence of significant statistical differences between the responses of the sample according to the rate of accumulative axis towards others. Pages 811 to 832
 
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Prevention Connected with Romantic Relationships in the Internet

Joanna Wnęk-Gozdeka, aPedagogical University of Krakow, Poland,

Virtual reality is the space where people fulfill their needs, even the basic ones, more and more often. It is true for elder people too. More and more often, seniors recognise the benefits of using modern communication technologies and resort to them in different spheres of their life, including the emotional life. While the society becomes more and more atomized, family relationships are weakening and trust between individuals is declining, interpersonal relationships are increasingly harder to build. In case of seniors, there is an additional factor of social permission for having romantic and erotic relationships in their age. Thus, it should not come as a surprise, that a growing percentage of individuals search for love on different dating portals and marriage websites. It is not always responsible and safe.  The paper describes the mechanisms of marriage frauds committed via online marriage portals and available Internet ways to verify the reliability of potential partners. The main emphasis is on the prevention context. The goal of the paper is to show, on the example of individual experiences of female seniors, how do marriage frauds operate and to present protection means against such frauds. The research question posed was: What are the means used by frauds targeting seniors who are looking for love in the Internet? The qualitative and interpretation paradigm was adopted. The research material was collected as case studies. The data collected were complemented with the literature analysis. The research results show the mechanisms in the behaviours of frauds and victims as they enter into new relationships in the Internet. Fraud profile is also presented and some technology-based solutions to limit the probability of senior abuse. Pages 833 to 848
 
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Human Rights in Socio-Historical and Educational Context

Jolanta Mackowicza, aPedagogical University of Krakow, Institute of Educational Sciences, Email: aJolanta.mackowicz@up.krakow.pl

The paper focuses on human rights by showing their role in the globalised world. In the first part, evolution of the human rights idea in history is presented, followed by an overview of HRE and its role in societies development. As the critical role of education in promoting human rights is emphasised, teacher competencies necessary to implement HRE and Education for Democratic Citizenship are identified. In the final section, pedagogical challenges and directions of actions to implement education for peace at different stages are presented. Pages 849 to 863
 
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Education in Times of Change

Ewa Sliwaa, aPedagogical University of Krakow, Poland

Globalization is a concept that is present in our everyday lives, both in the individual and social contexts. It has initiated transformations in politics and economics, but has also caused changes to individual and interpersonal relationships. These transformations of the modern world have occurred at speed and in unusual, unpredicted ways. In the light of these transformations, the methods of preparing the younger generation for an independent and satisfying life must also change dynamically. This presents challenges for contemporary education both in relation to the education system and to the direct impact of educators and teachers on their students. Pages 867 to 881  
 
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Causes and Effects between an Enterprise Risk Management Framework and Firm Financial Performance for Energy Efficiency Services

Pijaya Chartpolraka*, Sorasak Tangthongb, a,bKing Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Business School Chalongkrung Road, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand, Email: a*pijayac@gmail.com,  bajsorasak@yahoo.com

Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) is defined as processes of specifying risk management procedures that firms are facing systematically under integrated perceptions by assessing the events, probability, impacts, and relationship among all risk categories that threaten firm value and firm performance and controlling overall risk exposure under an appropriate and acceptable range in relation to policies and strategic objectives. The application of ERM increases the competitive advantage for businesses, achieves the goals and objectives of an organization, reduces earning variability, stabilizes firm performance, encourages employees, and maximizes firm value. This study takes a holistic view to investigate risk categories, contingent variables, and key aspects of risk management employed by an ERM system that should be able to improve firm financial performance for energy efficiency service companies (EESCs) in Thailand. This study received surveyed attitudes toward risk drivers in each category from 225 samples out of 609 top executives from 203 EESCs in 2017-2019 after Thailand had faced economic dire resulted from political disarray and natural disaster which affected EESCs’ business and still lingered to these days as evident by the decline active numbers of registered EESCs. In view of current situation which possesses similarity of those days, those views and findings should be contemporary to be applied as a guidance for EESCs’ risk management under such circumstances. The empirical evidence from the findings concluded that enterprise risk management insignificantly affected positive firm financial performance. The model fit corresponds to the empirical data and passes specified measured criteria (CMIN/DF = 0.874, GFI = 0.965, AGFI = 0.948, NFI = 0.915, CFI = 1.000, and RMSEA = 0.000). As such, EESCs should address and focus on factors that render improvements in the ERM system by incorporating strategic risk, operation risk, financial risk, firm complexity, firm size, monitoring by the board of directors, effective risk management for strategy, operation, reporting, and compliance, in line with theories, to improve firm financial performance measured by ROE, ROA, and EPS. Pages 882 to 917
 
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The Applicability of Long-Term Leases International Standards through the Iraqi Government Accounting System

Sattar Gaber Khallawya, Hagar Khadim Mohsenb, aWasit University, Faculty of Economic and administration, bWasit University, Faculty of Economic and administration a master's student, Wasit University, Email: asalradi@uowasit.edu.iq,  bhajarkazem93@gmail.com

The research highlights the long - term leases according to the international accounting standards in public sector within the economic units that apply the government accounting system. The long- term lease is a lease that has a framework of terms and conditions ratified between two persons; or it's a group of agreements which the two parties of the contract (lessor and lessee) are committed by. The lease is usually valid for over one year. The international accounting standard name several treatments in the lessor registry in order to get suitable measurement and disclosure of the users' needed information and the statement of financial position of the economic unit. Measurements are one of the most important operations that facilitate accessing to reliable data; disclosure is the most significant operator in validity and accuracy of information about the building that is provided to the users. Pages 918 to 933
 
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Linguistic Affinities between the Semitic Family and Classical Arabic

Mohamed Mazaal khalatya, aWasit University/ College of Education/ Arabic Department

Semitic languages are ancient and broad languages, with a long history, and oriental and Arab linguists who have come to the discovery of the chains of their branches. They have been carefully cared for because their speakers are of one origin (Sam Bin Noah). These languages are Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Aramaic, Canaanite, Syriac, Mandaean, Hebrew, Ugaritic, Phoenician, Abyssinian, Djezzy, Mehri, Old Arabic, as well as the remaining Arabic language. The majority of these languages  have disappeared and their words have died, and the ones that have come to us are in the form of inscriptions, while the neighborhood in which hundreds of millions of people speak is classical Arabic, as well as the Hebrew, Abyssinian, Syriac language spoken by tens of millions. Therefore, the research came to reveal the aspects of convergence or verbal convergence between these living Semitic languages in their vocal, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels .In order to reach correct or acceptable results, we need to extrapolate similarities or convergence through a comparative study between the words of these languages to find out how close they are to the native Semitic language. Pages 934 to 943
 
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Armenian Endowments (WAQFS) in Jerusalem in the 17th Century

Ibrahim bin Yahya Al-Busaidia, Mohammad Salem Al-Tarawnehb, Badr bin Hilal Al-Alawic, Hussein Massoud Mohammed Al-Ajmid, a,b,c,dSultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, Email: aibrahimalbu@gmail.com,  bdr_tarawneh64@yahoo.com,m.altarawneh@squ.edu.om,  calawib@squ.com,  dy0a9m0@gmail.com

Representing an important segment of the Jerusalemite society, the Armenians' activities were limited to occupations like industry, crafts and trade. Endowment or waqf (property’s inalienable endowment) is an ongoing charity that is not to be sold, bought, gifted, nor inherited. Its returns are to be disbursed in terms of righteousness and charity. The people of the Armenian community in Jerusalem created these endowments (waqfs) according to their terms and conditions based on the Hanafi doctrine of Islamic jurisprudence which was the official doctrine of the Ottoman Empire. Despite the difficulty of research and the lack of sources, the materials available in the records of the Jerusalem Shari’a Court are major and genuine source that helped in writing of this topic, despite their failure to cover the economic and social activities of Armenians in Jerusalem. The endowment (waqf) cases firstly account among the social aspects of the Liwa (Sanjak) of Jerusalem, and studying it is of great importance as it informs us about the role of social groups in Jerusalemite society, including the Armenian community. The records of the Jerusalem Shari’a Court are one of the main pillars upon which the study relied onbecause the information it provides covers various aspects of the life of Jerusalem’s population. This information was characterized with its credibility, accuracy and impartiality, and its uniqueness from any other information received from other sources. This information dates back to the 17th century and there are seven endowments (waqfs) of the Armenian community recorded in the Shari’a Court which are according to the Islamic waqf principle and in accordance with the Hanafi doctrine. Pages 944 to 960
 
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The Effectiveness of Using the Application of Cloud Computing (DROPBOX) In Developing the Directions of Fifth-Grade Students in Physics towards E-Learning

Rasha Abdel-Hussein Sahiba*, Abdel-Hassan Mohamedb, a,bFaculty of Administration and Economics, Maysan University, Iraq, Email: a*rasha.a.sahib@uomisan.edu.iq

The aim of the current research is to identify the effectiveness of using the cloud computing application (DropBox) in developing the directions of fifth-grade students in physics towards e-learning, as well as to identify the most important obstacles facing them during the use of this application, as the researcher randomly chose (Al-Yamamah Preparation for Girls) Among the preparatory schools affiliated to the Maysan Governorate Center, the research was applied to a sample of fifth-grade students in the second semester of the academic year (2018-2019) and in the unit (vibratory, wave, and sound) of the scheduled physics book, as it was chosen Division (b) by simple random method, and the number of female students of the sample reached (34) students, where the experimental method was used using the questionnaire as a tool to collect data, and the researcher reached results indicating that female students' attitudes were neutral in the tribal measurement and became positive in post-measurement Also, the use of this application was effective in developing attitudes towards e-learning, and there was a statistically significant difference between the pre and post measurement averages and in favor of the post dimension measurement, and the results also indicated that Female students suffer from an average degree of some obstacles in using this application. Pages 961 to 975
 
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Personal Legend between the Reference and Text Speech: A Study of Plays by Khazal Al-Majidi in the Light of Psychological Criticism

Zaid Thamer Abdulkadhim Mukhifa, Amer Sabah Noori al-Marzookb, Raghad Hamid Majeed al-Hassounc, a,b,cCollege of Fine Arts, University of Babil, Iraq3 Educational Directorate of Babylon, Iraq, Email: afine.zaid.thamir@uobabylon.edu.iq,  bfine.amir.sabah@uobabylon.edu.iq,  craghadalhasson1973@gmail.com

The study of personal myth and the knowledge of psychological criticism and psychoanalysis is a new and focused relational relationship in the field of science and art, which defines the method of concept and which he referred to (Charles Moron 1899_1966AD) and a group of schools of psychoanalysis. What it derives or collects from a group of repeated images and metaphors that depict the writer's literary works, references, and speech in a similar manner between the past and the present and the way he performed it. And his opinion, in order to reach the same creator or achieve his goal, and access to the knowledge of the myth of himself or the so-called myth of personality / creator, and this collapses through time, space and unity of subject drawn by the old myth ancient history and surrounded by social, political or artistic study, according to the requirements of theories of analysis Psychologists identified by psychologists, according to which they have applied and symbolically and graphically applied their work, or they may be more surreal at times. Pages 976 to 986
 
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The Patterns of Mystery and Its Representations in Iraqi Theater Shows

Shaymaa Hussein Tahera, Qaeid Talib Salmanb, Asmaa Shakir Neamahc, aCollege of Fine Arts, University of Babil, Iraq, bPh.D. Student at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Babylon, Iraq, Email: afine.shamaa.hussan@uobabylon.edu.iq,  bQaeeddddd@gmail.com,  cfine.asmaa.shakir@uobabylon.edu.iq

Theatrical presentations on the ideological text are at the forefront of the qualifications of the physical and moral play through visualizing the conflicting relationships between the linguistic and visual image, and there were technical treatments of the text for their rich presentation in many mixes at the level of significance, the mystery was employed as a Velsiver aesthetic tool in making the reader and the receiver in front of many The readings are clearly ambiguous, especially aware of the meaning of the meaning, and here the researcher and n headed towards a study (patterns of mystery and representation in Iraqi theater shows). A research stream for the introduction includes three chapters and a conclusion, which included the first chapter to ensure the concept of ambiguity and the patterns that distinguish it, and the second chapter ambiguity in literature and theater, while the third chapter included analysis of the sample (still playing in his nausea spent by it). The summary included the results of the research that reached the researcher and the proven sources, references and appendices. Pages 987 to 1003
 
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The Patriotic Spirit and Its Representations in Salem Al-Zaidi's Theatrical Texts

Ameer Husham Abdulabbasa, Ghusoon Mohammed Abdulmuttalebb, Ahmed Hamzah Kadhimc, a,bCollege of Fine Arts, University of Babil, Iraq, cMaster student at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Babylon, Email: afine.ameer.habbid@uobabylon.edu.iq,  bAmeer.husham7979@gmail.com,  cahmeedfnon2010@gmail.com

They have created texts that play an active and necessary anchor in the history of literature in general. What holds the various images, and the implications of the intellectual, especially that her book sought to inform them of what is objective and objective in a person’s life and the multiplication of his experiences, until those texts began with an effective message affecting the implications and different dimensions, there is no doubt that we find similar images of this diversity and uniqueness In Salem Al-Zaidi's theatrical experience, which calls for recognition and understanding, reveals the desire to renew and change the style of writing the Iraqi play because the art of theater is a social art that is based on it until now, a human addition to its history that owns its platform from being a function that deepens life means honest while filming Reality, adding a mechanism for seeing the aesthetic and intellectual, and that the patriotic spirit (citizenship) is one of the social characteristics, where a man dwells in his behavior in life and reflects it Q. - All his works and accomplishments are not particularly the art of theater, as eating texts of books plays the subject of (patriotic spirit) , (National Identity), (Citizenship) (Patriotism) reflect the concern of human destiny, and how to deal with the origins of life in an aesthetic artistic manner and through means of multicasting through the theater of text presented by the playwright J in the texts Which reveals all the social and educational structures and the national spirit to which they belong to them, so it dealt with the subject of the book theater in many different artistic texts theatrical work that works from that reality the pension of the patriotic spirit and loyalty to the whole citizen by employing religion and human values from Achchylus in horse play (Shakespeare, Corneille, and others) and others from Arab writers such as (Saad Allah, Anus, and Muhammad Mahdi Basir) Iraq were not in isolation from the global Arab community and not particularly in affiliation and loyalty to the national outcome of the conditions that Iraq went through. The research section is divided into three chapters, the first of which is defined by the national note, and the second is the concept of patriotism in the international theatrical text, and the third deals with the national spirit in the Arab theater (Salem Al-Zaidi) as the research model and concluded with a conclusion, sources, and references. Pages 1004 to 1018
 
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The Tendencies of the Pupils to Participate in the Dramatic Activities of the Schools Hilla

Bashar Oleiwi Daesa, Fuqdan Taher Abbasb, Ali Qasim Abdulmohsinc, aEducational Directorate of Babylon, Iraq, bPhD student at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Babylon, Iraq, cMaster student at the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Babylon, Iraq, Email: abhbhbh12@gmail.com,  bfokdan.audh@gmail.com,  calialakeed2007@gmail.com

One of the important ways that falls within the achievement of the educational goals of the special education philosophy in the country is the process of achieving Ashe social and psychological balance necessary for the student. Life, by merging science with theater in education, on the basis that the theater is part of the educational process, and it is not permissible to separate it from it, amend students ’behavior, address some emotional disturbances and help them adapt to reality, through the experiences and models they obtain in theatrical activities that They participate. And I noticed the lack of Ashe T. RAC students in the play activities that take place inside their elementary schools or some hesitation to participate, as mentioned above raises the problem of researchers after their research by asking: What are the students' attitudes towards participating in the theatrical activities of the cities of Hilla? The importance of the current research lies in shedding light on the students ’attitudes towards participating in theatrical activities within their schools. These directions aim at: the students’ internal preparations, which push them towards adopting theater practices through participating in theatrical activities. This research is also useful for learners, researchers and those interested in learning about student attitudes towards participating in theatrical activities. To achieve the goals of the current research, the researchers adopted the (experimental) approach by preparing a questionnaire to measure students' attitudes toward participating in theatrical activities, and the questionnaire was designed according to Likert method, by showing the student his direction towards participating in theatrical activities inside the school. Pages 1019 to 1029
 
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The Director Worked in Training the Blind Actor

Ali Reza Husseina, Humid Abdullah Qadahb, a,bCollege of Fine Arts, Babylon University, Iraq, Email: afine.ali.reda@uobabylon.edu.iq,  bfine.hameed.aalla@uobabylon.edu.iq

The grouping against the old man looked blindly in a small blind view and despised and considered a weak person not only to try to get rid of him or give him secondary roles in daily life but also with the passage of time and the emergence of divine religions. Proficiency of the blind in memorizing the Qur’an and history in an oral manner. Blind model my refusal to live under the shadow of disability and the shock itself to society under the great determination and bet on the intersections of the central community insist on the year but it was difficult for him, but in spite of that it increases his ability to give and integrate with the decadence of society Something on its own, with different legislatives, this handicap, gradually, in order to transform this pain from excel through the arts and representation in the will knows the limitations. Pages 1030 to 1041
 
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The Effect of Using Computers on Developing Students' Skills in the Art of Commercial Design

Bashar Jawad Nomea, Hind Muhammad Reda Najmb, Mohsen Allawi Salem Al-Zubaidic, aZubaidi Al-Qasim Green University, Iraq, bUniversity of Babylon College of Fine Arts, Iraq, cBabylon Education Directorate, Iraq, Email: abashar.nomy80@gmail.com, bfine.hind.mohammed@uobabylon.edu.iq,  cmuhseen1958@gmail.com

The tremendous scientific and technological progress in the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century had a significant impact on the progress of human life and its development in all fields, the most important of which is the field of education, and what relates to this field in many matters, whether in its goals, methods, teaching methods, curricula, or His techniques .One of the products of this development and progress is the use of computers in the educational process, and because of the many positive features that distinguish this device, it has been used in the field of teaching plastic arts to create a generation characterized by the ability to scientific thinking and creativity, which benefits people present and future, especially in teaching arts, including the art of design for what it is distinguished It is difficult, and this difficulty is due to the nature of the artistic design material, as it is full of technical and cognitive skills at the level of form and content, in addition to the diversity of technical expertise and design phenomena that include them, and these experiences and skills may be far from the student in time and space . In addition, most of the teaching methods used depend on learning by doing or using the modeling method, which exposes teaching material and technical skills to forget over time .Therefore, there was a need to use modern and advanced educational techniques such as computers to develop teaching methods and methods to be more effective and productive than the traditional methods and methods in which the teacher is the center of activity in the educational process, as the educational situation is required for the student to be the center of this activity, and this is what you seek to confirm Modern educational theories, which is provided by the computer in terms of elements of excitement, suspense, time reduction and increased learning effectiveness, especially in the field of art . So the aim of the current research is to find out what's coming. Pages 1042 to 1058
 
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Morphological Research between Rukn Al-Din Al-Istrabadi and Al-Khader Al-Yazdi in their Explanations on Al-Shafia

Musa Jaafar Fadel Al-Harkania, aCollege of Education, Mustansiriya University, Department of Arabic Language, Iraq, Email: aMusaj1972147@gmail.com

Arab scholars have embarked on rooting linguistic grammar at its four levels: the morphological, grammatical, phonological, and semantic level, and their first books were comprehensive of all of this, as there is no separation between them as we see this clearly in the book Sibawayh and Al-Muqtazib, and others, except that the subsequent stages of time in which the Arabs lived required nature Science is authorship in careful specialization, this is on the one hand, and on the other hand: it was a difficult matter that made many authors make a chapter for him in the end of their books, and these and other circumstances made some scholars need to compose complete books on exchange, such as healing and fair, except that This Its huge texts were marred by a lot of difficulty and ambiguity, which made many linguists have to explain these texts, so a new stage of authorship appeared to us, namely annotations. Among the famous texts: Al-Shafiyyah, which is an author in the science of exchange. The explanation was covered by explanation, detailing, commenting, explanation, acceptance and approval.I presented two important explanations in my estimation, and I presented controversial matters that showed the opinions of the explanation, and showed their agreement and their difference to what Ibn Al-Hajib went to in his shafi after presenting this to the opinions of scholars, and thus he sheds light on opinions that did not get a lot of interest from researchers and scholars in studying a budget. Before delving into the presentation of this, it is necessary to define, even briefly, the owner of the hospital and the owners of the explanation who are the subject of the study. Pages 1059 to 1074
 
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Aesthetic Effects on the Ceramic Surface Resulting from the Multiple Fragmentation of Gypsum Blocksjoris Link

Hussam Sabah Jarda, Haidar Mkaf Ktabb, a,bUniversity of Babylon College of Fine Arts, Iraq, Email: afine.hussam.sabah@uobabylon.edu.iq,  bKrar12542@gmail.com

This study addressed the aesthetic effects on the surface of the ceramic output of multiple retail molds of gypsum, as concerned with the definition of gypsum worn produce ceramic molds of gypsum and through the use of these gypsum molds fragmented to the product of ceramics variety of LCD mud, mud consists mainly of very small particles of Plate shape of alumina Silica is linked together with water , and the importance of the current research in highlighting an important aspect of the innovative aspects of the technique of casting gypsum moldings in porcelain, which was characterized by the abundance of their production and the latest update of this technique in the structure of plastic art in the modern era , the current research aims at the aesthetic effect on the surface Porcelain resulting from the multiple fragmentation of gypsum molds. We can rely on the experience that the potter was part of the technique of making gypsum molds, which was inspired by the design of a number of engineering shapes. The works were built through that technology, which was used to take a different form in the manufacture of ceramic utensils. Pages 1075 to 1088
 
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Production of Colored Ceramic Objects with Sodium Carbonate Vapor

Haidar Roof Saeeda, Atyaf Ali Najmb, a,bCollege of Fine Arts, Babylon University, Iraq, Email: afine.haider.roof@uobabylon.edu.iq,  bfine.atyaf.ali@uobabylon.edu.iq

This study included the production of colored ceramic bodies with sodium carbonate vapor, and a ceramic body mixture of Duykhela clay was formed in the form of ceramic models (vases) using a gypsum shape in the form of a hemispherical and was formed using an electric well. Precise of the ability to produce ceramic objects serving the aesthetic aspect of ceramic art. A special oven was built for the purpose of descending system salting, to maximize the use of heat and sodium carbonate vapor for as long as possible. Liquid gas was used as the fuel for the burning process, with one stove and a chimney. Chromatic oxide was used to color the bodies of sodium carbonate glass, represented by chromium oxide and cobalt. In addition, the researcher divided the research samples into two groups. The first is to activate the clay surface with a hidden layer of flint (SiO 2) at a rate (0.5%) as a smelter. And the second group, its surface was not activated with flint materials, and the aim is to show the difference between the two groups in terms of the thickness of the vitreous layer and the effect of color oxides on the two groups. These two methods were adopted, first for the detection of color results, and the second for the purpose of making a physical comparison of the nature of the resulting surface. (8) models were created, (4) of which were activated with flint materials, and (4) their surface was not activated by flint, and the purpose was to compare, and each of the two models was set in one heart, i.e. four burns for all models and the burning and salting process was completed With sodium carbonate vapor during a time period (8-9), where local sodium carbonate (Nile region) was used in the glazing process, where (10) kg was added during the salting process for all samples. The most important results were: 1- Colored ceramic objects can be produced by sodium carbonate vapor. 2-    The results of the samples activated by the flint were more integrated and standardized. 3-      Cobalt models were more stable and widespread. 4 Different patterns appeared in the texture. 5-  The possibility of lowering the temperature using sodium carbonate. Pages 1089 to 1105
 
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Practical Education Problems for the Student - Teacher, Department of Geography, College of Basic Education

Jinan Mohamed Abdela, Zina Zaid Mahdi Alib, a,bDepartment of Geography, College of Basic Education, Babylon University, Iraq, Email: aalakkam@yahoo.com

The current research aims at identifying the problems that face student- teacher in the geography department. In the practical education program in the college of basic education – university of Babylon the necessity for putting a suggested view to overcoming the problems that face student- teacher during the practical education. The current search limited to: Fourth-year student teachers in the geography department, college of basic education. A study tool is a survey tool prepared by the researcher. The second section 2017-2018 of the study tool was selected. The current research leads to a set of recommendations that can address some of the problems related to practical education. Pages 1106 to 1117
 
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Statistical Analysis of Ambient Air Quality in Residential Communities in Jordan

Sana’a Odat, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science Yarmouk University, Email: Sanaa.owdat@yu.edu.jo

Sulphur (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and NOx), H2S, PM10 and PM 2.5 have been tracked in: AB / Al-Balqa, MU / Amman, AG / Amman, RU / Zarqa and KH / Al-Mafraqa, to determine the ambient air quality in these areas. Data was obtained from the report taken from Jordan ministry of environment. The primary objective was to classify the rates of contaminants in the above-mentioned five areas in the period December 2015 to November 2016 and to compare the concentrations of different air pollutants reported hourly, monthly, and annually with Jordanian standards (JS 1140/2006). The study also aims to assist policy makers in evaluating and improving the application of effective interventions that could enhance the conditions in the research areas and thus improve the quality of public health in Jordanian life. The principal findings of the study show that the reported rates of SO2 and NO2 were within the Jordanian norm for environmental quality at all five monitoring sites. The PM10 levels in AG station were high at this site when compared to the other sites, the higher PM10 levels were reported and the average permissible limit for the Jordanian test standards was exceeded in 96 days during the course of the study period. In addition, PM10 levels were high and in 81 days during the study period the daily permissible limit in Jordan was exceeded. KH's PM10 levels were high, but in comparison with the other sites, the lower PM10 levels were reported and the average allowable Jordanian requirements in twenty-seven months in the course of the study were exceeded. During the study period, 1 hour and 1 day total for H2S was reported. In addition, in 18 days during the course of the analysis, the PM2.5 values in Jordan reached the daily permissible cap. Some of the recommended steps suggested by this study are the continued monitoring of existing areas of ambient air quality, increased monitoring of most kingdom areas in the region and expansion of polluter monitoring, especially black carbon and ozone levels. Pages 1118 to 1139
 
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