Volume 13, Issue 2, 2020

Special Edition: Safe Communities


Guest Editor: Eko Susanto

Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Kota Metro, Lampung, Sumatra, Indonesia



The Implementation of Good Faith Principles in the Transfer and Registration of Land Rights Based on Basic Agrarian Law

Fathul Lailaa, Abdul Rachmad Budionob, Iwan Permadic, Istislamd, aDoctorate Candidate of Law Program, b,c,dFaculty of Law, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia. Email: alailafathul@yahoo.com

Good faith is a fundamental principle in conducting an agreement. The good faith principle in Indonesia based on The Basic Agrarian Law (BAL) must be applied, especially in the transfer and registration of land rights. The implementation of good faith principles in the Agrarian field, through Land Deed Official (PPAT), is yet to be achieved. This study is an empirical study; the type of data in this study is primary and secondary data. Interviews and literature studies collected data. The technique of analysing data is interactive analysis (interactive models of analysis). The discussion of the research indicates that great faith was used as the principle of Agrarian Law. Still, in the registration of land rights applied throughout Indonesia, the monitoring is regulated by the government through the Minister of Agrarian and Spatial Planning, or National Land Agency. It means that the principle of Good Faith in the transfer and registration of land rights based on BAL is not implemented. Implementation of the good faith principle in the Agrarian Agreement (UUPA) will only be achieved through the Amendment of Land reform, PPAT Law, and issuing a law regarding the Land Rights Transfer of Land Ownership. Pages 1 to 13




Content Overview of Workers Cholinesterase Enzyme at PT. Great Giant Pineapple Plantation, Kabupaten East Lampung

Yusrizala, Eka Sulistyaningsihb, a,b Health Analyst, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ayusrizal chaniago08@gmail.com

Blood cholinesterase levels are the number of active cholinesterase enzymes in blood plasma and red blood cells. Early detection of pesticide poisoning is achieved by checking the cholinesterase enzyme in the blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the description of the level of the enzyme cholinesterase in plantation workers of PT. Great Giant Pineapple, East Lampung Regency and to find out the percentages by sex and age of workers. This study design was cross-sectional with a sample of 599 workers. The variable of this study is the level of the cholinesterase enzyme. Measuring instruments of this study are secondary data from blood tests and secondary data related to age and sex. The results of this study found that the number who took the examination was 599 workers. The frequency distribution of the cholinesterase enzyme was 4 workers (5.6%) for the low cholinesterase enzyme activity category while 595 workers (94.4%) were for the normal cholinesterase enzyme activity category. Pesticides are the last choice used after the method of ‘back to nature’ was proclaimed by the Ministry of Health in 2000, which is to maintain predatory animals in pest control, then the management has also to conduct periodic checks related to the level of the enzyme cholinesterase to workers associated with the use of pesticides. As for the affected workers, immediate further treatment is provided by the company's integrated clinic. Pages 14 to 29




 Risk of Pesticides on Anaemia Events in Horticulture Farmers

Prayudhy Yushanantaa, Mei Ahyantib, Yetti Anggrainic, a,b,cDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: aprayudhiyushananta@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Exposure to pesticides is thought to have an effect on anaemia, but the results are not consistent in various studies. The study was conducted on 155 women of childbearing age who worked on horticultural agriculture in three different regions, to determine the risk of pesticide exposure to anaemia. Measurements were made on the activity of the cholinesterase enzyme, haemoglobin, nutritional status, duration of exposure, and protective use. A total of 13 people experienced poisoning and 35 people suffered from anaemia. Statistical results showed that the risk of pesticide exposure to anaemia was 6.12 times (95% CI = 1.81 - 20.73), and with the use of protective equipment was 3.17 times (95% CI = 1.12 - 8.98). Exposure to pesticides will increase the risk of anaemia in women who work on horticultural agriculture. This research provides useful information regarding pesticide exposure in horticultural agriculture. Indiscriminate use of pesticides must be assessed regularly and agricultural workers must be trained for safe use of pesticides. Pages 30 to 40




Comparison of Tuina Massage Therapy and Citronella Aromatherapy Oil in Toddler Appetite Enhancement

Nora Isa Tri Novadelaa, Ani Gusnia Sarib, a,b Department of Obstetrics, Poltekkes KemenkesTanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: aNoraisatrinovadela@yahoo.co.id

Appetite is the desire to eat food of certain types. This desire is useful to help someone choose quality food. The problem in this study is that as many as 75 (60%) of toddlers in Posyandu Anggrek Sidosari Village, South Lampung are experiencing appetite problems. Some of the treatment of appetite problems in toddlers in a non-pharmacological way are the intervention of Tuina Massage and Aromatherapy Oil Administration. The purpose of this study was to determine the comparison of the response of Tuina Massage and Gathering of Aromatherapy Oil of Lemongrass to the increase of toddler's appetite in Posyandu Anggrek, Sidosari Village, South Lampung. This study is an analytical study with a pre-experimental design (two-group pretest-posttest) conducted in February - April 2019. The population in this study were toddlers living in Sidosari Village in South Lampung, as many as 293 people. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling. Data Sources used are primary data obtained directly from respondents, data collection tools in the form of questionnaires and Comstock sheets. The univariate analysis used average values, Bivariate analysis used paired-sample T-tests with Independent T-Tests. Research results obtained from statistical tests with independent sample T-test, the average ratio after the intervention of Tuina Massage was 1.644, and the average after giving Lemongrass Oil Aromatherapy was 1.092. The conclusion of this study is the response of Tuina Massage is more useful to increasing the appetite of toddlers in Posyandu Anggrek Sidosari Village, South Lampung. It is hoped that the Posyandu Anggrek can provide counselling on handling toddlers' appetite problems with non-pharmacological treatments, especially Tuina Massage. Pages 41 to 54




Level of Electro Flocculation Technology as A Treatment of Household Industry Waste (Design and Building Design)

Rifai Agung Mulyonoa, Wibowo Ady Saptab, a,bPoltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia

At present most of the tempeh/tofu industry is a small-scale household industry that is not equipped with wastewater treatment units. One method that has been used for waste treatment is electro flocculation, which has the advantage of being a simple, efficient method, both used to remove organic compounds without the addition of chemicals, thereby reducing the formation of residues (sludge), and good for removing suspended solids. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of tofu wastewater treatment using stratified electro flocculation in current-voltage variations (4.5; 6.0; 7.5; 9.0 and 12 volts) to reduce levels of TSS and BOD, COD and pH in tofu wastewater. This research is experimental research. The results showed a decrease in TSS, BOD, COD and pH levels. The most effective reduction of TSS is at a current-voltage of 7.5 volts with an average of 96.80 g/L, the most effective decrease in BOD is at a 12-volt current voltage with an average of 298.18 g/L, the most effective COD reduction is at a current-voltage of 12 volts with an average of 1701.20 g/L and an average pH of 6. The statistical test results show that there is a difference in the level of decline in tofu wastewater contaminants in the home industry of TSS, BOD, COD, and pH with a value (p = 0.000). Pages 55 to 69




The Effect of Audio Visual on The Decrease of Anxiety in Preschool Children Undergoing Infusion

Jhon Feria, Andra Saferi Wijayab, Susminic, a,b,c Poltekkes Kemenkes Palembang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: feiaremantai76@gmail.com

Anxiety experienced by preschool children during hospitalisation is an important issue because it can affect the growth and development process. Stress comes from fear, which is then responded to by the adrenal medulla, which can stimulate the sympathetic nerve and produce epinephrine, which causes an increased pulse rate. Most nursing procedures for children usually require invasive measures such as injection or infusion, and this is a substantial stressor that can make children experience anxiety. To overcome fear in children, non-pharmacological techniques are needed, and one of them is Audio Visual distribution. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of audio-visual distraction using cartoon animated videos on pre-school age anxiety when infusing. This research is pre-experimental research with a sample of 30 children. Child anxiety levels are measured by a checklist of HARS scores and the child's pulse frequency. Data processing was performed using the analysis Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test with the results showing a value of p = 0.000, which indicated there was a difference in the child's anxiety score after being given audiovisual. This study recommends that child nurses be able to perform audiovisual distraction techniques in overcoming child anxiety during infusion. Pages 70 to 84




Streptococcus Mutans Antibacterial Study: Mouthwash Preparations Formulation Using Cinnamon and Betel Leaf Essential Oils (Cinnamomum burmannii) (Piper betle L)

Dias Ardinia, Endah Ratnasarib, Mulatasihc, a,b,cDepartment of Pharmacy, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: adiasardini2@gmail.com

Mouthwash on the market contains active ingredients that are not natural and often cause side effects to the mouthwash user. Therefore, mouthwash has been developed that uses natural active ingredients such as cinnamon and betel leaf essential oils. This research aims to determine the physical and antibacterial properties of mouthwash preparations. The results obtained by the mouthwash that contains essential oils have a more pungent smell and are more turbid than the mouthwash without essential oils. Mouthwash viscosity shows the value of F1 to F6, respectively for 1.0445; 0.9464; 1.0031; 0.9905; 0.9586; and 0.9010. The density of mouthwash has a value close to 1, which is the density of water. The test results showed the entire formula has a pH of acidic nature ranging from 3.7. The antibacterial power test showed that the diameter of the biggest obstacle is the mouthwash, which contains single essential oils of cinnamon. Pages 85 to 95




 The Effect of Acupressure on Emesis Gravidarum

Novita Rudiyantia, Nurchairinab, a,bPoltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: arudiyantinovita@yahoo.com

Emesis gravidarum is a common condition among pregnant women, with an infection rate of 12.5% ​​worldwide. Hormonal and immune changes have a role in emesis gravidarum. There are drug-based and non-pharmacological emesis gravidarum treatments by diet. Non-virology treatment is through diet, emotional support, and alternative therapies using herbs and acupressure. Acupressure treatment has been widely used in the health sector as a support for medical care, commonly in obstetric clinics. This study aims to determine the effect of acupressure on emesis gravidarum. This type of research is quantitative (analytic) with a quasi-experimental design with Pre-Test and Post-Test Control Group Design. The intervention group was given acupressure. In contrast, the control group was given a placebo. The measured indicator is the frequency of nausea vomiting in pregnant women before and after treatment, and treatment is done once a day for seven days. The results of the study concluded that the distribution of emesis gravidarum before in the intervention group was in the moderate categ-ory – 15 people, (39.5%). In contrast, the control group was in the medium category; 13 people, (34.2%). The distribution of emesis gravidarum after acupressure was done in the intervention group was the mild category, 32 people (84.2%), while the control group was the sweet category, 24 people (63.2%). There was a difference in the effect of acupressure on emesis gravidarum before and after treatment with the results of the intervention analysis of the P-value of 0.000 which means <0.05. Pages 96 to 107




The Effect of Black Clothing on Prevention of Hypothermia in Newborns

Martini Fairuza, Yusro Hadi Mb, Septi Widiyantic, Sri Rahayud, a,b,cMidwifery Studies Program, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, dMidwifery Studies Program Malang, Poltekkes Kemenkes Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia, Email: afairus.toha@gmail.com

Hypothermia in the newborn (BBL) due to the temperature control center is not adequate,  inadequate body insulation for a thin, flat layer. Hypothermia accounts for 6.3% of infant deaths. Continuous hypothermia causes respiratory acidosis, respiratory distress ending death, apparel effect on body temperature. Black clothing absorbs heat radiation has properties very well. This study aimed to influence their use in the prevention of hypothermia BBL interventional research methods with Post Test Only Control Group Design. The population of the entire BBL Central Lampung hospitalizisation in a health center for six months. Samples were 98 infants, 49 infants intervention group, the control group of 49 infants. Analysis of using independent t-test. The resulting increase in body temperature BBL using the regular black clothes 0.3531ºC, increased body temperature in addition to the use of black clothing 0.0510ºC. The results of the statistical test p-value of 0.000, meaning that there is the effect of the use of black clothing to the increase in body temperature BBL. Conclusions black clothes more effectively prevent hypothermia in the BBL. Suggestion black clothing is recommended for BBL to prevent hypothermia. Pages 108 to 121




 Hypnobreastfeeding to Increase Motivation and Breast Milk Production: A Study

Yusari Asiha, Aziza Nyimasb, a,bDepartment of Obstetrics, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ayusariasih@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Breast milk contains high nutrient levels that are beneficial to the health of babies. The World Health Organisation, WHO, recommends infants receive breast milk exclusively for six months. According to the Ministry of Health in 2018, the numbers of Early Initiation of Breastfeeding (IMD) in Indonesia increased from 51.8% in 2016 to 57.8% in 2017. Figures for IMD in Lampung are <1 hour 52, 36%, ≥ 1 hour 3.03%, Rates of breast milk takeup exclusively in Pringsewu District from year to year have increased, i.e., 67.4% in 2014 and 2015, increased to 78.95% in 2016, but still there are challenges with community participation, and support for empowerment in developmental health is not optimal. Health institutions have not widely introduced experimental research that examines Hypnobreastfeeding to increase motivation and breast milk production and to inform pregnant mothers to promote breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Hypnobreastfeeding on motivation and breast milk production in the Pringsewu District 2019. This research is a quasi-experimental design with post-test with control group design. Purposive sampling technique with a total sample of 48 pregnant women at term to breastfeeding is divided into two groups: the intervention group and the control group. In the intervention group Hypnobreastfeeding treatment was given to mothers since pregnancy at the end (37-42 weeks) for four times a month followed by listening to Hypnobreastfeeding affirmations every day during the month compared with a control group given a lactation education. Computerised data was processed using univariate analysis (mean), and bivariate Independent T-Test. The results showed the majority of respondents have the motivation to give breast milk, the perception of breast milk production, and the observation of breast milk production and average weight gain for infants in both criteria. Independent T-Test results of the analysis showed that there was no significant difference in motivation to giving breast milk between groups conducted with a group given Hypnobreastfeeding lactation education. There are substantial differences in perception and observation of breast milk production and infant weight gain between groups led with a group that was given Hypnobreastfeeding lactation education. There is no significant difference in motivation to giving breast milk, and there is a substantial difference in breast milk production in the Hypnobreastfeeding group compared with the lactation education group. To midwives to always provide lactation education and Hypnobreastfeeding to help increase motivation and production of breast milk, researchers can conduct further research with other variables that can affect motivation and breast milk production. Pages 122 to 137




Home Environmental Health: Relationship with Stunting in Bandar Lampung

Ferizal Masraa, Helina Helmyb, a,bDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia

Stunting is a short and very short body condition based on age with height <-2 SD from the WHO child growth standards nutritional status table. Factors affecting nutritional problems in Indonesia consist of internal and external factors. This study aims to determine the relationship between home environmental health with stunting in the city of Bandar Lampung. The study was conducted in July - December 2019 in Bandar Lampung City using a case-control design. Research respondents numbered 106 people who were selected using purposive sampling, then observing the environmental health conditions reviews of their homes. The results of the study were processed and analysed descriptively and analytically to obtain a pattern and strong relationship between home environmental health with stunting in the city of Bandar Lampung. The results showed a relationship between physical facilities and household sanitation facilities with stunting with pv: 0043 and 0:02. The interaction between clean water facilities and wastewater disposal facilities has a strong dominant relationship to the risk of stunting with pv: 0.033 and OR: 122.617. Based on reviews of these results, improving the quality of home environmental health must be done to minimise the risk of stunting in Bandar Lampung City. Pages 138 to 153




Pathogenic Bacterial Pattern and its Resistance in the Care Rooms of the Hospital in Bandar Lampung

Maria Tuntuna, Misbahul Hudab, a,bDepartment of Health Analyst, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: amaria_tuntun@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

The hospital ward cannot be separated from the threat of resistant pathogenic bacteria. The bacteria can cause nosocomial infections for patients treated in hospital care. The research objective was to determine the resistance pattern of pathogenic bacteria in a hospital ward in London. This type of research is observational analytic cross-sectional design. The research variables are the resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria in the treatment room. The population for the sample in this research is the treatment room in the hospital, a total of 11 treatment rooms. In each treatment room, we swabbed at five points to obtain microbiological samples to examine. Microbiological examination was performed in the microbiology laboratories of the Health Laboratory in Lampung Province, July-October 2018. The microbiology laboratory examination includes microscopic examination of bacteria, isolation of bacteria, bacterial identification, and antibiotic sensitivity test. The results showed 12 species of bacteria from 67 bacterial isolates, ie, the pattern of the following bacteria: Klebsiella pneumonia (20.90%), Klebsiella oxytoca (5.97%), Alcaligenes faecalis (13.43%), Citrobacter sp. (5.97%), E. coli (5.97%), Proteus Vulgaris (2.99%), Proteus rettgeri (2.99%), Proteus morganii (1.49%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.94 %), Staphylococcus aureus (8.96%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (11.94%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (7.46%). Patterns of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is Proteus Vulgaris (71.43%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (57.74%), Citrobacter sp. (54.76%), Klebsiella oxytoca (52.38%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (44.05%), Proteus rettgeri (38.10%), of Alcaligenes faecalis (38.10%), Klebsiella pneumonia (36.39% ), Proteus morganii (33.33%), E. coli (29.76%), Staphylococcus aureus (27.78%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.29%). The results of the sensitivity test using 19 kinds of antibiotics showed all to be antibiotic-resistant. Seven kinds of antibiotics have been resistant above 50%, namely Clindamycin (79.10%), Cefixime (77.61%), Cephalotin (76.12%), Cefazoline (71.64%), Amphicillin sulbactam (68.66%), Trimetophrim (62.69% ), and Cefuroxime (56.72%). The conclusion of this study is obtained bacteria Gram-positive group (three species of bacteria) and Gram-negative (9 species of bacteria). All bacterial isolates (67 isolates) were resistant to the antibiotic resistance level of 2.99% to 79.10%. Pages 154 to 166




The Effectiveness of the Education of Pregnant Women on Stunting Prevention in Bandar Lampung City

Yeyen Putrianaa, R Pranajayab, a,bDepartment of Obstetrics, Ministry of Health, Potekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia

Failure to grow or stunting is a threat of losing a generation. The incidence of stunting in Indonesia has decreased from 2013 (37.2%) to 2018 (30.8%) In the Lampung province the incidence of stunting in 2017 was above the national average of 42%. The Ministry of Health in the Republic Indonesia (2018) has set up prevention programs targeting pregnant women stunting. Midwives who are the main service personnel in providing care to pregnant women in health centers have a strategic role in preventing stunting through assisting pregnant women in high-risk groups by using the MCH (Maternal and Child Health) book media, which has been used as a medium to increase maternal knowledge in pregnancy care and care preparation of a toddler. The research was conducted in Puskesmas Kemiling with the consideration that the stunting figure is quite high in this area. The aim of research is to know the effectiveness of support for pregnant women in the prevention of stunting with the MCH book media. The population in this study were all pregnant women who live in Puskesmas Kemiling Bandar Lampung. The research sample of pregnant women is according to inclusion criteria. Sampling is with the purposive sampling technique. Significant until determined by the consecutive sampling method. A total sample of 20 people. Analysis of the data used in univariate and bivariate. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between MCH book media education and the knowledge imparted to pregnant women about stunting prevention with a p-value of 0.000 (p <0.05). Educational advice about stunting prevention must also be given to families as a supporting factor for comprehensive stunting prevention. Pages 167 to 177




Red Spinach Accelerates the Increase of Hb Levels in Pregnant Women

Riyanti Imrona, Putri Samuelb, aDepartment of Midwifery, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, bPuskesmas Segala Mider Bandar Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ariyantiimron74@gmail.com

Anaemia is one of the physiological conditions that usually occurs during pregnancy. Anaemia in pregnancy generally occurs due to hemodilution. Based on the results of the pre survey obtained from Puskesmas Segala Mider Bandar Lampung, it was found that of 10 pregnant women who attended antenatal care (ANC) there were 6 who were presenting with anaemia and of those  6  there was 2 women with mild anaemia, 3 with moderate anaemia and 1 woman with severe anaemia.The purpose of this study was to study differences in Hb levels before and after giving red spinach in the second trimester of pregnancy to women with anaemia at the Puskesmas Segala Mider Bandar Lampung, in 2019. The type of research used was the Quasi Experiment with a non-equivalent control group. The population in this study were all pregnant women who attended the ANC at Puskesmas Segala Mider, Bandar Lampung. Samples taken were taken from a total of 36 anaemic pregnant women in the second trimester who were in prepared to trial red spinach. The Data taken consisted of primary data, quoted by the t - Independent test, then processed using a computer. Based on the result of the t – Independent test between differences in Hb levels before and after giving red spinach in the second trimester of pregnant women with anaemia obtained α value ofα = 0.000 to be α < 0.05. The result this statistical test prove the differences in Hb levels before and after giving Red Spinach in the second trimester of pregnant women with anaemia at Puskesmas of Segala Mider  Bandar Lampung in 2019. The researchers suggest that health workers be able to apply Red Spinach consumption as one of alternative non-pharmacological treatment to overcome anaemia in pregnant women. Pages 178 to 191




Utilisation of the Family Latrine Post Declaration ODF

Mei Ahyantia, Yeni Rositab, Prayudhy Yushanantac, a,b,cDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ameiahyati@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Diarrheal diseases dominate the prevalence of diseases due to poor sanitation in Indonesia. Case Fatality Rate (CFR) in 2010-2017 tends to fluctuate. In 2017, diarrhea in Lampung Province was ranked 7th among the top 10 diseases. South Lampung Regency has the highest case. The declaration of Open Defecation Free (ODF) village has been carried out, but the number of diarrhea cases in the Pemanggilan Village during January-March 2019 was 32 cases, with 10 out of 20 people in Marga Kaca, and Sri Mulyo III hamlets not using the available healthy latrines. This study uses a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. The research subjects were 15 community informants, one triangulation informant, and one key informant. The sampling technique used is purposive, sample selected by a snowball.  The results of the study stated that the informant's knowledge can be said to be good, the whole community uses well water for their needs, community leaders and health workers provide support in the form of advice and assistance for the construction of latrines, but community awareness is still not good in the use of family latrines. Pages 192 to 204




Biofilter Processing Method Of Reducing The BOD / TSS, Oil / Fat, pH in Liquid Waste at an Orphanage

Ahmad Fikria, Linda Barusb, a,bDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email:

afikri@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id, blinda.barus1@gmail.com, blindabarus@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

The orphanage's liquid waste contains organic substances and oil/fat. If it cannot be processed, it can be released using oxygen and sunlight and is transferred to living things in the water. Because oxygen needs are not sufficient it increases the risk of rot and enhances environmental pollution. The aim is to understand the process of the wastewater processing method using a biofilter with an operating time of 12, 18 and 24 hours for the reduction of BOD (biological oxygen demand), TSS (total suspended solids), oil/fat, and pH. The research method uses the factor of variation in the length of operation with the biofilter method. Perform initial measurements and complete processing with the T-test difference analysis on BOD, TSS, oil/fat levels, and pH of the liquid waste. The results of the study with filtration time 12 hours: decreased BOD 46.60%, 80.99% TSS, oil/fat 81.33%, and the pH to 6.5. Eighteen hours: decreased BOD of 57.29%, TSS 91.15%, oil/fat 81.29%, and the pH to 6.7. 24 hours: 76.24% reduction in BOD, TSS 99.10%, oil / fat 97.57% and the pH to 6.9. The results of the treatment of the institution's liquid waste using the aerobic biofilter methods are effective and efficient. The material used to make WWTP was used drums with a volume of 200 litres. The processing system uses the aerobic biofilter with wasp nest models as the inherent growth media. Pages 205 to 216




History of Breastfeeding, Formula and Eating Patterns in Stunted Toddlers: The Case with Picky Eaters

Arie Nugrohoa, Nutrition Department, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Email: aarienugroho@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Children aged 1-3 years are in a period of rapid growth after infancy, with a balanced nutritional intake necessary to achieve optimal growth and development. Nutritional problems will occur if the nutrient intake is not being met. One of the issues that exist in child nutrition in Indonesia results in shortness of stature (stunting). One of the behaviours that can occur in the development of children's eating behaviour is picky eating or picking at food. One of the factors that affect children's eating behaviour in adulthood is feeding patterns early in life. Granting exclusive breast milk up to 6 months is a protective factor against the child becoming a picky eater. Complementary feeding MP-ASI (formula), which is given is not appropriate; in this case, if it is too early or too late it also influenced the incidence of picky eaters. This research was analytic research with a cross-sectional study design. The area of ​​research is the nutrition research community. The number of subjects consisted of 85 toddlers. Variables examined included a history of feeding breast milk (ASI), breast milk substitutes (MP-ASI), eating patterns, and stunting status. Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square Test. There is a relationship between a history of non-exclusive ASI, early MP-ASI, and eating patterns with the incidence of picky eaters with a p-value of respectively is 0.001; 0.002 and 0.001 (P <0.05). There was no significant correlation between the incidence of stunting in picky eaters in toddlers with p = 0.741 (p> 0.05). Dinas Kesehatan Bandar Lampung could appeal to the health centre (Puskesmas) through circulars mandating an active role in the socialisation of the importance of exclusive ASI and MP-ASI on time to prevent the occurrence of picky eating in toddlers. Nutritionists can adopt the Indonesian Nutritionists Association (PERSAGI) or the Indonesian Breastfeeding Mothers Association (AIMI) information in the socialisation and mentoring by ASI counsellors to all pregnant and lactating women in Puskesmas Kedaton in order to prevent the occurrence of picky eating in toddlers. Pages 217 to 231




The Decrease in BOD and COD in the Liquid Waste Industry Using Rapid Sand Filtration

Bambang Murwantoa, Ferizal Masrab, Daria Gintingc, a,b,cDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: abam9murwanto@gmail.com

The tofu making industry represents an industry consisting of both small and medium-sized businesses and has a positive impact in economic terms. However, the impact of this industry is likely to be seen more negatively if the waste from the processing of tofu is not treated properly. Untreated waste will continue to have a detrimental impact on the environment,  since the tofu industry wastewater discharge affects the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) parameters, and as such, contributes to river pollution. . This was reported by Bastian (2016) in Murwanto (2018), namely, that tofu industry wastewater pollution was occurring in the Mount Sulah suburb, Bandar Lampung City. The purpose of this study is to establish a viable way of treating tofu wastewater through the reduction of the BOD and COD levels cheaply using Appropriate Technology (TTG) Rapid Sand Filter. This research utilised a quasi-experiment with a one-group pre-test and post-test design (Factorial Design with a Control/Comparative Group) in which the discharge of tofu industry waste and sand filter thickness are independent variables and the decreasing levels of tofu industry waste (BOD and COD, H)  were bound variables. The results of this study indicate a significant influence according to the height of the sand filter on the parameters of the BOD and COD levels in tofu wastewater, and the absence of a significant effect on the amount of water discharge decline. A (BOD) and (COD) parameters tofu liquid waste, this Quick Sand Filter can not be applied in the home of tofu as an Appropriate technology industry because of the Decrease in BOD, COD parameters, Because it is still outside the Threshold Value (NAV) 6 of 2014. Pages 232 to 249




The Effect of Light and Sound Settings on the Physiological Responses in Premature Babies

Gustop Amatiriaa, Siti Fatonahb, Ida Subardiahc, a,bNursing major, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, cRumah Sakit Dr.H.Abdul Moeloek Provinsi Lampung

Most premature infant deaths are caused by the maladaptive response of the extrauterine environment, which causes stress to the baby's environment. This can cause problems in circulation, oxygenation, and metabolism that can interfere with the growth and neurophysiological development of the baby. Different characteristics in the mother and baby can affect the optimisation of the application of various methods of developmental care. This study aims to ascertain the effects of light and sound on the physiological responses (O2 saturation) in premature infants. The study used a descriptive correlation design with a cross-sectional approach. The sample was comprised of 52 infants with consecutive sampling techniques. Analysis of the correlation test was used to determine the strength of the relationship (r) and the 95% confidence interval. Subjects were divided into two groups: control (n = 30) and intervention (n = 22). The control group showed that there was no significant difference in SaO2 (p = 0.558) and pulse (p = 0.396) before and after 24 hours. The intervention group showed that there was no significant difference in pulse (p = 0.104) but significant differences in SaO2 (p = 0.011) before and after 24 hours. Sound and light arrangements effectively improve SaO2. Pages 250 to 263




Implementation of Local Music Wisdom in Progressive Muscle Relaxation Exercises and the Effect on Blood Sugar Levels in Patients with Type 2 DM

Ihsan Taufiqa, Heni Apriyanib, a,bDepartment of Nursing, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: aihsantaufiq@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Muscle relaxation exercises are carried out by first tensing muscles, followed by relaxing specific muscles and then focusing on the sensation of relaxing. This study was planned for implementation from June to November 2019. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of muscle relaxation exercises on blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the health centre in Kotabumi North Lampung region. This study uses a quasi-experimental design with a one-group post-test design. The population in this study are patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the health centre in the Kotabumi North Lampung region with consecutive sampling techniques, and is comprised of 40 respondents. Analysis of the relationship was conducted using a t-test. The null hypothesis (Ho) is that there was no influence between the wisdom of folk music in muscle relaxation exercise on blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the health centre in the Kotabumi North Lampung region. Pages 264 to 276




The Effects of Family Support on Elderly Mental Development

Sulastria, Dedek Saiful Kohirb, a,bNursing major, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: asulastri@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Mental development of the elderly is influenced by various factors such as social relations, social environment, psychological factors, and social activities. This study aims to determine the relationship between family support and mental health and the quality of life of the elderly in Desa Bagelen, Kecamatan Gedong Tataan, and Kabupaten Pesawaran. The research design used a correlation study with a cross-sectional approach. The sampling technique used was multistage random sampling and the sample consisted of  95 people. The results showed that there was a relationship between family support and the mental health of the elderly with a p-value of 0.001. The results of the study also showed that there was a relationship between family support and the quality of life for the elderly with a p-value of 0.002. Pages 277 to 287




Community Preparedness of Laypeople in Doing Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) on Cardiac Arrest Victims

Tori Rihiantoroa, Purbiantob, Gustop Amatiriac, Lisa Suarnid, a,b,c,dPoltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: atoririhiantoro@gmail.com

The incidence of coronary heart disease in the world and Indonesia increase so that the risk for sudden cardiac arrest (HJM) in the future is increasing. In Indonesia, there is no data on the number of laypeople who can help in the HJM (bystander). This study is a descriptive study that aims to determine the knowledge and attitudes of ordinary people in Bandar Lampung in cardiac arrest with CPR rescue. The population is ordinary adults working in the area of ​​public services in the city of Bandar Lampung with a sample size of 168 people who are determined by purposive sampling. Data were collected by the paper-based test with questions (instrument test) and an attitude questionnaire. Research data will be processed and analysed descriptively to describe the amount (frequency) and the percentage of respondents' knowledge and attitudes. The research result shows that the knowledge of society in Bandar Lampung about cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 93.45%, while aspects of public attitudes toward CPR actions balanced between the support (50.6%) and unfavourable (49.4%). Based on these results, we made several recommendations, among others: the need for advocacy of groups of people concerned about the importance of CPR by laypeople to help policymakers at the local and national levels, the need for increased awareness and public concern about the aid CPR by the lay public through socialisation. Pages 288 to 299




Knowledge and Nurses in Complying with Discharge Planning in Space RSUD Pringsewu

Diny Vellyanaa, Arena Lestarib, Andri Yuliantoc, a,b,cFaculty of Health, University Muhammadiyah Pringsewu, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: avellyanadiny@yahoo.com

Discharge Planning done well by nurses can reduce patient length of stay days of treatment, prevent a recurrence, improve the ’patient’s health condition, reduce the ’patient’s family burden, and reduce mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between knowledge techniques and ’nurses’ compliance in carrying out Discharge Planning at RSUD Pringsewu Hospital in 2018. The research design used in this study was an analytic survey with a cross-sectional approach. The number of samples in the study was 28 people. This study used univariate and bivariate analysis. The results showed there is a relationship between knowledge and compliance nurses in nursing Discharge Planning at Pringsewu District Hospital. The statistical test results obtained p-value = 12.02 <α = 0.05. Methods for increasing ’nurses’ knowledge for discharge Planning should be used to improve nursing care services through the implementation of correct Discharge Planning. Pages 300 to 311




The Effect of Academic Stress on Salivary Flow Rate and Plaque Score in Dental Nursing Students of Palembang Health Polytechnic

Dhandi Wijayaa, Ismalayanib, RA Zainurc, Veni Princess Anggrainid, a,b,c,dDental Nursing Department, Poltekkes Kemenkes Palembang, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia, Email: adhandiwijaya@gmail.com

Academic stress can affect oral health by reducing the salivary flow rate in which causes an increase of plaque accumulation as the main cause of periodontal disease. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of academic stress on the salivary flow rate and plaque score. A cross-sectional study of 57 dental nursing students who met the inclusion criteria was conducted in May 2019. Academic stress was assessed using the Scale for Assessing Academic Stress (SAAS), and plaque scores were assessed using the O'Leary plaque control record. The effect of academic stress on the salivary flow rate and plaque score was analysed using one-way ANOVA test and Pearson correlation for the relationship between salivary flow rate and plaque score (95% confidence interval). Academic stress was found on 77.2% of students (56.1% mild and 21.1% moderate). The means of salivary flow rate and plaque score were 0:23 mL/minute and 0.1, respectively. There was a significant relationship between academic stress and the salivary flow rate (p <0.05), but there was no correlation between academic stress and plaque scores (p> 0.05), and there were a relationship and negative correlation between salivary flow rate and the plaque score (P <0.05; r = -0.3361). Academic stress affects the salivary flow rate but does not affect the plaque score. A decrease in the salivary flow rate causes an increase in the plaque score. Pages 312 to 322




Climate Variability and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Bandar Lampung, Lampung Province, Indonesia

Yenni Ruslia, Prayudhy Yushanantab, aLampung Provincial Health Office, Indonesia, bDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjungkarang, Sumatera Indonesia, Email: bprayudhiyushananta@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Climate impacts on health through ecosystem changes, namely the increased risk of vector-borne diseases through the distribution and abundance of vector organisms. The mean incidence of DHF (IR per 100,000 population) in Bandar Lampung from 2007 to 2018 was 104.20 (40.49-245.48), far exceeding the provincial (41.70) and national average (51.36). The study aims to determine the effect of climate, namely rainfall, temperature, and humidity of the number of dengue cases. Data sources are from the Bandar Lampung Health Office and the Geophysics Climatology and Geophysics Agency of Lampung Province. In data processing, daily climate data is converted into monthly and annual data, while the monthly DHF case data becomes annual. The analysis was carried out in stages to obtain a strong relationship between climate variables and the number of dengue cases. The analysis techniques used are mean, minimum-maximum, product-moment correlation, and multiple linear regression. The results showed that the average number of monthly dengue cases in 2007-2018 was 79.19 cases (8-552 cases), rainfall 6.68 mm (0.00-24.10 mm), temperature 28.120C (24.00- 29,300C), and humidity 79.71% (73.90-86.30%), while the climate factor associated with the incidence of DHF was rainfall (p-value = 0.022), with an effect of 19.0%. This research provides preliminary evidence about the influence of climate factors on dengue transmission. Pages 323 to 336




Students’ Emotional Intelligence at the Faculty of Education at the Universitas Negeri Gorontalo

Wenny Hulukatia, Moh. Rizki Djibranb, a,bDepartment of Guidance and Counselling, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia, Email: awennyhulukati@ung.ac.id, bmohrizkidjibran@ung.ac.id

The research aims to find out the description of students’ emotional intelligence at the Faculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo. The sample of this research is 10% out of 2.309 students, which are 231 students. Its design is quantitative descriptive with one variable design, students’ emotional intelligence. The findings revealed that: (1) self-awareness indicator obtains the average percentage of 89%, (2) self-regulation indicator obtains the average rate of 88%, (3) empathy indicator reaches the average percentage of 84%, (4) self-motivation indicator obtains the average percentage of 79%, (5) social intelligence indicator obtains the average rate of 83%. Students’ emotional intelligence at the Faculty of Education receives a high average percentage or in the high category. Pages 337 to 348




Human Person in the Sanghyang Siksakandang Karesian Manuscript: A Contribution For Education

Ade Hidayata, Mamat Supriatnab, Sunaryo Kartadinatac, Cece Rakhmatd, Undang Ahmad Darsae, Dewi Satria Elmianaf, Eko Susantog, aUniversitas Mathla’ul Anwar Banten, Indonesia, b,c,dUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia, eUniversitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, fUniversitas Mataram, Indonesia, gUniversitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Indonesia

This study aims to formulate the issue of the human person contained in the Sanghyang Siksakandang Karesian manuscript as one of the local cultural wisdom, to produce a formulation of a human person for the enrichment and development of education. Efforts to uncover and formulate a human person in the SSK manuscript require the power of interpretation, so the right method is done using hermeneutics-phenomenology. Human person (or human nature) in this study contains three aspects which are personal aspects, uniqueness, and self-identity. The human person in Sanghyang Siksakandang Karesian manuscript includes personal of “soil” and “water”, self-uniqueness of bayu-sabda-hedap, and catur-yogya self-identity. All of them are the basis for authenticity growth, which contributes to the development of education, especially in Indonesia. Pages 349 to 367




Building Entrepreneurship Readiness of Vocational Students Through Values-Based Education in Indonesia

Hardi Santosaa, Agus Basukib, Anas Salahudinc, aUniversitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, bUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, cUIN Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: ahardi.santosa@bk.uad.ac.id

The main goals of a vocational educational institution are to prepare students to enter the workforce and to develop the professional attitude, to prepare students to be able to choose their careers, to be ready for competition, to be ready for selves' development, and to be independence. Moreover, value-based education efforts are directed at humanising humans. Learners are not only oriented to have work skills but also to have more than that. They have to have the right attitude (wisdom) based on ethics and morality to face the business competition era. This study aims to obtain a picture of entrepreneurship readiness for vocational students based on educational values. The research method used in this study is descriptive-analytic. Quantitative and qualitative data are used to support each other in this study. The study sample included 60 vocational students, 30 students in Bandung, and 30 students in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data were collected by administering scale entrepreneurship readiness, observation, interviews, and documentary studies. The results showed: entrepreneurship readiness profile of students in the category of ready to go very prepared. Pages 371 to 383




Designing a Participative Learning Model to Improve Motivation and Functional Literacy Learning Outcomes

Mintarsih Arbarinia, Tri Joko Raharjob, Sri Jutminic, Soetarno Joyoatmojod, Sutarnoe,  aNon-formal Education Department, Faculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang City, Indonesia, b,c,d,eDoctoral Program in Education Science, The Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta City, Indonesia, Email: aarbarini.mint@mail.unnes.ac.id

This research aims at designing and examining the effectiveness of motivational participative learning model on the students' motivation and learning outcome during functional literacy learning. The approach used in this study is Research and Development (R&D). There are three stages in this study. First, the study began with an introductory study by conducting literary study and field study, followed by collecting data through the result of the interview, observation, and documentation descriptively and qualitatively. Second, a model prototype with the ADDIE design model was developed. Finally, an examination through the pre-test post-test control group design quasi-experiment was carried out on 69 research subjects that consisted of 35 learners in the experiment group and 34 learners in the control group. The data were analysed using descriptive analysis and a T-test to measure the effectiveness of the study. The findings presented that: 1) so far, the implementation of functional literacy learning mostly depends on the skill and ability of the tutor; 2) An improvement on learners' motivation was detected throughout each stage of the application of design of motivational participatory, those needed analysis, learning objective formulation, learning program planning, teaching-learning implementation, assessment on the learning process and outcome; 3) motivational participatory learning model is proven to be effective in improving the learning motivation as well as learning outcome. The motivation that is being discussed here includes attention, relevancy, confidence, and satisfaction. The average score of the pre-test was 7.82 compared to the post-test = 9.38. In other words, the learning outcome after the learning activity conducted was higher. In conclusion, the motivational participatory learning model is effective to be implemented in functional literacy learning for adults as the means to reinforce the functional literacy among society. Pages 384 to 400




Characteristics of Mathematical Representation Translation from Verbal to Graph

Dwi Rahmawatia, Rahmad Bustanul Anwarb, Jazim Ahmadc, a,b,cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Jl. Ki Hajar Dewantara No 116, Iringmulyo, Metro Timur, Metro, Lampung, Indonesia, Email: adwirahmawati1083@gmail.com, brarachmadia@gmail.com, cjazimmetro@gnail.com

This study aims to describe the translation characteristics of verbal, mathematical representations into graphs. The translation between mathematical representations is one of the indicators in understanding mathematical concepts. Understanding the things related to the process of student representation translation is very important in learning mathematics. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of mathematical representation translation from verbal to the graph. The approach used in this study was qualitative. The subjects of this study were eighth-graders at some Junior High School. Tests and interviews collected the data. Students did the test while expressing verbally what they were thinking (think aloud). Then the researchers did an interview related to the results of the students' answers. Interviews in this study were semi-structured interviews. The results of the study showed that the process of representation translation from verbal to graph occurred through four stages: unpacking the source, preliminary coordination, constructing the targets, and determining equivalence. There were two characteristics of representation translation from verbal to the graph, namely numerically and algebraically. This characteristic of representation translation from verbal to graph is expected to be used by the teacher as a consideration to make the appropriate instructional design, especially on function. So that teachers can optimise students 'thinking and minimise students' difficulties in the process of representation translation from verbal to the graph. Future research can examine the representation translation of the graph into verbal, verbal to symbolic and otherwise, verbal to the table and otherwise, or symbolic to the graph. Pages 401 to 420




The Development of a Theory Book and Practice Manual for Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) Counseling

Endang Pudjiastuti Sartinaha, Budi Purwokob, a,bMasters in Guidance and Counseling, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aendangsartinah@unesa.co.id, bbudipurwoko@unesa.ac.id

This development research adapted the Borg and Gall’s model (1983) with the primary objective to develop and test the effectiveness of the product. Products that were developed on this study, including (1) SFBT counselling theory books; (2) SFBT counselling practise manuals; and (3) SFBT counselling competency measurement instruments. The rationale for developing this product is based on several reasons including (1) empirically SFBT is effective in overcoming psychological problems; (2) SFBT can be used as an alternative method of counselling to overcome students' psychological problems; (3) School counsellors need to master SFBT counselling competencies adequately; and (4) the limited sources of theoretical reference books and SFBT counselling practice manuals that can be used as learning materials for increasing SFBT counselling competence. This study was done in three stages, which included pre-development, development, and post-development. The first year of research focused on pre-development and development. The post-development stage in the form of product effectiveness testing is carried out in the second year. The preliminary stage has been carried out in a preliminary study, in the form of a theory book content framework, a framework for the contents of the SFBT counselling practice manual, and the SFBT counselling competency instrument. At the development stage, the product has been developed and product validation by experts and users. Based on expert validation and user validation, it was concluded that the development research products which included SFBT theory books. SFBT practice manuals and evaluation instruments of SFBT training results met the acceptability criteria based on aspects of usefulness, accuracy, appropriateness, and appropriateness. Pages 421 to 434




Comparing the Effects of Washing and Processing on Nutrient Levels of Plant and Animal Foods Contaminated by Heavy Metals Cd, Pb

Hening Widowatia, Agus Sutantob, Mia Cholvistariac, Widya Sartika Sulistianid, Fitriana Asih Dewie, a,b,cPostgraduate Biology Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Sumatera, Indonesia, dBiology Education FKIP, Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Sumatera, Indonesia, eBiology Tadris Metro, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Metro, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ahwummetro@gmail.com, bsutanto11@gmail.com, cmiacholvis89@gmail.com, dwidya.sulistiani@gmail.com, easihfitriana3003@gmail.com

Food cultivation is not environmentally friendly, triggering the exposure of heavy metals polluting roommates' agricultural areas will have an impact on the ecosystem and the environment. It affects the food chain and health. The character of bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals are essential to be managed, even though it is low. It must be anticipated so that the effect is minimal. The study was carried out in Lampung's agricultural area, which was predicted to be exposed to heavy metals, through observation, interviews, and experimental with a completely randomised design, doing variations in washing and processing of long beans and vegetable water spinach as well as snails and mussels animal foods. To be Analysed for the absorption of Cd, Pb, protein, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Ca, with the hope of finding the right technique to reduce Cd, Pb, but can maintain its nutrition. Samples were analysed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry for Cd, Pb, Ca, semi-micro for protein, HPLC for vitamins. Data were Analysed with Anova. The Results Showed: washing can reduce levels of Cd, Pb, Relatively does not reduce nutrition; processing can reduce Cd, Pb, and nutrition. Conclusions: 1) Washing and processing have a very significant effect on the reduction in Cd, Pb; 2) Washing Relatively does not Affect nutrient content, whereas processing significant Reduces nutrition; 3) To reduce Pollutants, the food needs to be washed and processed; 4) To maintain nutrient content, it needs to be treated most precisely by steaming; 5) There is no difference in the washing and processing effects between vegetable and animal foods. Pages 435 to 450




The Role of School Climate and Self-efficacy on Student Engagement in a Junior High School in Malang

Muallifaha, Marthen Palib, Imanuel Hitipeuwc, Sudgionod, aDoctoral Student, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Lecture at Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Maliki Malang, Indonesia, b,c,dDepartment of Psychology, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: aaliefaha@gmail.com, bprofmarten@gmail.com, cimanuel.hitipeuw.fip@um.ac.id, dsudjiono.fppsi@um.ac.id

School climate and self-efficacy are factors that affect student engagement. This study aims to examine the impact of school climate and self-efficacy on student engagement of junior high school. The population of this study was a student in Junior High School, who are registered as active students. The number of samples of the study was 236 junior high school students in Malang taken randomly. The data collection method used the school climate scale, self-efficacy scale, and student engagement scale. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that school climate and self-efficacy had a very significant impact on student engagement at school (R = 0.501. P = 0,000). School climate and self-efficacy contributed 50.1% to student engagement, and other factors influenced the remaining 49.9%. The contribution of school climate to student engagement is more dominant than the contribution of self-efficacy to student engagement at school. Pages 451 to 462




Design of Mathematical e-Module Based Polite Language for Slow Learners in Primary Schools

Nuning Kurniasiha, Savitri Wanabuliandarib, Ristiyanic, aLibrary and Information Science Program, Faculty of Communication Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung,  Indonesia, bMathematics Education, UniversitasMuria Kudus, Kudus, Indonesia, cIndonesian Language and Literature Education, Universitas Muria Kudus, Kudus, Indonesia, Email: anuning.kurniasih@unpad.ac.id

Teachers are confronted with different levels of student intelligence during the teaching and learning process in the classroom. In this case, some children can immediately understand the lesson. However, some of them also experience a slow understanding of teaching. The results of our survey in this study at a school in Kudus Indonesia reveals that 33 of 88 students (37.5%) have an average grade below the Minimum Completion Criteria (KKM). Then, the students are categorised as those who have difficulty in learning or slow learners. This study aims to design mathematical e-module based polite language for grade 5 of Primary School. Likewise, this e-module is designed using research and development methods. Furthermore, it is also designed to convey Mathematical Material, especially regarding the square, rectangular, and triangular forms by adapting cultural stories and polite language. Each section has several sub-sections in the form of Cultural Stories, Learning Comics, Let's Study, Summary of the Materials, Find the Truth, Independent Work, and Achievement Results. Therefore, this e-module is expected to accommodate learning strategies and methods when the teachers teach the slow learners. Pages 463 to 475




The Effect of Learning Strategies and Critical Thinking Skills on Mathematical Understanding Based on Initial Ability

Sutrisni Andayania, Hartati Muchtarb, Yufiartic, Eko Susantod, aPost-graduate of Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia,a,dTeacher Training and Education Faculty of Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Indonesia, b,cPost-graduate of Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: atrisnimath.andy@gmail.com

This research was conducted on students of the mathematics education program UM Metro, with a sample of 40 students divided into two classes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an influence of learning strategies and critical thinking skills in mathematical understanding, based on initial abilities. Retrieval of data using tests, 2x2 factorial experimental research design, data analysis using ANCOVA. The results of the study obtained that: 1) there is a mathematical understanding using the Reciprocal Teaching strategy, and Expository, based on initial ability (sig = 0,043 < 0,05);  2) mathematical understanding using the Reciprocal Teaching strategy (mean = 58.95) is higher than Expository Learning strategies (mean = 54.20, 3) there is an influence of the interaction between learning strategies and the critical thinking skills on students' mathematical understanding, based on initial ability (sig. = 0.00 < 0,05). The conclusion is that Reciprocal Teaching strategies more effective than  Expository Learning, based on fundamental skills and are advised to use the Reciprocal Teaching modification strategy to lecturers and further research. Pages 476 to 489




The Happiness Level of Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in Indonesia

Yenni Rizala, Ahmanb, Juntika Nurihsanc, Nurhudayad, a,b,c,dLecturer in Doctoral Guidance and Counseling Program, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: arizalyenni@yahoo.co.id, bahman@upi.edu, cjuntikanurihsan@upi.edu, dnurhudaya@upi.edu

This study aims to describe the profile and to rate the happiness level of multi-ethnic adolescents and to predict the factor of culture substance exists in Indonesia in the multicultural difference in adolescent happiness and to explore how this different dimension of multicultural influences happiness. The approach used is a quantitative approach with a descriptive analysis method. The participants in this study are 606 students from seven multi-ethnic schools by involving six ethnicities, namely Malay, Dayak, Chinese, Madurese, Javanese, and Buginese. The instrument of happiness used is an adaptation of Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) developed by Diener (2000). Data analysis is done by calculating the number of participants in each category of interpretation. Then the percentage is calculated by dividing the number of participants in each category of interpretation (ni) by the number of total participants (n), then its result is multiplied by 100.  The study result found that the ethnics who are in the highest score (happy) are Javanese, Malay, Chinese, and Madurese, which has the same score, whereas the ethnics are in the lowest score (happy enough) are Dayak and Buginese. Pages 490 to 501




The Effect of School-Based Management on School Achievements in Elementary Schools

Yuliantia, aSekolah Dasar Negeri 3 Rajapolah, Tasikmalaya, Indonesia, Email: ayulianti.sdrjp@gmail.com

The principal has autonomy in managing and empowering school resources to achieve the vision, mission, goals, and compile work programs to improve school performance. School management is the key to improving school performance. This study aims to analyse whether school-based management, leadership, and school-based management and leadership influence school performance. The research method used in this study is correlational studies. The population in this study were elementary school teachers in Rajapolah Tasikmalaya District, Indonesia, totalling 245 people with a total sample of 71 people. The results showed that school-based management, school-based leadership, and management and leadership had a positive effect on school achievement. Pages 502 to 517




Developing a Model for Teaching Indonesian Primary Level Mathematics Olympiads: Applied Linguistics

Slamet Setiawana, Ahmad Munirb, Budi Priyo Prawotoc, Dian Rivia Himmawatid, a,b,dDept of English, Faculty of Languages and Arts,Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia, c Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aslamet.setiawan@unesa.ac.id, bahmadmunir@unesa.ac.id, cbudiprawoto@unesa.ac.id, ddianrivia@unesa.ac.id

The relation between linguistics element and mathematics problem tasks is robust to make the students able to solve the mathematics problems. Low linguistics comprehension may lead to the failure of understanding mathematics problems given. This paper reports the development of teaching models for the International Mathematics Olympiads. From classroom observation and mathematic problem tasks, it is revealed that students’ failure to answer Olympiads’ questions during the class session was due to their low linguistics elements, which influence their comprehension of an understanding math problem. Among the ten problems, only one problem could be understood by half of the total students. It indicates that if students fail to understand linguistic elements at any level, the overall comprehension of the math problem will also fail. It is essential to improve the students' linguistics elements to enhance the students' problem-solving skills. A significant role is given to the teachers/instructors to expand the students' knowledge and skills. The process of helping students to understand the problems must be carried in various ways—the importance of interactive communication between teachers and students or among students also supporting the teaching process. Therefore, two teaching models have been developed from the students’ problems. In the present paper, the first teaching model is expected to improve the students with vocabulary to solve the problem. Meanwhile, the second teaching model gives the students to figure out the mathematical problem. Pages 518 to 532




Effectiveness of Election Socialisation in Increasing the Political Literacy of Society in Central Kalimantan

Desi Erawatia, aIAIN Palangka Raya, Indonesia, Jl. G. Obos Kompleks Islamic Center Palangka Raya City, Email: adesi.erawati@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id

Political literacy education for society is needed because the realisation of democracy comes from the people and for the people. Therefore, the need for ammunition to develop true political awareness to society, socialisation is one factor that fosters awareness in political literacy. This study aims to examine how the role and function of socialisation, especially in 11 segmentations, especially in Central Kalimantan, with the analysis of the social theory of George Herbert Mead. This study uses a descriptive qualitative approach with the library research model, as primary data in the form of documents in Central Kalimantan province and as supporting data from several regulations, national and international journals. Besides, an interview is conducted from the General Election Commission (KPU) as the cross-check document data. The findings show that the roles and functions of the KPU and democratic volunteers are appropriate because they are influential people and are respected for their duties and functions. The stages of socialisation given under the targets, such as for beginner voters, women, and religious leaders. Evaluation of the socialisation conducted needs the existence of feedback from the community resulting from the socialisation that has been carried out. Political literacy education will continue through similar events without having to wait for simultaneous local elections in the following years. Pages 533 to 546




Evolving Inclusive Practices in Playgroup and Kindergarten

Melina Lestaria, Sunaryo Kartadinatab, Sunardic, Ade Hidayatd, aUniversitas Indraprasta PGRI, Indonesia, b,cUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia, dUniversitas Mathla’ul Anwar Banten, Indonesia, Email: amelinalestari@yahoo.co.id

One of the dimensions that must be restructured in inclusive education is inclusive practices at school. This dimension develops school practices that reflect the inclusive cultures and policies of the school. There have been a lot of inclusive policies rolled out, but in practice, the rule has not been optimal. The research goal is to describe the objective conditions of how playgroup and kindergarten involve inclusive practices. This present research employs a descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The participants of the study are all teachers, principals, and administration staff at one of the playgroups and kindergartens in the region of East Jakarta. The developed instrument is the guideline of observation and interview. Its indicator is based on the index for inclusion. Based on data analysis, the following research results are obtained: a) In the section of orchestrating learning, (1) teaching is planned with the learning of students in mind; (2) lessons encourage the participation of all students; (3) lessons develop an understanding of difference; (4) students are actively involved in their learning; (5) students learn collaboratively; (6) assessment contributes to the achievements of all students; (7) classroom discipline is based on mutual respect; (8) teachers plan, teach and review in partnership; (9) all students take part in activities outside the classroom. b) In the section of mobilising resources, (1) student differences are used as a resource for teaching; (2) staff’s expertise is fully utilised; (3) staff develop resources to support learning and participation; (4) community resources are known and drawn upon; (5) school resources are distributed enough so that they support inclusion. Pages 547 to 559




The Innovation Iterative Method and its Stability in Time-Fractional Diffusion Equations

Andang Sunartoa, Jumat Sulaimanb, aIAIN Bengkulu, Indonesia, Jalan Raden Fatah Pagar Dewa, Kota Bengkulu, 38212, Indonesia, bUMS Malaysia, Jalan UMS Kota Kinabalu, Kota KInabalu, 88400, Malaysia, Email: aandang99@gmail.com, bjumat@ums.edu.my

In this research, we deal with the innovation or application iterative methods of an unconditionally implicit finite difference approximation equation and the one-dimensional, linear time fractional diffusion equations (TFDEs) via Caputo’s time fractional derivative. Based on this implicit approximation equation, the corresponding linear system can be generated, in which its coefficient matrix is large scale and sparse. To speed up the convergence rate in solving the linear system iteratively, we construct the corresponding preconditioned linear system. Then we formulate and implement the Preconditioned Gauss-Seidel (PGS) iterative method for solving the generated linear system. Two examples of the problem are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the PGS method. The two numerical results of this study show that the proposed iterative method is superior to the basic GS iterative method. Pages 560 to 579




Generalisation of Relations Between Quantity Variations Through Arithmetic Sequences in Functional Thinking

Suci Yuniatia, Toto Nusantarab, Subanjic, I Made Sulandrad, a,b,c,dFaculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia, Email: asuci.yuniati.1603119@students.um.ac.id, btoto.nusantara.fmipa@um.ac.id, csubanji.fmipa@um.ac.id, dimade.sulandra.fmipa@um.ac.id

Function material is one of the most important materials that must be understood by students. However, most students have difficulty understanding the concept of function. These difficulties will have a significant impact on student learning outcomes if not immediately addressed and solved. Student difficulties about function can be minimised by developing students' functional thinking, starting at an early age. Functional thinking is a type of representational thinking that focuses on the relationship between two (or more) variations of quantities. The purpose of this study is to find out how students think functionally through arithmetic sequences. Research data was collected through test sheets and interviews. The results showed that students' functional thinking worked through arithmetic sequences through several stages of functional thinking components. These include 1) understanding the problem, 2) determining recursive patterns, 3) covariational thinking, and 4) generalising the relationship between quantity variations. The stages are carried out by students sequentially to produce a generalisation of relationships between quantity variations through arithmetic sequences. Pages 580 to 593




The Implementation of Blended Learning Methods to Improve Student Self-Regulation at University

Farida Aryania, Muhammad Ilham Bakhtiarb, Nur Fadhilah Umarc, a,cGuidance and Counselling Department, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia, bGuidance and Counselling Department, STKIP Andi Matappa, Indonesia, Email: afarida.aryani@unm.ac.id, bIlhambakhtiar86@gmail.com, cnurfadhilahumar@unm.ac.id

The aims of this research are to find a description of blended learning implementation to improve students’ self-regulation at university and to find the improvement of students’ self-regulation after the implementation of blended learning methods at university. This research uses a quantitative method by using a quasi-experiment design, which studies blended learning implementation for improving students’ self-regulation. The sample of the research is 160 students divided into two groups: a control group (using the conventional method) and an experimental group (using the blended learning method) through a two-group, pre-test post-test design. The research data analysis used descriptive statistics and inferential statistics in the t-test. The results of this research regard the description of the application of blended learning, which was conducted 16 times in lectures under guidance and counselling. There was an improvement in students' self-regulation after the implementation of blended learning methods. This research pointed out through hypothetical testing that the students taught through a blended learning method had greater improvement in learning qualities than those using the conventional method. Pages 594 to 603




Students Behavioral Patterns in Solving Ill-Structured Problems

Lidya Lia Prayitnoa, Purwantob, Subanjic, Susiswod, A R As’arie, N Mutianingsihf, a,b,c,d,eMathematics Education Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jalan Semarang 5 Malang 65145, Indonesia, a,fMathematics Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya, Jalan Ngagel Dadi III-B/37 Surabaya 60245, Indonesia, Email: bpurwanto.fmipa@um.ac.id

This study aims to describe the behavioural patterns of high school students when solving ill-structured problems based on a behaviour perspective. This is qualitative research with an exploration approach involving 36 students of the 11th science class. Students were asked to think aloud to solve ill-structured problems with discounts. During the process of problem solving, recorded student behaviour was then described and analysed when solving problems. The results showed that there are two behavioural patterns in solving ill-structured problems: (a) Intuitive behaviour (giving direct answers), which has two subcategories known as proficient and not proficient intuitive behaviour; and (b) analytics, which bring out ideas and manipulate numbers or operations to produce solutions. Three subcategories of analytic behaviour are analytics involving numbers, variables, and combinations between numbers and variables. These study results indicate a difference in student behaviour patterns when solving ill-structured problems. Students' conceptual and procedural knowledge influence this behaviour. Pages 603 to 617




Caking Mechanisms of Passion Fruit Powder During Storage

Ansara, Nazaruddinb, Atri Dewi Azisc, a,bFaculty of Food Technology and Agroindustries, University Mataram, Indonesia, cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, University Mataram, Indonesia, Email: aansar72@unram.ac.id

Dry food is generally susceptible to caking during storage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of temperature and relative humidity on mechanisms contributing to the caking of passion fruit powder during storage. The research was conducted by storing passion fruit powder in desiccators at various points of temperature (10, 20, and 30oC) and relative humidity (32.8%, 52.8%, and 75.2%). The variations in storage RH were produced by using saturated salt solutions put under the desiccators. The parameters were the evaluated extent of passion fruit powder caking during storage. The results showed that variation in storage temperature did not significantly influence caking because the storage temperature used in this study was still lower than the glass transition temperature of the samples. Water molecules in this condition become unable to carry out chemical activities that cause caking. However, RH variation has a significant influence on the caking of passion fruit powder. The high moisture content at a storage RH of 52.5 and 75.2% could trigger caking. Pages 618 to 628




The Influences of Motivation, Work Milieu, and Organizational Commitment on Teacher Performance in MTS Negeri 4 (Public Islamic School), Surabaya East Java

Enny Istantia, Achmad Daengs GSb, Fadjar Budiantoc, Indah Noviandarid, Ruchan Sanusie, a,d,eUniversitas Bhayangkara Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, b,cUniverstas 45 Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aennyistanti@ubhara.ac.id, badaengsgs@univ45sby.ac.id, cfadjarbudainto@gmail.com, dindah@ubhara.ac.id, ekhansa1812@yahoo.co.id

Education in the globalisation and liberalisation era (at present day) has a very strategic position in yielding quality human resources. This is consistent with the educational aims of preparing students to become community members who have academic and/or professional abilities that can apply, develop and/or enrich the treasury of science, technology and/or art in accordance with Government Regulation No. 60/1999 concerning education. Schools must be ready in all devices. Teaching staff are main drivers of learning activities, so teaching staff must get planned and proportional career development. The demands mentioned above have been stipulated in PP Number 19/2005 concerning National Education Standards in articles 45 and 46. The link between PP Number 60/1999 and PP Number 19/2005 is the development of science, technology and art forms part of the national standard education, especially those listed in articles 45 and 46. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of motivation, work milieu, and organisational commitment on teacher performance in Mts Negeri 4 Surabaya East Java. The population in this study were all teachers in Mts Negeri 4 Surabaya, totalling 65 people. The variables in this study consisted of independent variables, namely motivation, work milieu, and organisational commitment, while the dependent variable was teacher performance. To determine the effect simultaneously and partially, multiple linear regression analysis was used. The conclusion of the study is that there is a simultaneous and partial influence of motivation, work milieu, and organisational commitment on teacher performance. The dominant variable affecting teacher performance is commitment. Pages 629 to 642




Application of Turtle Graphics to Kawung Batik in Indonesia

Ratnadewia, Agus Prijonob, Ariesa Pandanwangic, a,bDepartment of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Kristen Maranatha, Indonesia, cDepartment Art and Design, Universitas Kristen Maranatha, Indonesia, Email: aratnadewi@eng.maranatha.edu; ratnadewi.bandung@gmail.com, bagus.prijono@eng.maranatha.edu, cariesa.pandanwangi@maranatha.edu

Kawung Batik is the oldest batik motif. There are three versions of the origin of kawung batik: First, in the Mataram kingdom, there was a clean-hearted, very wise and polite young man who was the Duke of Wonobrodo. At the time of his appointment, he used Kawung batik. Second, there is a dark brown beetle that disturbs coconut trees. The shape of the Kwangwung beetle is an inspiration for the kawung batik motif, such as in Figure 2. The third version is the palm fruit or kolang kaling, which looks symmetrical like batik kawung. Various forms of kawung batik motifs exist in Indonesia. Archiving of kawung batik motifs can be done using turtle graphics, so storage is simpler and requires less memory. The results of kawung batik motifs raised with turtle graphics can be used as preliminary drawings before making batik by hand or with a stamp so that it is beneficial for batik productivity. In this paper, we present kawung picis, kawung bribil, and kawung sen. Each kawung batik motif is formed with a different turtle graphic equation. This can be seen in the pseudocode of each motif. If the shape is almost similar, then the pseudocode can be the same, but if the shape is different, then the pseudocode will also be different. The addition of the motif needs to be followed by another turtle graphic equation. As a comparison, canny edge detection can be used to obtain kawung batik motifs. With the turtle graph, all batik isen-isen can be described. Future studies of turtle graphics are expected to be applied to other motifs. Pages 643 to 658




The Application of C.G. Jung’s Individuation Theory in Counselling Toward an Integrative Personality: A Case Study of Javanese Indonesian People

Paulus Teguh Kusbiantoroa, Punaji Setyosarib, Marthen Palic, Dany Moenindyah Handarinid, aGuidance and Counselling Postgraduate Study, a,b,dUniversitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145, Indonesia, cFaculty of Psychology, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Jl. Jend. Ahmad Yani No. 288 Surabaya 60234, Indonesia, Email: ateguhpaulus@gmail.com

According to Jung, a person should reach an integrated personality to be able to optimise self-actualisation and express themselves genuinely. This shapes their authenticity and integrity, which may inspire others. However, the development of an integrated personality can be obstructed by unconscious forces formed through traumatic events and psychological needs since childhood. To shape an integrated personality, C.G. Jung offered the concept of individuation to liberate the individual from personas influenced by egocentric unconscious forces through self-analysis and reflection. However, Jung only offered the concept without further explanation for a definite application method, which makes the individuation process hard to do personally because it is highly related to the infinite unconscious side of humans, which is not correlated directly to perceptual senses. The subject was chosen as a case study because her hesitance was suspected as a stereotypical Javanese obstruction toward her personality integration. The subject’s case indicated that Javanese Indonesian people needed treatment to integrate their personalities in optimising their self-actualisation. Individuation counselling is one way to treat them. The purpose of this research is to prove that the ethos of individuation can be applied as a method of group counselling to develop the uniqueness and integrity of the Javanese people. Pages 659 to 669


Cron Job Starts