Volume 13, Issue 2, 2020

Special Edition: Safe Communities

 

Guest Editor: Eko Susanto

Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Kota Metro, Lampung, Sumatra, Indonesia

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The Implementation of Good Faith Principles in the Transfer and Registration of Land Rights Based on Basic Agrarian Law

Fathul Lailaa, Abdul Rachmad Budionob, Iwan Permadic, Istislamd, aDoctorate Candidate of Law Program, b,c,dFaculty of Law, Universitas Brawijaya, Indonesia. Email: alailafathul@yahoo.com

Good faith is a fundamental principle in conducting an agreement. The good faith principle in Indonesia based on The Basic Agrarian Law (BAL) must be applied, especially in the transfer and registration of land rights. The implementation of good faith principles in the Agrarian field, through Land Deed Official (PPAT), is yet to be achieved. This study is an empirical study; the type of data in this study is primary and secondary data. Interviews and literature studies collected data. The technique of analysing data is interactive analysis (interactive models of analysis). The discussion of the research indicates that great faith was used as the principle of Agrarian Law. Still, in the registration of land rights applied throughout Indonesia, the monitoring is regulated by the government through the Minister of Agrarian and Spatial Planning, or National Land Agency. It means that the principle of Good Faith in the transfer and registration of land rights based on BAL is not implemented. Implementation of the good faith principle in the Agrarian Agreement (UUPA) will only be achieved through the Amendment of Land reform, PPAT Law, and issuing a law regarding the Land Rights Transfer of Land Ownership. Pages 1 to 13

 

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Content Overview of Workers Cholinesterase Enzyme at PT. Great Giant Pineapple Plantation, Kabupaten East Lampung

Yusrizala, Eka Sulistyaningsihb, a,b Health Analyst, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ayusrizal chaniago08@gmail.com

Blood cholinesterase levels are the number of active cholinesterase enzymes in blood plasma and red blood cells. Early detection of pesticide poisoning is achieved by checking the cholinesterase enzyme in the blood. The purpose of this study was to determine the description of the level of the enzyme cholinesterase in plantation workers of PT. Great Giant Pineapple, East Lampung Regency and to find out the percentages by sex and age of workers. This study design was cross-sectional with a sample of 599 workers. The variable of this study is the level of the cholinesterase enzyme. Measuring instruments of this study are secondary data from blood tests and secondary data related to age and sex. The results of this study found that the number who took the examination was 599 workers. The frequency distribution of the cholinesterase enzyme was 4 workers (5.6%) for the low cholinesterase enzyme activity category while 595 workers (94.4%) were for the normal cholinesterase enzyme activity category. Pesticides are the last choice used after the method of ‘back to nature’ was proclaimed by the Ministry of Health in 2000, which is to maintain predatory animals in pest control, then the management has also to conduct periodic checks related to the level of the enzyme cholinesterase to workers associated with the use of pesticides. As for the affected workers, immediate further treatment is provided by the company's integrated clinic. Pages 14 to 29

 

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 Risk of Pesticides on Anaemia Events in Horticulture Farmers

Prayudhy Yushanantaa, Mei Ahyantib, Yetti Anggrainic, a,b,cDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: aprayudhiyushananta@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Exposure to pesticides is thought to have an effect on anaemia, but the results are not consistent in various studies. The study was conducted on 155 women of childbearing age who worked on horticultural agriculture in three different regions, to determine the risk of pesticide exposure to anaemia. Measurements were made on the activity of the cholinesterase enzyme, haemoglobin, nutritional status, duration of exposure, and protective use. A total of 13 people experienced poisoning and 35 people suffered from anaemia. Statistical results showed that the risk of pesticide exposure to anaemia was 6.12 times (95% CI = 1.81 - 20.73), and with the use of protective equipment was 3.17 times (95% CI = 1.12 - 8.98). Exposure to pesticides will increase the risk of anaemia in women who work on horticultural agriculture. This research provides useful information regarding pesticide exposure in horticultural agriculture. Indiscriminate use of pesticides must be assessed regularly and agricultural workers must be trained for safe use of pesticides. Pages 30 to 40

 

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Comparison of Tuina Massage Therapy and Citronella Aromatherapy Oil in Toddler Appetite Enhancement

Nora Isa Tri Novadelaa, Ani Gusnia Sarib, a,b Department of Obstetrics, Poltekkes KemenkesTanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: aNoraisatrinovadela@yahoo.co.id

Appetite is the desire to eat food of certain types. This desire is useful to help someone choose quality food. The problem in this study is that as many as 75 (60%) of toddlers in Posyandu Anggrek Sidosari Village, South Lampung are experiencing appetite problems. Some of the treatment of appetite problems in toddlers in a non-pharmacological way are the intervention of Tuina Massage and Aromatherapy Oil Administration. The purpose of this study was to determine the comparison of the response of Tuina Massage and Gathering of Aromatherapy Oil of Lemongrass to the increase of toddler's appetite in Posyandu Anggrek, Sidosari Village, South Lampung. This study is an analytical study with a pre-experimental design (two-group pretest-posttest) conducted in February - April 2019. The population in this study were toddlers living in Sidosari Village in South Lampung, as many as 293 people. The sampling technique used is purposive sampling. Data Sources used are primary data obtained directly from respondents, data collection tools in the form of questionnaires and Comstock sheets. The univariate analysis used average values, Bivariate analysis used paired-sample T-tests with Independent T-Tests. Research results obtained from statistical tests with independent sample T-test, the average ratio after the intervention of Tuina Massage was 1.644, and the average after giving Lemongrass Oil Aromatherapy was 1.092. The conclusion of this study is the response of Tuina Massage is more useful to increasing the appetite of toddlers in Posyandu Anggrek Sidosari Village, South Lampung. It is hoped that the Posyandu Anggrek can provide counselling on handling toddlers' appetite problems with non-pharmacological treatments, especially Tuina Massage. Pages 41 to 54

 

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Level of Electro Flocculation Technology as A Treatment of Household Industry Waste (Design and Building Design)

Rifai Agung Mulyonoa, Wibowo Ady Saptab, a,bPoltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia

At present most of the tempeh/tofu industry is a small-scale household industry that is not equipped with wastewater treatment units. One method that has been used for waste treatment is electro flocculation, which has the advantage of being a simple, efficient method, both used to remove organic compounds without the addition of chemicals, thereby reducing the formation of residues (sludge), and good for removing suspended solids. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of tofu wastewater treatment using stratified electro flocculation in current-voltage variations (4.5; 6.0; 7.5; 9.0 and 12 volts) to reduce levels of TSS and BOD, COD and pH in tofu wastewater. This research is experimental research. The results showed a decrease in TSS, BOD, COD and pH levels. The most effective reduction of TSS is at a current-voltage of 7.5 volts with an average of 96.80 g/L, the most effective decrease in BOD is at a 12-volt current voltage with an average of 298.18 g/L, the most effective COD reduction is at a current-voltage of 12 volts with an average of 1701.20 g/L and an average pH of 6. The statistical test results show that there is a difference in the level of decline in tofu wastewater contaminants in the home industry of TSS, BOD, COD, and pH with a value (p = 0.000). Pages 55 to 69

 

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The Effect of Audio Visual on The Decrease of Anxiety in Preschool Children Undergoing Infusion

Jhon Feria, Andra Saferi Wijayab, Susminic, a,b,c Poltekkes Kemenkes Palembang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: feiaremantai76@gmail.com

Anxiety experienced by preschool children during hospitalisation is an important issue because it can affect the growth and development process. Stress comes from fear, which is then responded to by the adrenal medulla, which can stimulate the sympathetic nerve and produce epinephrine, which causes an increased pulse rate. Most nursing procedures for children usually require invasive measures such as injection or infusion, and this is a substantial stressor that can make children experience anxiety. To overcome fear in children, non-pharmacological techniques are needed, and one of them is Audio Visual distribution. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of audio-visual distraction using cartoon animated videos on pre-school age anxiety when infusing. This research is pre-experimental research with a sample of 30 children. Child anxiety levels are measured by a checklist of HARS scores and the child's pulse frequency. Data processing was performed using the analysis Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test with the results showing a value of p = 0.000, which indicated there was a difference in the child's anxiety score after being given audiovisual. This study recommends that child nurses be able to perform audiovisual distraction techniques in overcoming child anxiety during infusion. Pages 70 to 84

 

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Streptococcus Mutans Antibacterial Study: Mouthwash Preparations Formulation Using Cinnamon and Betel Leaf Essential Oils (Cinnamomum burmannii) (Piper betle L)

Dias Ardinia, Endah Ratnasari Mulatasihb, a,bDepartment of Pharmacy, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: adiasardini2@gmail.com

Mouthwash on the market contains active ingredients that are not natural and often cause side effects to the mouthwash user. Therefore, mouthwash has been developed that uses natural active ingredients such as cinnamon and betel leaf essential oils. This research aims to determine the physical and antibacterial properties of mouthwash preparations. The results obtained by the mouthwash that contains essential oils have a more pungent smell and are more turbid than the mouthwash without essential oils. Mouthwash viscosity shows the value of F1 to F6, respectively for 1.0445; 0.9464; 1.0031; 0.9905; 0.9586; and 0.9010. The density of mouthwash has a value close to 1, which is the density of water. The test results showed the entire formula has a pH of acidic nature ranging from 3.7. The antibacterial power test showed that the diameter of the biggest obstacle is the mouthwash, which contains single essential oils of cinnamon. Pages 85 to 95

 

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 The Effect of Acupressure on Emesis Gravidarum

Novita Rudiyantia, Nurchairinab, a,bPoltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: arudiyantinovita@yahoo.com

Emesis gravidarum is a common condition among pregnant women, with an infection rate of 12.5% ​​worldwide. Hormonal and immune changes have a role in emesis gravidarum. There are drug-based and non-pharmacological emesis gravidarum treatments by diet. Non-virology treatment is through diet, emotional support, and alternative therapies using herbs and acupressure. Acupressure treatment has been widely used in the health sector as a support for medical care, commonly in obstetric clinics. This study aims to determine the effect of acupressure on emesis gravidarum. This type of research is quantitative (analytic) with a quasi-experimental design with Pre-Test and Post-Test Control Group Design. The intervention group was given acupressure. In contrast, the control group was given a placebo. The measured indicator is the frequency of nausea vomiting in pregnant women before and after treatment, and treatment is done once a day for seven days. The results of the study concluded that the distribution of emesis gravidarum before in the intervention group was in the moderate categ-ory – 15 people, (39.5%). In contrast, the control group was in the medium category; 13 people, (34.2%). The distribution of emesis gravidarum after acupressure was done in the intervention group was the mild category, 32 people (84.2%), while the control group was the sweet category, 24 people (63.2%). There was a difference in the effect of acupressure on emesis gravidarum before and after treatment with the results of the intervention analysis of the P-value of 0.000 which means <0.05. Pages 96 to 107

 

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The Effect of Black Clothing on Prevention of Hypothermia in Newborns

Martini Fairuza, Yusro Hadi Mb, Septi Widiyantic, Sri Rahayud, a,b,cMidwifery Studies Program, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, dMidwifery Studies Program Malang, Poltekkes Kemenkes Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia, Email: afairus.toha@gmail.com

Hypothermia in the newborn (BBL) due to the temperature control center is not adequate,  inadequate body insulation for a thin, flat layer. Hypothermia accounts for 6.3% of infant deaths. Continuous hypothermia causes respiratory acidosis, respiratory distress ending death, apparel effect on body temperature. Black clothing absorbs heat radiation has properties very well. This study aimed to influence their use in the prevention of hypothermia BBL interventional research methods with Post Test Only Control Group Design. The population of the entire BBL Central Lampung hospitalizisation in a health center for six months. Samples were 98 infants, 49 infants intervention group, the control group of 49 infants. Analysis of using independent t-test. The resulting increase in body temperature BBL using the regular black clothes 0.3531ºC, increased body temperature in addition to the use of black clothing 0.0510ºC. The results of the statistical test p-value of 0.000, meaning that there is the effect of the use of black clothing to the increase in body temperature BBL. Conclusions black clothes more effectively prevent hypothermia in the BBL. Suggestion black clothing is recommended for BBL to prevent hypothermia. Pages 108 to 121

 

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 Hypnobreastfeeding to Increase Motivation and Breast Milk Production: A Study

Yusari Asiha, Aziza Nyimasb, a,bDepartment of Obstetrics, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ayusariasih@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Breast milk contains high nutrient levels that are beneficial to the health of babies. The World Health Organisation, WHO, recommends infants receive breast milk exclusively for six months. According to the Ministry of Health in 2018, the numbers of Early Initiation of Breastfeeding (IMD) in Indonesia increased from 51.8% in 2016 to 57.8% in 2017. Figures for IMD in Lampung are <1 hour 52, 36%, ≥ 1 hour 3.03%, Rates of breast milk takeup exclusively in Pringsewu District from year to year have increased, i.e., 67.4% in 2014 and 2015, increased to 78.95% in 2016, but still there are challenges with community participation, and support for empowerment in developmental health is not optimal. Health institutions have not widely introduced experimental research that examines Hypnobreastfeeding to increase motivation and breast milk production and to inform pregnant mothers to promote breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Hypnobreastfeeding on motivation and breast milk production in the Pringsewu District 2019. This research is a quasi-experimental design with post-test with control group design. Purposive sampling technique with a total sample of 48 pregnant women at term to breastfeeding is divided into two groups: the intervention group and the control group. In the intervention group Hypnobreastfeeding treatment was given to mothers since pregnancy at the end (37-42 weeks) for four times a month followed by listening to Hypnobreastfeeding affirmations every day during the month compared with a control group given a lactation education. Computerised data was processed using univariate analysis (mean), and bivariate Independent T-Test. The results showed the majority of respondents have the motivation to give breast milk, the perception of breast milk production, and the observation of breast milk production and average weight gain for infants in both criteria. Independent T-Test results of the analysis showed that there was no significant difference in motivation to giving breast milk between groups conducted with a group given Hypnobreastfeeding lactation education. There are substantial differences in perception and observation of breast milk production and infant weight gain between groups led with a group that was given Hypnobreastfeeding lactation education. There is no significant difference in motivation to giving breast milk, and there is a substantial difference in breast milk production in the Hypnobreastfeeding group compared with the lactation education group. To midwives to always provide lactation education and Hypnobreastfeeding to help increase motivation and production of breast milk, researchers can conduct further research with other variables that can affect motivation and breast milk production. Pages 122 to 137

 

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Home Environmental Health: Relationship with Stunting in Bandar Lampung

Ferizal Masraa, Helina Helmyb, a,bDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia

Stunting is a short and very short body condition based on age with height <-2 SD from the WHO child growth standards nutritional status table. Factors affecting nutritional problems in Indonesia consist of internal and external factors. This study aims to determine the relationship between home environmental health with stunting in the city of Bandar Lampung. The study was conducted in July - December 2019 in Bandar Lampung City using a case-control design. Research respondents numbered 106 people who were selected using purposive sampling, then observing the environmental health conditions reviews of their homes. The results of the study were processed and analysed descriptively and analytically to obtain a pattern and strong relationship between home environmental health with stunting in the city of Bandar Lampung. The results showed a relationship between physical facilities and household sanitation facilities with stunting with pv: 0043 and 0:02. The interaction between clean water facilities and wastewater disposal facilities has a strong dominant relationship to the risk of stunting with pv: 0.033 and OR: 122.617. Based on reviews of these results, improving the quality of home environmental health must be done to minimise the risk of stunting in Bandar Lampung City. Pages 138 to 153

 

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Pathogenic Bacterial Pattern and its Resistance in the Care Rooms of the Hospital in Bandar Lampung

Maria Tuntuna, Misbahul Hudab, a,bDepartment of Health Analyst, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: amaria_tuntun@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

The hospital ward cannot be separated from the threat of resistant pathogenic bacteria. The bacteria can cause nosocomial infections for patients treated in hospital care. The research objective was to determine the resistance pattern of pathogenic bacteria in a hospital ward in London. This type of research is observational analytic cross-sectional design. The research variables are the resistance patterns of pathogenic bacteria in the treatment room. The population for the sample in this research is the treatment room in the hospital, a total of 11 treatment rooms. In each treatment room, we swabbed at five points to obtain microbiological samples to examine. Microbiological examination was performed in the microbiology laboratories of the Health Laboratory in Lampung Province, July-October 2018. The microbiology laboratory examination includes microscopic examination of bacteria, isolation of bacteria, bacterial identification, and antibiotic sensitivity test. The results showed 12 species of bacteria from 67 bacterial isolates, ie, the pattern of the following bacteria: Klebsiella pneumonia (20.90%), Klebsiella oxytoca (5.97%), Alcaligenes faecalis (13.43%), Citrobacter sp. (5.97%), E. coli (5.97%), Proteus Vulgaris (2.99%), Proteus rettgeri (2.99%), Proteus morganii (1.49%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.94 %), Staphylococcus aureus (8.96%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (11.94%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (7.46%). Patterns of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is Proteus Vulgaris (71.43%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (57.74%), Citrobacter sp. (54.76%), Klebsiella oxytoca (52.38%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (44.05%), Proteus rettgeri (38.10%), of Alcaligenes faecalis (38.10%), Klebsiella pneumonia (36.39% ), Proteus morganii (33.33%), E. coli (29.76%), Staphylococcus aureus (27.78%), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.29%). The results of the sensitivity test using 19 kinds of antibiotics showed all to be antibiotic-resistant. Seven kinds of antibiotics have been resistant above 50%, namely Clindamycin (79.10%), Cefixime (77.61%), Cephalotin (76.12%), Cefazoline (71.64%), Amphicillin sulbactam (68.66%), Trimetophrim (62.69% ), and Cefuroxime (56.72%). The conclusion of this study is obtained bacteria Gram-positive group (three species of bacteria) and Gram-negative (9 species of bacteria). All bacterial isolates (67 isolates) were resistant to the antibiotic resistance level of 2.99% to 79.10%. Pages 154 to 166

 

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The Effectiveness of the Education of Pregnant Women on Stunting Prevention in Bandar Lampung City

Yeyen Putrianaa, R Pranajayab, a,bDepartment of Obstetrics, Ministry of Health, Potekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia

Failure to grow or stunting is a threat of losing a generation. The incidence of stunting in Indonesia has decreased from 2013 (37.2%) to 2018 (30.8%) In the Lampung province the incidence of stunting in 2017 was above the national average of 42%. The Ministry of Health in the Republic Indonesia (2018) has set up prevention programs targeting pregnant women stunting. Midwives who are the main service personnel in providing care to pregnant women in health centers have a strategic role in preventing stunting through assisting pregnant women in high-risk groups by using the MCH (Maternal and Child Health) book media, which has been used as a medium to increase maternal knowledge in pregnancy care and care preparation of a toddler. The research was conducted in Puskesmas Kemiling with the consideration that the stunting figure is quite high in this area. The aim of research is to know the effectiveness of support for pregnant women in the prevention of stunting with the MCH book media. The population in this study were all pregnant women who live in Puskesmas Kemiling Bandar Lampung. The research sample of pregnant women is according to inclusion criteria. Sampling is with the purposive sampling technique. Significant until determined by the consecutive sampling method. A total sample of 20 people. Analysis of the data used in univariate and bivariate. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between MCH book media education and the knowledge imparted to pregnant women about stunting prevention with a p-value of 0.000 (p <0.05). Educational advice about stunting prevention must also be given to families as a supporting factor for comprehensive stunting prevention. Pages 167 to 177

 

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Red Spinach Accelerates the Increase of Hb Levels in Pregnant Women

Riyanti Imrona, Putri Samuelb, aDepartment of Midwifery, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, bPuskesmas Segala Mider Bandar Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ariyantiimron74@gmail.com

Anaemia is one of the physiological conditions that usually occurs during pregnancy. Anaemia in pregnancy generally occurs due to hemodilution. Based on the results of the pre survey obtained from Puskesmas Segala Mider Bandar Lampung, it was found that of 10 pregnant women who attended antenatal care (ANC) there were 6 who were presenting with anaemia and of those  6  there was 2 women with mild anaemia, 3 with moderate anaemia and 1 woman with severe anaemia.The purpose of this study was to study differences in Hb levels before and after giving red spinach in the second trimester of pregnancy to women with anaemia at the Puskesmas Segala Mider Bandar Lampung, in 2019. The type of research used was the Quasi Experiment with a non-equivalent control group. The population in this study were all pregnant women who attended the ANC at Puskesmas Segala Mider, Bandar Lampung. Samples taken were taken from a total of 36 anaemic pregnant women in the second trimester who were in prepared to trial red spinach. The Data taken consisted of primary data, quoted by the t - Independent test, then processed using a computer. Based on the result of the t – Independent test between differences in Hb levels before and after giving red spinach in the second trimester of pregnant women with anaemia obtained α value ofα = 0.000 to be α < 0.05. The result this statistical test prove the differences in Hb levels before and after giving Red Spinach in the second trimester of pregnant women with anaemia at Puskesmas of Segala Mider  Bandar Lampung in 2019. The researchers suggest that health workers be able to apply Red Spinach consumption as one of alternative non-pharmacological treatment to overcome anaemia in pregnant women. Pages 178 to 191

 

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Utilisation of the Family Latrine Post Declaration ODF

Mei Ahyantia, Yeni Rositab, Prayudhy Yushanantac, a,b,cDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ameiahyati@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Diarrheal diseases dominate the prevalence of diseases due to poor sanitation in Indonesia. Case Fatality Rate (CFR) in 2010-2017 tends to fluctuate. In 2017, diarrhea in Lampung Province was ranked 7th among the top 10 diseases. South Lampung Regency has the highest case. The declaration of Open Defecation Free (ODF) village has been carried out, but the number of diarrhea cases in the Pemanggilan Village during January-March 2019 was 32 cases, with 10 out of 20 people in Marga Kaca, and Sri Mulyo III hamlets not using the available healthy latrines. This study uses a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. The research subjects were 15 community informants, one triangulation informant, and one key informant. The sampling technique used is purposive, sample selected by a snowball.  The results of the study stated that the informant's knowledge can be said to be good, the whole community uses well water for their needs, community leaders and health workers provide support in the form of advice and assistance for the construction of latrines, but community awareness is still not good in the use of family latrines. Pages 192 to 204

 

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Biofilter Processing Method Of Reducing The BOD / TSS, Oil / Fat, pH in Liquid Waste at an Orphanage

Ahmad Fikria, Linda Barusb, a,bDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email:

afikri@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id, blinda.barus1@gmail.com, blindabarus@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

The orphanage's liquid waste contains organic substances and oil/fat. If it cannot be processed, it can be released using oxygen and sunlight and is transferred to living things in the water. Because oxygen needs are not sufficient it increases the risk of rot and enhances environmental pollution. The aim is to understand the process of the wastewater processing method using a biofilter with an operating time of 12, 18 and 24 hours for the reduction of BOD (biological oxygen demand), TSS (total suspended solids), oil/fat, and pH. The research method uses the factor of variation in the length of operation with the biofilter method. Perform initial measurements and complete processing with the T-test difference analysis on BOD, TSS, oil/fat levels, and pH of the liquid waste. The results of the study with filtration time 12 hours: decreased BOD 46.60%, 80.99% TSS, oil/fat 81.33%, and the pH to 6.5. Eighteen hours: decreased BOD of 57.29%, TSS 91.15%, oil/fat 81.29%, and the pH to 6.7. 24 hours: 76.24% reduction in BOD, TSS 99.10%, oil / fat 97.57% and the pH to 6.9. The results of the treatment of the institution's liquid waste using the aerobic biofilter methods are effective and efficient. The material used to make WWTP was used drums with a volume of 200 litres. The processing system uses the aerobic biofilter with wasp nest models as the inherent growth media. Pages 205 to 216

 

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History of Breastfeeding, Formula and Eating Patterns in Stunted Toddlers: The Case with Picky Eaters

Arie Nugrohoa, Nutrition Department, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Email: aarienugroho@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Children aged 1-3 years are in a period of rapid growth after infancy, with a balanced nutritional intake necessary to achieve optimal growth and development. Nutritional problems will occur if the nutrient intake is not being met. One of the issues that exist in child nutrition in Indonesia results in shortness of stature (stunting). One of the behaviours that can occur in the development of children's eating behaviour is picky eating or picking at food. One of the factors that affect children's eating behaviour in adulthood is feeding patterns early in life. Granting exclusive breast milk up to 6 months is a protective factor against the child becoming a picky eater. Complementary feeding MP-ASI (formula), which is given is not appropriate; in this case, if it is too early or too late it also influenced the incidence of picky eaters. This research was analytic research with a cross-sectional study design. The area of ​​research is the nutrition research community. The number of subjects consisted of 85 toddlers. Variables examined included a history of feeding breast milk (ASI), breast milk substitutes (MP-ASI), eating patterns, and stunting status. Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square Test. There is a relationship between a history of non-exclusive ASI, early MP-ASI, and eating patterns with the incidence of picky eaters with a p-value of respectively is 0.001; 0.002 and 0.001 (P <0.05). There was no significant correlation between the incidence of stunting in picky eaters in toddlers with p = 0.741 (p> 0.05). Dinas Kesehatan Bandar Lampung could appeal to the health centre (Puskesmas) through circulars mandating an active role in the socialisation of the importance of exclusive ASI and MP-ASI on time to prevent the occurrence of picky eating in toddlers. Nutritionists can adopt the Indonesian Nutritionists Association (PERSAGI) or the Indonesian Breastfeeding Mothers Association (AIMI) information in the socialisation and mentoring by ASI counsellors to all pregnant and lactating women in Puskesmas Kedaton in order to prevent the occurrence of picky eating in toddlers. Pages 217 to 231

 

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The Decrease in BOD and COD in the Liquid Waste Industry Using Rapid Sand Filtration

Bambang Murwantoa, Ferizal Masrab, Daria Gintingc, a,b,cDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: abam9murwanto@gmail.com

The tofu making industry represents an industry consisting of both small and medium-sized businesses and has a positive impact in economic terms. However, the impact of this industry is likely to be seen more negatively if the waste from the processing of tofu is not treated properly. Untreated waste will continue to have a detrimental impact on the environment,  since the tofu industry wastewater discharge affects the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) parameters, and as such, contributes to river pollution. . This was reported by Bastian (2016) in Murwanto (2018), namely, that tofu industry wastewater pollution was occurring in the Mount Sulah suburb, Bandar Lampung City. The purpose of this study is to establish a viable way of treating tofu wastewater through the reduction of the BOD and COD levels cheaply using Appropriate Technology (TTG) Rapid Sand Filter. This research utilised a quasi-experiment with a one-group pre-test and post-test design (Factorial Design with a Control/Comparative Group) in which the discharge of tofu industry waste and sand filter thickness are independent variables and the decreasing levels of tofu industry waste (BOD and COD, H)  were bound variables. The results of this study indicate a significant influence according to the height of the sand filter on the parameters of the BOD and COD levels in tofu wastewater, and the absence of a significant effect on the amount of water discharge decline. A (BOD) and (COD) parameters tofu liquid waste, this Quick Sand Filter can not be applied in the home of tofu as an Appropriate technology industry because of the Decrease in BOD, COD parameters, Because it is still outside the Threshold Value (NAV) 6 of 2014. Pages 232 to 249

 

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The Effect of Light and Sound Settings on the Physiological Responses in Premature Babies

Gustop Amatiriaa, Siti Fatonahb, Ida Subardiahc, a,bNursing major, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, cRumah Sakit Dr.H.Abdul Moeloek Provinsi Lampung

Most premature infant deaths are caused by the maladaptive response of the extrauterine environment, which causes stress to the baby's environment. This can cause problems in circulation, oxygenation, and metabolism that can interfere with the growth and neurophysiological development of the baby. Different characteristics in the mother and baby can affect the optimisation of the application of various methods of developmental care. This study aims to ascertain the effects of light and sound on the physiological responses (O2 saturation) in premature infants. The study used a descriptive correlation design with a cross-sectional approach. The sample was comprised of 52 infants with consecutive sampling techniques. Analysis of the correlation test was used to determine the strength of the relationship (r) and the 95% confidence interval. Subjects were divided into two groups: control (n = 30) and intervention (n = 22). The control group showed that there was no significant difference in SaO2 (p = 0.558) and pulse (p = 0.396) before and after 24 hours. The intervention group showed that there was no significant difference in pulse (p = 0.104) but significant differences in SaO2 (p = 0.011) before and after 24 hours. Sound and light arrangements effectively improve SaO2. Pages 250 to 263

 

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Implementation of Local Music Wisdom in Progressive Muscle Relaxation Exercises and the Effect on Blood Sugar Levels in Patients with Type 2 DM

Ihsan Taufiqa, Heni Apriyanib, a,bDepartment of Nursing, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: aihsantaufiq@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Muscle relaxation exercises are carried out by first tensing muscles, followed by relaxing specific muscles and then focusing on the sensation of relaxing. This study was planned for implementation from June to November 2019. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of muscle relaxation exercises on blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the health centre in Kotabumi North Lampung region. This study uses a quasi-experimental design with a one-group post-test design. The population in this study are patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the health centre in the Kotabumi North Lampung region with consecutive sampling techniques, and is comprised of 40 respondents. Analysis of the relationship was conducted using a t-test. The null hypothesis (Ho) is that there was no influence between the wisdom of folk music in muscle relaxation exercise on blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the health centre in the Kotabumi North Lampung region. Pages 264 to 276

 

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The Effects of Family Support on Elderly Mental Development

Sulastria, Dedek Saiful Kohirb, a,bNursing major, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: asulastri@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Mental development of the elderly is influenced by various factors such as social relations, social environment, psychological factors, and social activities. This study aims to determine the relationship between family support and mental health and the quality of life of the elderly in Desa Bagelen, Kecamatan Gedong Tataan, and Kabupaten Pesawaran. The research design used a correlation study with a cross-sectional approach. The sampling technique used was multistage random sampling and the sample consisted of  95 people. The results showed that there was a relationship between family support and the mental health of the elderly with a p-value of 0.001. The results of the study also showed that there was a relationship between family support and the quality of life for the elderly with a p-value of 0.002. Pages 277 to 287

 

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Community Preparedness of Laypeople in Doing Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) on Cardiac Arrest Victims

Tori Rihiantoroa, Purbiantob, Gustop Amatiriac, Lisa Suarnid, a,b,c,dPoltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: atoririhiantoro@gmail.com

The incidence of coronary heart disease in the world and Indonesia increase so that the risk for sudden cardiac arrest (HJM) in the future is increasing. In Indonesia, there is no data on the number of laypeople who can help in the HJM (bystander). This study is a descriptive study that aims to determine the knowledge and attitudes of ordinary people in Bandar Lampung in cardiac arrest with CPR rescue. The population is ordinary adults working in the area of ​​public services in the city of Bandar Lampung with a sample size of 168 people who are determined by purposive sampling. Data were collected by the paper-based test with questions (instrument test) and an attitude questionnaire. Research data will be processed and analysed descriptively to describe the amount (frequency) and the percentage of respondents' knowledge and attitudes. The research result shows that the knowledge of society in Bandar Lampung about cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 93.45%, while aspects of public attitudes toward CPR actions balanced between the support (50.6%) and unfavourable (49.4%). Based on these results, we made several recommendations, among others: the need for advocacy of groups of people concerned about the importance of CPR by laypeople to help policymakers at the local and national levels, the need for increased awareness and public concern about the aid CPR by the lay public through socialisation. Pages 288 to 299

 

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Knowledge and Nurses in Complying with Discharge Planning in Space RSUD Pringsewu

Diny Vellyanaa, Arena Lestarib, Andri Yuliantoc, a,b,cFaculty of Health, University Muhammadiyah Pringsewu, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: avellyanadiny@yahoo.com

Discharge Planning done well by nurses can reduce patient length of stay days of treatment, prevent a recurrence, improve the ’patient’s health condition, reduce the ’patient’s family burden, and reduce mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between knowledge techniques and ’nurses’ compliance in carrying out Discharge Planning at RSUD Pringsewu Hospital in 2018. The research design used in this study was an analytic survey with a cross-sectional approach. The number of samples in the study was 28 people. This study used univariate and bivariate analysis. The results showed there is a relationship between knowledge and compliance nurses in nursing Discharge Planning at Pringsewu District Hospital. The statistical test results obtained p-value = 12.02 <α = 0.05. Methods for increasing ’nurses’ knowledge for discharge Planning should be used to improve nursing care services through the implementation of correct Discharge Planning. Pages 300 to 311

 

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The Effect of Academic Stress on Salivary Flow Rate and Plaque Score in Dental Nursing Students of Palembang Health Polytechnic

Dhandi Wijayaa, Ismalayanib, RA Zainurc, Veni Princess Anggrainid, a,b,c,dDental Nursing Department, Poltekkes Kemenkes Palembang, Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia, Email: adhandiwijaya@gmail.com

Academic stress can affect oral health by reducing the salivary flow rate in which causes an increase of plaque accumulation as the main cause of periodontal disease. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of academic stress on the salivary flow rate and plaque score. A cross-sectional study of 57 dental nursing students who met the inclusion criteria was conducted in May 2019. Academic stress was assessed using the Scale for Assessing Academic Stress (SAAS), and plaque scores were assessed using the O'Leary plaque control record. The effect of academic stress on the salivary flow rate and plaque score was analysed using one-way ANOVA test and Pearson correlation for the relationship between salivary flow rate and plaque score (95% confidence interval). Academic stress was found on 77.2% of students (56.1% mild and 21.1% moderate). The means of salivary flow rate and plaque score were 0:23 mL/minute and 0.1, respectively. There was a significant relationship between academic stress and the salivary flow rate (p <0.05), but there was no correlation between academic stress and plaque scores (p> 0.05), and there were a relationship and negative correlation between salivary flow rate and the plaque score (P <0.05; r = -0.3361). Academic stress affects the salivary flow rate but does not affect the plaque score. A decrease in the salivary flow rate causes an increase in the plaque score. Pages 312 to 322

 

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Climate Variability and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in Bandar Lampung, Lampung Province, Indonesia

Yenni Ruslia, Prayudhy Yushanantab, aLampung Provincial Health Office, Indonesia, bDepartment of Environmental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjungkarang, Sumatera Indonesia, Email: bprayudhiyushananta@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

Climate impacts on health through ecosystem changes, namely the increased risk of vector-borne diseases through the distribution and abundance of vector organisms. The mean incidence of DHF (IR per 100,000 population) in Bandar Lampung from 2007 to 2018 was 104.20 (40.49-245.48), far exceeding the provincial (41.70) and national average (51.36). The study aims to determine the effect of climate, namely rainfall, temperature, and humidity of the number of dengue cases. Data sources are from the Bandar Lampung Health Office and the Geophysics Climatology and Geophysics Agency of Lampung Province. In data processing, daily climate data is converted into monthly and annual data, while the monthly DHF case data becomes annual. The analysis was carried out in stages to obtain a strong relationship between climate variables and the number of dengue cases. The analysis techniques used are mean, minimum-maximum, product-moment correlation, and multiple linear regression. The results showed that the average number of monthly dengue cases in 2007-2018 was 79.19 cases (8-552 cases), rainfall 6.68 mm (0.00-24.10 mm), temperature 28.120C (24.00- 29,300C), and humidity 79.71% (73.90-86.30%), while the climate factor associated with the incidence of DHF was rainfall (p-value = 0.022), with an effect of 19.0%. This research provides preliminary evidence about the influence of climate factors on dengue transmission. Pages 323 to 336

 

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Students’ Emotional Intelligence at the Faculty of Education at the Universitas Negeri Gorontalo

Wenny Hulukatia, Moh. Rizki Djibranb, a,bDepartment of Guidance and Counselling, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia, Email: awennyhulukati@ung.ac.id, bmohrizkidjibran@ung.ac.id

The research aims to find out the description of students’ emotional intelligence at the Faculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo. The sample of this research is 10% out of 2.309 students, which are 231 students. Its design is quantitative descriptive with one variable design, students’ emotional intelligence. The findings revealed that: (1) self-awareness indicator obtains the average percentage of 89%, (2) self-regulation indicator obtains the average rate of 88%, (3) empathy indicator reaches the average percentage of 84%, (4) self-motivation indicator obtains the average percentage of 79%, (5) social intelligence indicator obtains the average rate of 83%. Students’ emotional intelligence at the Faculty of Education receives a high average percentage or in the high category. Pages 337 to 348

 

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Human Person in the Sanghyang Siksakandang Karesian Manuscript: A Contribution For Education

Ade Hidayata, Mamat Supriatnab, Sunaryo Kartadinatac, Cece Rakhmatd, Undang Ahmad Darsae, Dewi Satria Elmianaf, Eko Susantog, aUniversitas Mathla’ul Anwar Banten, Indonesia, b,c,dUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia, eUniversitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia, fUniversitas Mataram, Indonesia, gUniversitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Indonesia

This study aims to formulate the issue of the human person contained in the Sanghyang Siksakandang Karesian manuscript as one of the local cultural wisdom, to produce a formulation of a human person for the enrichment and development of education. Efforts to uncover and formulate a human person in the SSK manuscript require the power of interpretation, so the right method is done using hermeneutics-phenomenology. Human person (or human nature) in this study contains three aspects which are personal aspects, uniqueness, and self-identity. The human person in Sanghyang Siksakandang Karesian manuscript includes personal of “soil” and “water”, self-uniqueness of bayu-sabda-hedap, and catur-yogya self-identity. All of them are the basis for authenticity growth, which contributes to the development of education, especially in Indonesia. Pages 349 to 367

 

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Building Entrepreneurship Readiness of Vocational Students Through Values-Based Education in Indonesia

Hardi Santosaa, Agus Basukib, Anas Salahudinc, aUniversitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, bUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, cUIN Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: ahardi.santosa@bk.uad.ac.id

The main goals of a vocational educational institution are to prepare students to enter the workforce and to develop the professional attitude, to prepare students to be able to choose their careers, to be ready for competition, to be ready for selves' development, and to be independence. Moreover, value-based education efforts are directed at humanising humans. Learners are not only oriented to have work skills but also to have more than that. They have to have the right attitude (wisdom) based on ethics and morality to face the business competition era. This study aims to obtain a picture of entrepreneurship readiness for vocational students based on educational values. The research method used in this study is descriptive-analytic. Quantitative and qualitative data are used to support each other in this study. The study sample included 60 vocational students, 30 students in Bandung, and 30 students in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data were collected by administering scale entrepreneurship readiness, observation, interviews, and documentary studies. The results showed: entrepreneurship readiness profile of students in the category of ready to go very prepared. Pages 371 to 383

 

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Designing a Participative Learning Model to Improve Motivation and Functional Literacy Learning Outcomes

Mintarsih Arbarinia, Tri Joko Raharjob, Sri Jutminic, Soetarno Joyoatmojod, Sutarnoe,  aNon-formal Education Department, Faculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang City, Indonesia, b,c,d,eDoctoral Program in Education Science, The Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta City, Indonesia, Email: aarbarini.mint@mail.unnes.ac.id

This research aims at designing and examining the effectiveness of motivational participative learning model on the students' motivation and learning outcome during functional literacy learning. The approach used in this study is Research and Development (R&D). There are three stages in this study. First, the study began with an introductory study by conducting literary study and field study, followed by collecting data through the result of the interview, observation, and documentation descriptively and qualitatively. Second, a model prototype with the ADDIE design model was developed. Finally, an examination through the pre-test post-test control group design quasi-experiment was carried out on 69 research subjects that consisted of 35 learners in the experiment group and 34 learners in the control group. The data were analysed using descriptive analysis and a T-test to measure the effectiveness of the study. The findings presented that: 1) so far, the implementation of functional literacy learning mostly depends on the skill and ability of the tutor; 2) An improvement on learners' motivation was detected throughout each stage of the application of design of motivational participatory, those needed analysis, learning objective formulation, learning program planning, teaching-learning implementation, assessment on the learning process and outcome; 3) motivational participatory learning model is proven to be effective in improving the learning motivation as well as learning outcome. The motivation that is being discussed here includes attention, relevancy, confidence, and satisfaction. The average score of the pre-test was 7.82 compared to the post-test = 9.38. In other words, the learning outcome after the learning activity conducted was higher. In conclusion, the motivational participatory learning model is effective to be implemented in functional literacy learning for adults as the means to reinforce the functional literacy among society. Pages 384 to 400

 

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Characteristics of Mathematical Representation Translation from Verbal to Graph

Dwi Rahmawatia, Rahmad Bustanul Anwarb, Jazim Ahmadc, a,b,cUniversitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Jl. Ki Hajar Dewantara No 116, Iringmulyo, Metro Timur, Metro, Lampung, Indonesia, Email: adwirahmawati1083@gmail.com, brarachmadia@gmail.com, cjazimmetro@gnail.com

This study aims to describe the translation characteristics of verbal, mathematical representations into graphs. The translation between mathematical representations is one of the indicators in understanding mathematical concepts. Understanding the things related to the process of student representation translation is very important in learning mathematics. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of mathematical representation translation from verbal to the graph. The approach used in this study was qualitative. The subjects of this study were eighth-graders at some Junior High School. Tests and interviews collected the data. Students did the test while expressing verbally what they were thinking (think aloud). Then the researchers did an interview related to the results of the students' answers. Interviews in this study were semi-structured interviews. The results of the study showed that the process of representation translation from verbal to graph occurred through four stages: unpacking the source, preliminary coordination, constructing the targets, and determining equivalence. There were two characteristics of representation translation from verbal to the graph, namely numerically and algebraically. This characteristic of representation translation from verbal to graph is expected to be used by the teacher as a consideration to make the appropriate instructional design, especially on function. So that teachers can optimise students 'thinking and minimise students' difficulties in the process of representation translation from verbal to the graph. Future research can examine the representation translation of the graph into verbal, verbal to symbolic and otherwise, verbal to the table and otherwise, or symbolic to the graph. Pages 401 to 420

 

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The Development of a Theory Book and Practice Manual for Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) Counseling

Endang Pudjiastuti Sartinaha, Budi Purwokob, a,bMasters in Guidance and Counseling, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aendangsartinah@unesa.co.id, bbudipurwoko@unesa.ac.id

This development research adapted the Borg and Gall’s model (1983) with the primary objective to develop and test the effectiveness of the product. Products that were developed on this study, including (1) SFBT counselling theory books; (2) SFBT counselling practise manuals; and (3) SFBT counselling competency measurement instruments. The rationale for developing this product is based on several reasons including (1) empirically SFBT is effective in overcoming psychological problems; (2) SFBT can be used as an alternative method of counselling to overcome students' psychological problems; (3) School counsellors need to master SFBT counselling competencies adequately; and (4) the limited sources of theoretical reference books and SFBT counselling practice manuals that can be used as learning materials for increasing SFBT counselling competence. This study was done in three stages, which included pre-development, development, and post-development. The first year of research focused on pre-development and development. The post-development stage in the form of product effectiveness testing is carried out in the second year. The preliminary stage has been carried out in a preliminary study, in the form of a theory book content framework, a framework for the contents of the SFBT counselling practice manual, and the SFBT counselling competency instrument. At the development stage, the product has been developed and product validation by experts and users. Based on expert validation and user validation, it was concluded that the development research products which included SFBT theory books. SFBT practice manuals and evaluation instruments of SFBT training results met the acceptability criteria based on aspects of usefulness, accuracy, appropriateness, and appropriateness. Pages 421 to 434

 

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Comparing the Effects of Washing and Processing on Nutrient Levels of Plant and Animal Foods Contaminated by Heavy Metals Cd, Pb

Hening Widowatia, Agus Sutantob, Mia Cholvistariac, Widya Sartika Sulistianid, Fitriana Asih Dewie, a,b,cPostgraduate Biology Education, Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Sumatera, Indonesia, dBiology Education FKIP, Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Sumatera, Indonesia, eBiology Tadris Metro, Institut Agama Islam Negeri Metro, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: ahwummetro@gmail.com, bsutanto11@gmail.com, cmiacholvis89@gmail.com, dwidya.sulistiani@gmail.com, easihfitriana3003@gmail.com

Food cultivation is not environmentally friendly, triggering the exposure of heavy metals polluting roommates' agricultural areas will have an impact on the ecosystem and the environment. It affects the food chain and health. The character of bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals are essential to be managed, even though it is low. It must be anticipated so that the effect is minimal. The study was carried out in Lampung's agricultural area, which was predicted to be exposed to heavy metals, through observation, interviews, and experimental with a completely randomised design, doing variations in washing and processing of long beans and vegetable water spinach as well as snails and mussels animal foods. To be Analysed for the absorption of Cd, Pb, protein, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, and Ca, with the hope of finding the right technique to reduce Cd, Pb, but can maintain its nutrition. Samples were analysed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry for Cd, Pb, Ca, semi-micro for protein, HPLC for vitamins. Data were Analysed with Anova. The Results Showed: washing can reduce levels of Cd, Pb, Relatively does not reduce nutrition; processing can reduce Cd, Pb, and nutrition. Conclusions: 1) Washing and processing have a very significant effect on the reduction in Cd, Pb; 2) Washing Relatively does not Affect nutrient content, whereas processing significant Reduces nutrition; 3) To reduce Pollutants, the food needs to be washed and processed; 4) To maintain nutrient content, it needs to be treated most precisely by steaming; 5) There is no difference in the washing and processing effects between vegetable and animal foods. Pages 435 to 450

 

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The Role of School Climate and Self-efficacy on Student Engagement in a Junior High School in Malang

Muallifaha, Marthen Palib, Imanuel Hitipeuwc, Sudgionod, aDoctoral Student, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Lecture at Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Maliki Malang, Indonesia, b,c,dDepartment of Psychology, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: aaliefaha@gmail.com, bprofmarten@gmail.com, cimanuel.hitipeuw.fip@um.ac.id, dsudjiono.fppsi@um.ac.id

School climate and self-efficacy are factors that affect student engagement. This study aims to examine the impact of school climate and self-efficacy on student engagement of junior high school. The population of this study was a student in Junior High School, who are registered as active students. The number of samples of the study was 236 junior high school students in Malang taken randomly. The data collection method used the school climate scale, self-efficacy scale, and student engagement scale. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that school climate and self-efficacy had a very significant impact on student engagement at school (R = 0.501. P = 0,000). School climate and self-efficacy contributed 50.1% to student engagement, and other factors influenced the remaining 49.9%. The contribution of school climate to student engagement is more dominant than the contribution of self-efficacy to student engagement at school. Pages 451 to 462

 

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Design of Mathematical e-Module Based Polite Language for Slow Learners in Primary Schools

Nuning Kurniasiha, Savitri Wanabuliandarib, Ristiyanic, aLibrary and Information Science Program, Faculty of Communication Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung,  Indonesia, bMathematics Education, UniversitasMuria Kudus, Kudus, Indonesia, cIndonesian Language and Literature Education, Universitas Muria Kudus, Kudus, Indonesia, Email: anuning.kurniasih@unpad.ac.id

Teachers are confronted with different levels of student intelligence during the teaching and learning process in the classroom. In this case, some children can immediately understand the lesson. However, some of them also experience a slow understanding of teaching. The results of our survey in this study at a school in Kudus Indonesia reveals that 33 of 88 students (37.5%) have an average grade below the Minimum Completion Criteria (KKM). Then, the students are categorised as those who have difficulty in learning or slow learners. This study aims to design mathematical e-module based polite language for grade 5 of Primary School. Likewise, this e-module is designed using research and development methods. Furthermore, it is also designed to convey Mathematical Material, especially regarding the square, rectangular, and triangular forms by adapting cultural stories and polite language. Each section has several sub-sections in the form of Cultural Stories, Learning Comics, Let's Study, Summary of the Materials, Find the Truth, Independent Work, and Achievement Results. Therefore, this e-module is expected to accommodate learning strategies and methods when the teachers teach the slow learners. Pages 463 to 475

 

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The Effect of Learning Strategies and Critical Thinking Skills on Mathematical Understanding Based on Initial Ability

Sutrisni Andayania, Hartati Muchtarb, Yufiartic, Eko Susantod, aPost-graduate of Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia,a,dTeacher Training and Education Faculty of Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Indonesia, b,cPost-graduate of Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Email: atrisnimath.andy@gmail.com

This research was conducted on students of the mathematics education program UM Metro, with a sample of 40 students divided into two classes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an influence of learning strategies and critical thinking skills in mathematical understanding, based on initial abilities. Retrieval of data using tests, 2x2 factorial experimental research design, data analysis using ANCOVA. The results of the study obtained that: 1) there is a mathematical understanding using the Reciprocal Teaching strategy, and Expository, based on initial ability (sig = 0,043 < 0,05);  2) mathematical understanding using the Reciprocal Teaching strategy (mean = 58.95) is higher than Expository Learning strategies (mean = 54.20, 3) there is an influence of the interaction between learning strategies and the critical thinking skills on students' mathematical understanding, based on initial ability (sig. = 0.00 < 0,05). The conclusion is that Reciprocal Teaching strategies more effective than  Expository Learning, based on fundamental skills and are advised to use the Reciprocal Teaching modification strategy to lecturers and further research. Pages 476 to 489

 

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The Happiness Level of Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in Indonesia

Yenni Rizala, Ahmanb, Juntika Nurihsanc, Nurhudayad, a,b,c,dLecturer in Doctoral Guidance and Counseling Program, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: arizalyenni@yahoo.co.id, bahman@upi.edu, cjuntikanurihsan@upi.edu, dnurhudaya@upi.edu

This study aims to describe the profile and to rate the happiness level of multi-ethnic adolescents and to predict the factor of culture substance exists in Indonesia in the multicultural difference in adolescent happiness and to explore how this different dimension of multicultural influences happiness. The approach used is a quantitative approach with a descriptive analysis method. The participants in this study are 606 students from seven multi-ethnic schools by involving six ethnicities, namely Malay, Dayak, Chinese, Madurese, Javanese, and Buginese. The instrument of happiness used is an adaptation of Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) developed by Diener (2000). Data analysis is done by calculating the number of participants in each category of interpretation. Then the percentage is calculated by dividing the number of participants in each category of interpretation (ni) by the number of total participants (n), then its result is multiplied by 100.  The study result found that the ethnics who are in the highest score (happy) are Javanese, Malay, Chinese, and Madurese, which has the same score, whereas the ethnics are in the lowest score (happy enough) are Dayak and Buginese. Pages 490 to 501

 

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The Effect of School-Based Management on School Achievements in Elementary Schools

Yuliantia, aSekolah Dasar Negeri 3 Rajapolah, Tasikmalaya, Indonesia, Email: ayulianti.sdrjp@gmail.com

The principal has autonomy in managing and empowering school resources to achieve the vision, mission, goals, and compile work programs to improve school performance. School management is the key to improving school performance. This study aims to analyse whether school-based management, leadership, and school-based management and leadership influence school performance. The research method used in this study is correlational studies. The population in this study were elementary school teachers in Rajapolah Tasikmalaya District, Indonesia, totalling 245 people with a total sample of 71 people. The results showed that school-based management, school-based leadership, and management and leadership had a positive effect on school achievement. Pages 502 to 517

 

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Developing a Model for Teaching Indonesian Primary Level Mathematics Olympiads: Applied Linguistics

Slamet Setiawana, Ahmad Munirb, Budi Priyo Prawotoc, Dian Rivia Himmawatid, a,b,dDept of English, Faculty of Languages and Arts,Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia, c Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aslamet.setiawan@unesa.ac.id, bahmadmunir@unesa.ac.id, cbudiprawoto@unesa.ac.id, ddianrivia@unesa.ac.id

The relation between linguistics element and mathematics problem tasks is robust to make the students able to solve the mathematics problems. Low linguistics comprehension may lead to the failure of understanding mathematics problems given. This paper reports the development of teaching models for the International Mathematics Olympiads. From classroom observation and mathematic problem tasks, it is revealed that students’ failure to answer Olympiads’ questions during the class session was due to their low linguistics elements, which influence their comprehension of an understanding math problem. Among the ten problems, only one problem could be understood by half of the total students. It indicates that if students fail to understand linguistic elements at any level, the overall comprehension of the math problem will also fail. It is essential to improve the students' linguistics elements to enhance the students' problem-solving skills. A significant role is given to the teachers/instructors to expand the students' knowledge and skills. The process of helping students to understand the problems must be carried in various ways—the importance of interactive communication between teachers and students or among students also supporting the teaching process. Therefore, two teaching models have been developed from the students’ problems. In the present paper, the first teaching model is expected to improve the students with vocabulary to solve the problem. Meanwhile, the second teaching model gives the students to figure out the mathematical problem. Pages 518 to 532

 

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Effectiveness of Election Socialisation in Increasing the Political Literacy of Society in Central Kalimantan

Desi Erawatia, aIAIN Palangka Raya, Indonesia, Jl. G. Obos Kompleks Islamic Center Palangka Raya City, Email: adesi.erawati@iain-palangkaraya.ac.id

Political literacy education for society is needed because the realisation of democracy comes from the people and for the people. Therefore, the need for ammunition to develop true political awareness to society, socialisation is one factor that fosters awareness in political literacy. This study aims to examine how the role and function of socialisation, especially in 11 segmentations, especially in Central Kalimantan, with the analysis of the social theory of George Herbert Mead. This study uses a descriptive qualitative approach with the library research model, as primary data in the form of documents in Central Kalimantan province and as supporting data from several regulations, national and international journals. Besides, an interview is conducted from the General Election Commission (KPU) as the cross-check document data. The findings show that the roles and functions of the KPU and democratic volunteers are appropriate because they are influential people and are respected for their duties and functions. The stages of socialisation given under the targets, such as for beginner voters, women, and religious leaders. Evaluation of the socialisation conducted needs the existence of feedback from the community resulting from the socialisation that has been carried out. Political literacy education will continue through similar events without having to wait for simultaneous local elections in the following years. Pages 533 to 546

 

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Evolving Inclusive Practices in Playgroup and Kindergarten

Melina Lestaria, Sunaryo Kartadinatab, Sunardic, Ade Hidayatd, aUniversitas Indraprasta PGRI, Indonesia, b,cUniversitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia, dUniversitas Mathla’ul Anwar Banten, Indonesia, Email: amelinalestari@yahoo.co.id

One of the dimensions that must be restructured in inclusive education is inclusive practices at school. This dimension develops school practices that reflect the inclusive cultures and policies of the school. There have been a lot of inclusive policies rolled out, but in practice, the rule has not been optimal. The research goal is to describe the objective conditions of how playgroup and kindergarten involve inclusive practices. This present research employs a descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The participants of the study are all teachers, principals, and administration staff at one of the playgroups and kindergartens in the region of East Jakarta. The developed instrument is the guideline of observation and interview. Its indicator is based on the index for inclusion. Based on data analysis, the following research results are obtained: a) In the section of orchestrating learning, (1) teaching is planned with the learning of students in mind; (2) lessons encourage the participation of all students; (3) lessons develop an understanding of difference; (4) students are actively involved in their learning; (5) students learn collaboratively; (6) assessment contributes to the achievements of all students; (7) classroom discipline is based on mutual respect; (8) teachers plan, teach and review in partnership; (9) all students take part in activities outside the classroom. b) In the section of mobilising resources, (1) student differences are used as a resource for teaching; (2) staff’s expertise is fully utilised; (3) staff develop resources to support learning and participation; (4) community resources are known and drawn upon; (5) school resources are distributed enough so that they support inclusion. Pages 547 to 559

 

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The Innovation Iterative Method and its Stability in Time-Fractional Diffusion Equations

Andang Sunartoa, Jumat Sulaimanb, aIAIN Bengkulu, Indonesia, Jalan Raden Fatah Pagar Dewa, Kota Bengkulu, 38212, Indonesia, bUMS Malaysia, Jalan UMS Kota Kinabalu, Kota KInabalu, 88400, Malaysia, Email: aandang99@gmail.com, bjumat@ums.edu.my

In this research, we deal with the innovation or application iterative methods of an unconditionally implicit finite difference approximation equation and the one-dimensional, linear time fractional diffusion equations (TFDEs) via Caputo’s time fractional derivative. Based on this implicit approximation equation, the corresponding linear system can be generated, in which its coefficient matrix is large scale and sparse. To speed up the convergence rate in solving the linear system iteratively, we construct the corresponding preconditioned linear system. Then we formulate and implement the Preconditioned Gauss-Seidel (PGS) iterative method for solving the generated linear system. Two examples of the problem are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the PGS method. The two numerical results of this study show that the proposed iterative method is superior to the basic GS iterative method. Pages 560 to 579

 

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Generalisation of Relations Between Quantity Variations Through Arithmetic Sequences in Functional Thinking

Suci Yuniatia, Toto Nusantarab, Subanjic, I Made Sulandrad, a,b,c,dFaculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia, Email: asuci.yuniati.1603119@students.um.ac.id, btoto.nusantara.fmipa@um.ac.id, csubanji.fmipa@um.ac.id, dimade.sulandra.fmipa@um.ac.id

Function material is one of the most important materials that must be understood by students. However, most students have difficulty understanding the concept of function. These difficulties will have a significant impact on student learning outcomes if not immediately addressed and solved. Student difficulties about function can be minimised by developing students' functional thinking, starting at an early age. Functional thinking is a type of representational thinking that focuses on the relationship between two (or more) variations of quantities. The purpose of this study is to find out how students think functionally through arithmetic sequences. Research data was collected through test sheets and interviews. The results showed that students' functional thinking worked through arithmetic sequences through several stages of functional thinking components. These include 1) understanding the problem, 2) determining recursive patterns, 3) covariational thinking, and 4) generalising the relationship between quantity variations. The stages are carried out by students sequentially to produce a generalisation of relationships between quantity variations through arithmetic sequences. Pages 580 to 593

 

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The Implementation of Blended Learning Methods to Improve Student Self-Regulation at University

Farida Aryania, Muhammad Ilham Bakhtiarb, Nur Fadhilah Umarc, a,cGuidance and Counselling Department, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia, bGuidance and Counselling Department, STKIP Andi Matappa, Indonesia, Email: afarida.aryani@unm.ac.id, bIlhambakhtiar86@gmail.com, cnurfadhilahumar@unm.ac.id

The aims of this research are to find a description of blended learning implementation to improve students’ self-regulation at university and to find the improvement of students’ self-regulation after the implementation of blended learning methods at university. This research uses a quantitative method by using a quasi-experiment design, which studies blended learning implementation for improving students’ self-regulation. The sample of the research is 160 students divided into two groups: a control group (using the conventional method) and an experimental group (using the blended learning method) through a two-group, pre-test post-test design. The research data analysis used descriptive statistics and inferential statistics in the t-test. The results of this research regard the description of the application of blended learning, which was conducted 16 times in lectures under guidance and counselling. There was an improvement in students' self-regulation after the implementation of blended learning methods. This research pointed out through hypothetical testing that the students taught through a blended learning method had greater improvement in learning qualities than those using the conventional method. Pages 594 to 603

 

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Students Behavioral Patterns in Solving Ill-Structured Problems

Lidya Lia Prayitnoa, Purwantob, Subanjic, Susiswod, A R As’arie, N Mutianingsihf, a,b,c,d,eMathematics Education Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jalan Semarang 5 Malang 65145, Indonesia, a,fMathematics Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas PGRI Adi Buana Surabaya, Jalan Ngagel Dadi III-B/37 Surabaya 60245, Indonesia, Email: bpurwanto.fmipa@um.ac.id

This study aims to describe the behavioural patterns of high school students when solving ill-structured problems based on a behaviour perspective. This is qualitative research with an exploration approach involving 36 students of the 11th science class. Students were asked to think aloud to solve ill-structured problems with discounts. During the process of problem solving, recorded student behaviour was then described and analysed when solving problems. The results showed that there are two behavioural patterns in solving ill-structured problems: (a) Intuitive behaviour (giving direct answers), which has two subcategories known as proficient and not proficient intuitive behaviour; and (b) analytics, which bring out ideas and manipulate numbers or operations to produce solutions. Three subcategories of analytic behaviour are analytics involving numbers, variables, and combinations between numbers and variables. These study results indicate a difference in student behaviour patterns when solving ill-structured problems. Students' conceptual and procedural knowledge influence this behaviour. Pages 603 to 617

 

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Caking Mechanisms of Passion Fruit Powder During Storage

Ansara, Nazaruddinb, Atri Dewi Azisc, a,bFaculty of Food Technology and Agroindustries, University Mataram, Indonesia, cFaculty of Teacher Training and Education, University Mataram, Indonesia, Email: aansar72@unram.ac.id

Dry food is generally susceptible to caking during storage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyse the influence of temperature and relative humidity on mechanisms contributing to the caking of passion fruit powder during storage. The research was conducted by storing passion fruit powder in desiccators at various points of temperature (10, 20, and 30oC) and relative humidity (32.8%, 52.8%, and 75.2%). The variations in storage RH were produced by using saturated salt solutions put under the desiccators. The parameters were the evaluated extent of passion fruit powder caking during storage. The results showed that variation in storage temperature did not significantly influence caking because the storage temperature used in this study was still lower than the glass transition temperature of the samples. Water molecules in this condition become unable to carry out chemical activities that cause caking. However, RH variation has a significant influence on the caking of passion fruit powder. The high moisture content at a storage RH of 52.5 and 75.2% could trigger caking. Pages 618 to 628

 

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The Influences of Motivation, Work Milieu, and Organizational Commitment on Teacher Performance in MTS Negeri 4 (Public Islamic School), Surabaya East Java

Enny Istantia, Achmad Daengs GSb, Fadjar Budiantoc, Indah Noviandarid, Ruchan Sanusie, a,d,eUniversitas Bhayangkara Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, b,cUniverstas 45 Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: aennyistanti@ubhara.ac.id, badaengsgs@univ45sby.ac.id, cfadjarbudainto@gmail.com, dindah@ubhara.ac.id, ekhansa1812@yahoo.co.id

Education in the globalisation and liberalisation era (at present day) has a very strategic position in yielding quality human resources. This is consistent with the educational aims of preparing students to become community members who have academic and/or professional abilities that can apply, develop and/or enrich the treasury of science, technology and/or art in accordance with Government Regulation No. 60/1999 concerning education. Schools must be ready in all devices. Teaching staff are main drivers of learning activities, so teaching staff must get planned and proportional career development. The demands mentioned above have been stipulated in PP Number 19/2005 concerning National Education Standards in articles 45 and 46. The link between PP Number 60/1999 and PP Number 19/2005 is the development of science, technology and art forms part of the national standard education, especially those listed in articles 45 and 46. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of motivation, work milieu, and organisational commitment on teacher performance in Mts Negeri 4 Surabaya East Java. The population in this study were all teachers in Mts Negeri 4 Surabaya, totalling 65 people. The variables in this study consisted of independent variables, namely motivation, work milieu, and organisational commitment, while the dependent variable was teacher performance. To determine the effect simultaneously and partially, multiple linear regression analysis was used. The conclusion of the study is that there is a simultaneous and partial influence of motivation, work milieu, and organisational commitment on teacher performance. The dominant variable affecting teacher performance is commitment. Pages 629 to 642

 

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Application of Turtle Graphics to Kawung Batik in Indonesia

Ratnadewia, Agus Prijonob, Ariesa Pandanwangic, a,bDepartment of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Kristen Maranatha, Indonesia, cDepartment Art and Design, Universitas Kristen Maranatha, Indonesia, Email: aratnadewi@eng.maranatha.edu; ratnadewi.bandung@gmail.com, bagus.prijono@eng.maranatha.edu, cariesa.pandanwangi@maranatha.edu

Kawung Batik is the oldest batik motif. There are three versions of the origin of kawung batik: First, in the Mataram kingdom, there was a clean-hearted, very wise and polite young man who was the Duke of Wonobrodo. At the time of his appointment, he used Kawung batik. Second, there is a dark brown beetle that disturbs coconut trees. The shape of the Kwangwung beetle is an inspiration for the kawung batik motif, such as in Figure 2. The third version is the palm fruit or kolang kaling, which looks symmetrical like batik kawung. Various forms of kawung batik motifs exist in Indonesia. Archiving of kawung batik motifs can be done using turtle graphics, so storage is simpler and requires less memory. The results of kawung batik motifs raised with turtle graphics can be used as preliminary drawings before making batik by hand or with a stamp so that it is beneficial for batik productivity. In this paper, we present kawung picis, kawung bribil, and kawung sen. Each kawung batik motif is formed with a different turtle graphic equation. This can be seen in the pseudocode of each motif. If the shape is almost similar, then the pseudocode can be the same, but if the shape is different, then the pseudocode will also be different. The addition of the motif needs to be followed by another turtle graphic equation. As a comparison, canny edge detection can be used to obtain kawung batik motifs. With the turtle graph, all batik isen-isen can be described. Future studies of turtle graphics are expected to be applied to other motifs. Pages 643 to 658

 

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The Application of C.G. Jung’s Individuation Theory in Counselling Toward an Integrative Personality: A Case Study of Javanese Indonesian People

Paulus Teguh Kusbiantoroa, Punaji Setyosarib, Marthen Palic, Dany Moenindyah Handarinid, aGuidance and Counselling Postgraduate Study, a,b,dUniversitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5, Malang 65145, Indonesia, cFaculty of Psychology, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Jl. Jend. Ahmad Yani No. 288 Surabaya 60234, Indonesia, Email: ateguhpaulus@gmail.com

According to Jung, a person should reach an integrated personality to be able to optimise self-actualisation and express themselves genuinely. This shapes their authenticity and integrity, which may inspire others. However, the development of an integrated personality can be obstructed by unconscious forces formed through traumatic events and psychological needs since childhood. To shape an integrated personality, C.G. Jung offered the concept of individuation to liberate the individual from personas influenced by egocentric unconscious forces through self-analysis and reflection. However, Jung only offered the concept without further explanation for a definite application method, which makes the individuation process hard to do personally because it is highly related to the infinite unconscious side of humans, which is not correlated directly to perceptual senses. The subject was chosen as a case study because her hesitance was suspected as a stereotypical Javanese obstruction toward her personality integration. The subject’s case indicated that Javanese Indonesian people needed treatment to integrate their personalities in optimising their self-actualisation. Individuation counselling is one way to treat them. The purpose of this research is to prove that the ethos of individuation can be applied as a method of group counselling to develop the uniqueness and integrity of the Javanese people. Pages 659 to 669

 

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The Effect of Al Quran Verses on Labor Pain: Systematic Review

Istikomaha, Apri Sulistianingsihb, a,bDepartment of Midwifery, Universitas Muhammadiyah Pringsewu, Sumatera, Indonesia

Maternal Health workers can provide support by providing non-pharmacological therapy during the first stage of labour to reduce labour pain. One of the non-pharmacological therapies includes audio analgesia using the Holy Quran recitation therapy to reduce pain. At present, the Qur'an verses therapy is widely developed for Muslims to manage labour pain. This systematic review aims to find out the various Surahs in the Qur'an that are used and their effects in managing labour pain during the active phase. The method used is a systematic review conducted by searching using electronic databases, for articles, namely Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, and Sprott. The keywords used for Indonesian are "Quran", "Pain", "Childbirth", while the keywords in English are "Quran", "Labour Pain". Google Scholar searches that matched keywords in 2009-2019 were 197 articles, Science Direct was 0, Pubmed 1 article and Sprott were 5 articles. Criteria for inclusion of articles are published in journals or proceedings, at least for bachelor, quantitative research, spontaneous labour, there are instruments and full-text articles. After the criteria are determined, there are 10 articles. Materials sourced from Google Scholar - 8 Articles, Science Direct - 0 Articles, Pubmed - 0 Articles, and Sprott as many as 2 articles. The results of this study All articles are reviewed restaurant roommates state that there is a significant effect with the therapy of reading the Holy Qur'an, with decreased pain in the first maternity mother. As much as 60% of the letters read are AR Rahman, and the therapy is given for 11-60 minutes. Pages 670 to 684
 
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Comparison of Counter-pressure Effectiveness with Pelvic Rocking and Counter-pressure Against the Decrease of Intensity of Labour Pain Phase I

Yuliawatia, Martinib, a,bMidwifery Study Program, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: abu_yully@yahoo.com

Painful labor overload can cause birth becomes long, and it needed a way to overcome the perceived labor pain Capital to prevent prolonged labor. IDHS showed MMR in Indonesia in 2012 that is equal to 359 per 100,000 live births. World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that the global cause of maternal mortality by 8% due to prolonged labor. Prolonged labor can be caused by anxiety, fatigue, and anxiety due to the pain experienced Mother during labor. Some methods can be done to reduce the pain of childbirth, the pharmacological, and non-pharmacological methods. Non-pharmacological methods that can be used to minimize labor pain that emphasis is stable in the lumbar region (counter-pressure) and pelvic wiggle movement to the front side, rear, left and right sides (Pelvic rocking). Therefore, the goal of this research to compare the effectiveness of counter-pressure with Pelvic Rocking and counter-pressure against standard labor pain relief in the active phase of the first stage. The study design approach pre-test and post-test design group. Sample making use of nonprobability sampling technique with the accidental sampling method. The size of the counter-pressure sample was 30 respondents grouped in odd sequences and counter-pressure with Pelvic rocking as many as 30 respondents grouped in even order. Data analysis using T-Test test analysis. The study showed counter-pressure with Pelvic Rocking more effective than counter-pressure in decreasing labor pain intensity normally active phase of the initial stage. Health workers, especially midwives, provide more comprehensive care and enhance the quality of health services. One of which offers to counsel and vigorously promote pelvic rocking on how to reduce the pain of a normal birth of the initial stage of the active phase using non-pharmacological. It will be even better when initiated into the early trimester to three because it helps keep the muscles that support the spine. Pages 685 to 696
 
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The Relationship between Family Support Socialization Function and Client Post-Treatment of Mental Disorders

Rina Mariania, Fepi Susilawatib, a,bNursing Study Program, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: arinadainang@gmail.com, bfepi05susilawati@gmail.com

Family support is significant to help patients socialize, back, creating a supportive environment, respecting the patient in person, and assist in solving the problem of the patient. Researchers get information from the client's family of mental disorder, they said; they do not invite clients to socialize and engage in activities outside the house for fear of ridicule and embarrassment. The research objective was to determine the relationship of the functioning of the socialization of family support on the client post-treatment of mental disorders. The design of quantitative analytical research uses the cross-sectional approach. Population and sample study were all clients of mental disorders that have been declared cured and are outpatient and family numbered 55 people. The research sample is the total population. When the study in June and September 2019. The collection of data is primary data. The variables studied were the dependent variables: the functioning of socialization and independent variables: family support. The univariate analysis uses the Frequency distribution, and bivariate analysis uses chi-square. The results based on the characteristics of respondents obtained parental education is primary education is 40 (72.7%) and secondary education 15 (27.3%). In the work of parents earned farmer work at 42 (76.4%) and trade 13 (23.6%). Based on respondents, variables obtained from 55 respondents, 21 (38.2%) with excellent family support, and 34 (61.8%) lower family support. Meanwhile, the proper functioning of socialization which 33 (60%), and the appropriate functioning of the socialization is not that 22 (40%). Results of bivariate No relation to the operation of the socialization of family support on the client post-treatment of mental disorders in Public Health Center of Tatakarya (Puskesmas Tatakarya) where the p-value 0.013. Suggestions, the health center, is expected to hold activities that purposely develop the functioning of socialization among other socialization group activity therapy. Pages 697 to 710
 
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The Effect of Basil (Ocimum X Africanum L.) Extract on The Growth of Microbes in the Hand

Siti Aminaha, Sri Wantinib, a,bDepartment of Health Analyst, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: aaminahkurun.ak@gmail.com, bsriwantini2101@gmail.com

Basil leaves (Ocimum x africanum L.) contain essential oils that contain antibacterial properties (Sharma, 2003, in Parag et al., 2010). In addition to essential oil, basil leaves also contain antibacterial flavonoids. Flavonoids may hinder nucleic acid synthesis, hinder the purpose of the cytoplasmic membrane, and hinder cellular energy metabolism. Many hand sanitiser products to clean hands, to avoid the entry of germs into the body, are made from chemicals, but still very few hand sanitiser products use natural ingredients. The goal of this study is to rate the ability of basil extract (Ocimum x africanum.L) to kill microbes on the hands. The research was established in the laboratory of the Microbiology Department of Health Analysis from April to October 2017. The quantitative research type, experimental study designs, inhibition test method, Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method, extracts of basil (Ocimum x africanum.L) concentration of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% to 100% were used with 3 repetitions. Data was analysed by Anova (analysis of variance) at a level of 95%. Results showed the mean inhibition zone formed at concentrations of 10 to 100% from 6.33 to 14.44 mm, the effective concentration of 50% obtained in killing microbes on the hands. Pages 711 to 730
 
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Ecological Study of Genesis of Spatial Analysis-Based Stunting

Sutartoa, Dedy Miswarb, Ratna Dewi Puspita Saric, Reni Indriyanid, Anton Wibowoe, aDepartment of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia, bDepartment of Geography, The Faculty of Science, Universitas Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia, cPart Obgyn and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia, dPoltekkes Tanjung Karang Kemenkes, Sumatera, Indonesia, eResearch & Development of Human Resources Regional, Kabupaten Lampung Tengah, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: asutarto@fk.unila.ac.id

Stunting is a state of height in toddlers that is not age-appropriate. Stunting is the impact of several factors including environmental factors, whether social, physical or chemical, both in terms of quality and quantity, as well as occurrence of high pain, or a combination of both. There is an occurance of stunting toddlers in 100 priority districts/ cities; there are 3 (three) in Lampung Province – South Lampung Regency, East Lampung and Central Lampung – so it is necessary to do research on environmental determinants of stunting in East Lampung Regency. The goal of this research was to decide the environmental determinants of spatial analysis-based stunting. The method uses ecological studies, a type of secondary data from several local government agencies in East Lampung. The results of the distribution of stunting in East Lampung are increasing in densely populated residential areas. Rural communities generally support their lives directly or indirectly on natural resources – this support in their lives raises new problems as their toddlers tend to become stunted due to food shortages. The amount of stunting on dry agricultural land covered with shrubs is relatively less when compared to other areas, such as on dry land agriculture (without bush), as well as more stunting events. And for areas with paddy fields the incidence of stunting is also less than that for dry agriculture. Pages 731 to 746
 
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The Effect of the Tolo Bean on Pregnancy Anaemia in Tulang Bawang Barat

Nelly Indrasaria, Nurlailab, Department of Obstetrics, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: bnurlailaherman@yahoo.com

From the data in 2018, the number of pregnant women ranging in age from 15-24yearswith anaemia was 84.6%, from 25-34 year was 33%, from 35-44 was 33.6%, and from 45-54 years was 24% (Litbangkes, 2018). Pregnant women who were found to be  anaemic were as much as 37.1% in 2013, and by 2018 this had increased to  48.9%. There were 149 maternal deaths in a  thousand in Lampung and 9 cases of thematernal mortality rate came from the TulangBawang Barat district.Four instances of pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (AKI)was due to bleeding, where anaemia was the cause.There is a need for an intervention to find the root cause  of anaemia in pregnant women as this condition is significant as it is important  the next generation of pregnant women be able to birth their babies in good health.Anaemia in pregnant women in the province of Lampung is as high as 69.7%. The cause of maternal death in Lampung Province in 2018 was 46 cases due to haemorrhaging, 35 cases fromhypertension, 7 cases due to infection, 10 cases caused by animpaired circulatory system, 3 cases of metabolic disorders and 48 cases due to various other conditions (Dinkes, 2017). For the case of maternal mortality there are 149 in a  thousand in Lampung and 9 cases of maternal deathsare from the district of TulangBawang Barat.The data in 2013 shows that there were 4 cases of maternal mortality from 4952 live births, in 2014 there were 5 cases of maternal mortality in 4,966 births. In 2015 it was reported that  there were 9 cases of maternal deaths from 4968 live births (the cause of death of the mother in the 9 cases were: three from bleeding, two from eclampsia, one from infection, and another three caused by other factors. Pages 747 to 756
 
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The Effect of Stimulation Method with Marmet Technique on the Reliability of Breastfeeding in Post-Partum Mother in Independent Midwife Practice

Nelly Indrasaria, aDepartment of Obstetrics, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: anellyindrasari@yahoo.com

According to the Basic Health Research 2013 the coverage of infants receiving exclusive breastfeeding in Lampung province was 59.4%. Achievement of exclusive breastfeeding in South Lampung from 2013 till 2015 in the year 2013 by 42%, in 2014 45.5%, and 2015 by 48%. Based on the scope of breastfeeding, it is still far from the target set by South Lampung Regency itself and also far from the national target of 80%. The low coverage of exclusive breastfeeding is not synergistic with the coverage of postpartum South Lampung visits of 89% of the 90% target nationally. So the importance of breastfeeding has been known by several mothers after giving birth, but not all mothers want to breastfeed their babies for various reasons, such as work activities, the milk is not smooth, the milk does not come out, the expenditure of breast milk is too late (Chapman, 1994; 450), nipple pain, breast pain, swelling, milk dam, and mastitis (Prachniak, 2002; 78-81). This situation is supported by data of 75% of mothers initially starting breastfeeding, but the decline has occurred even more than 15% of mothers breastfeed for up to 6 months (Kent, 2011; 114). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Stimulation Method with Marmet Technique on the Smoothness of Breastfeeding in Post Partum Mothers in Midwife Independent Practice in South Lampung Regency Year 2018.  This research method uses quasi-experimental design. This study compares between the groups receiving treatment and the control group. The treatment group was given treatment in the form of marmet & Breastcare technical massage, and the control group was given Breast Care treatment. The population in this study was postpartum mothers who gave birth in Midwife Independent Practice in South Lampung Regency in 2018. The research sample of respondents was 30. Data collection by intervention was carried out 2 times a day for 5 days, observations were made on the third day until the fifth day. Data is processed and analyzed by T-Test.  The results of the evaluation of the smoothness of breast milk after stimulation with Marmet Technique showed the average of the sign of smoothness of breast milk (12.47), while for the type of Breast Care treatment the average of the sign of smoothness of breast milk was (11.73). The statistical test results obtained p value <0.005, which means it can be concluded that there are significant differences for the average smoothness of breast milk between the two interventions carried out. Further analysis found that the average smoothness of breast milk is best found in interventions with marmet + breastcare massage techniques, compared with breastcare interventions alone. From these results, for Health Workers and Midwives can teach and provide stimulation by means of modification either by natural methods from the surrounding environment or in engineering such as Breastcare therapy and Marmet Techniques Massage for smooth milk in postpartum mothers who have proven to have a pretty good effect. Pages 757 to 767
 
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Potency of Suri Cucumber Juice (Cucumis sativus) as a Solvent for Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones (CaC2O4)

Iwan Sariyantoa, aDepartement of Health Analyst Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia. Email: aiwansariyanto@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id

This study explores the potency of Suri Cucumber Juice (Cucumis sativus) as a Solvent for Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones (CaC2O4). Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) is a compound that forms kidney stones roomates clog and interfere with kidney function. Potassium in the voltaic series is located to the left of calcium, so it will be easy to get rid of calcium by reaction with oxalate, so that plants with high potassium have the potential to decay kidney stones. Suri cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) contain potassium salts and other compounds–potentially it can dissolve calcium oxalate (CaC2O4). The purpose of this research is to prove that suri cucumber juice (Cucumis sativus) can dissolve calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) in vitro. This type of research is experimental with a quasi-experimental research design. The independent variable is the length of time of immersion in suri cucumber juice (Cucumis sativus), and the dependent variable is the solubility of calcium oxalate (CaC2O4). Subjects in the study used were calcium oxalate which was immersed in a solution of suri cucumber juice (Cucumis sativus) for four days. Repetition is done four times. Examination of dissolved calcium levels in suri cucumber juice (Cucumis sativus) uses the Complexometry method. Data analysis used the One-Way ANOVA test followed by the Bonferroni test. Place of research is in the laboratory of the Health Analyst in the Polytechnic of Tanjungkarang. The results showed that suri cucumber juice (Cucumis sativus) was able to dissolve calcium oxalate deposits (CaC2O4). The length of time of immersion in suri cucumber juice (Cucumis sativus) influences the increase of calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) solubility with p-value of <0.05 roommates is 0.017. The optimal dissolution of  calcium oxalate (CaC2O4) is 32.24%, which is on the 4th day. Pages 768 to 779

 
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Mortality Determinants in the Handling of Maternal Emergencies

Pranajayaa, Lisa Suarnib, Kodric, aDepartment of Obstetrics, Ministry of Health, Potekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, b,cDepartment of Nursing, Ministry of Health, Potekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: alisakausar@yahoo.co.id

The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) in Indonesia is still relatively high, and does not achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, antenatal care and births attended by health workers in Indonesia are quite high, including efforts by the PONED program and PONEK. This study aims to ascertain the determinant of maternal mortality in North Lampung and the handling of maternal emergencies. Quantitative research methods were used to discern the determinants of maternal mortality; data retrieval was in the form of secondary data, and continued with qualitative methods in order to explore maternal emergency care. The sample size was 17 and participants were chosen using the Snowball method, a method of data collection utilising in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions (FGD). The number of maternal deaths in North Lampung shows fluctuations from year to year. The contextual determinants of maternal mortality in North Lampung showed that most of the mothers who died had a secondary education (72.8%), were homemakers (77.2%), had husbands who work (43.2%), and 68.1% of them were from isolated communities. The determinant of maternal deaths in North Lampung showed that the majority (70.5%) of mothers who died were multipara. 13.6% of mothers did ANC, 86.4% were given referrals to health services, 13.7% were aided by non-health workers (shamans), and 36.4% of pregnant women were aged between 21 and 35years of age. The proximal determinants of maternal deaths in Lampung were due to complications with bleeding (45 6%) with 20 5% resulting from infections, and  20.5% from eclampsia. The results of the qualitative analysis showed that some problems related to the management of the emergency, with maternal deaths occurring mostly in hospitals, outside office hours, and when giving birth. The procedure for blood donors, and PONEK facilities were considered to be inadequate. Pages 780 to 793

 
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Hypnobirthing method in the Perspective of Local Culture Against Maternal Complications and Their Maternal Effects in Lampung

Supriatiningsiha, Jeni Wulandarib, Herlinac, Nelly Indrasarid, a,c,dDepartment of Obstetrics, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, bUniversitas Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia

The incidence of complications of childbirth in Indonesia based on the analysis of Riskesdas 2010 in 2005-2010 is still quite high at 47.8 per cent. The causes of maternal death in Lampung in 2018 was 32.34% hemorrhage (Dinkes Provinsi Lampung, 2018). This study aims to know the method of hypnobirthing in the perspective of local culture and their effects on marternal complications. This study also seeks to explore the experiences of pregnant women and midwives in using hypnobirthing and social responses of culture to the method by identifying the competencies midwives needed. This research used mixed methods embedded concurrently.  This study used the quasi-experiment in quantitative research, with analysis tools using the Independent Sample T-Test. While the qualitative method using structured interviews, behavioural event interviews, and expert panels. The population in this study were pregnant women who have entered the third trimester of pregnancy and incorporate all of the inclusion criteria. A sample of 60 people was divided into two groups, 30 were in the control group and 30 were given the hypnobirthing treatment. The average length of hypnobirthing childbirth is 7.0 hours while that in the control group (without hypnobirthing) is nine hours with P-Value of 0.00 (<0.05). There are significant differences in the duration of work between hypnobirthing and non-hypnobirthing groups, while the normal bleeding is 103cc for the hypnobirthing group and 158cc for the non-hypnobirthing group. P-Value of 0.000 (<0.05) means that there are significant differences in the amount of bleeding during labour between non-hypnobirthing and hypnobirthing groups.  Experience of mothers and midwives delivering babies by using hypnobirthing techniques help mothers feel birthing experience quiet, comfortable, fun, no stress, and no pain. Seven essential competencies supporting the success of midwives in doing hypnobirthing are interpersonal communication, understanding others, self-esteem, spiritual/orientation worship, influencing others, specific knowledge of hypnobirthing, and active listening. Several things must be considered. For example, the model (frameworks) is not too complicated or too many titles (seven or eight titles of competence is sufficient).  The language used must be clear and not jargon, competence must be selected and defined in the way which ensures that competency can be assessed. Pages 794 to 807
 
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Effect of Growth Stimulation on the Progress of Children Aged 36-72 Months

Ranny Septiania, Gangsar Indah Lestarib, Kiki Dwi Handayanic, a,b,cDepartment of Obstetrics, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: arannyseptiani@poltekkes-tjk.sc.id

Growth and development of children aged 36-72 months is a basic stage that is very influential and becomes the foundation for further development. No matter how small the growth and development that occurs in children at preschool age, if not detected and intervened as early as possible, it will reduce the quality of human resources in the future. Monitoring or early detection of the growth and development of children has been routinely done. It can be seen from the achievement of Early Detection and Growth (DDTK) per year. Still, early detection of growth and development of early childhood is not always followed by stimulating activities for children who are found irregularities in growth and development. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of growth stimulation on the development of children aged 36-72 months in Metro City. This research is quantitative research with a quasi-experimental type of research with one group pretest-posttest models. The study population was all preschool students aged 36-72 months, totalling 174 people. The sample was all preschool age students who at the time of measurement of progress used the Pre-Developmental Developmental Questionnaire (KPSP) received a score of 7 or 8. Data collection was done with a two-week treatment, and then the data were analysed by univariate and bivariate analysis using the Wilcoxon statistical test. The results showed that out of 13 children who received growth stimulation, there are six children that show an increase in child development compared to before the stimulation of growth and development. The -value is -2.449, which means p-value is 0.014 less than a significant level of 0.05. We suggest that the Health Center should be in collaboration with teachers of early childhood education (ECD) /Pre-school (kindergarten) and parents to conduct early detection and provide stimulation of child growth and development if a developmental delay is found in children. Pages 808 to 818
 
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The Effectiveness of Classical Tutoring Services through Blended Learning Based on Google Classroom Applications to Improve Students’ Self-Regulated Learning

Muhammad Ilham Baktiara, Abdul Samanb, Irfanc, Irfan Arifind, Bakhtiare, Yasdinf, Syamsuardig, Ratnawulandarih, aGuidance and Counseling, STKIP Andi Matappa, Indonesia, bGuidance and Counseling, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia, c,dFine Arts and Design, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia, eEducation and Social Science, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia, fAutomotive Engineering Education, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia, gEarly childhood education programs, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia, hGuidance and Counseling, Universitas Muhammadiyah Palopo, Indonesia, Email: ailhambakhtiar86@gmail.com

This study aims at investigating: (1) the effectiveness of traditional tutoring using Google Classroom application as a counselling media to improve students’ self-regulated learning, and; (2) the effect of general tutorial service using Google Classroom Application as a counselling media on students’ self-regulated learning. This is a quantitative study with a real experimental design involving control and innovative classes evaluated through pretest and post-test using questionnaires. The research findings showed that after the implementation of classical tutoring using Google Classroom Application as a counselling media to improve students’ self-regulated learning, students still had low ability to plan the lesson, had the excellent ability to carry out the learning activities, and had average skills in evaluating the learning process so that it is considered that they still need a more exciting and more fun learning service. In addition, there was 58% improvement on the self-regulated learning of students in the experimental group after served with a classical tutorial with Google Classroom Application based blended learning. Pages 819 to 830
 
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Development of an Instrument to Test Physical Fitness of Mentally Disabled Children

Addriana Bulu Baana, Tandiyo Rahayub, Soegiyantoc, Sulaimand, aUniversitas Tadulako, Indonesia, b,c,dUniversitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: aaddrianabulubaan@gmail.com

The physical fitness test is an important factor for mentally disabled children because it is a good indicator of physical fitness level, which is associated with the children's health. Measuring physical fitness needs to be adjusted to the characteristics of student growth and development and the geographical conditions of the environment. This study aims to develop a physical fitness test measure specifically for mentally disabled children aged 10 to 12 years, conducted in five districts in Sulawesi Tengah province. The measuring instrument developed consists of four tests, namely: 1) run 30 meters fast to measure speed; 2) hold the body in a push-up position, feet lifted at shoulder height for 30 seconds to measure strength endurance; 3) sitting reaching forward to measure flexibility; and 4) run 600 meters to measure the endurance of the heart and lungs. Measurements of physical fitness for mentally disabled children provide information about student health that can be used to maintain the lifestyle and health of students. Schools can also apply physical fitness assessments by using the test-measuring instrument that is appropriate to the conditions of students. Pages 831 to 845
 
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Analysis of International Portfolio Investment in ASEAN-5 Countries

Febriyantoa, Mahatma Kufepaksib, Marselinac, Sri Hasnawatid, aDoctoral student in the Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia, Lecturer in the Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Muhamadiyah Metro, Sumatera, Indonesia, b,c,dLecturer in the Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Lampung, Sumatera, Indonesia

This study analyses the diversified international portfolio investment in ASEAN-5 countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Thailand. This study analyses moments after the enforcement of the ASEAN Economic Community policies. This study uses a quantitative approach analytical survey method and uses secondary data. Analysing the data of each company's stock liquid capital markets with a single index portfolio Sharpe analysis method. Using standard riskfree fundamentals of Southeast Asia that are SIBOR and Risk market Singapore capital market, there are 26 companies with a candidate portfolio of a sample of 59 companies. The highest proportion of funds HA CPALL company located in Thailand capital markets several are 0.1713% and the lowest percentage in SRIL company located in the Indonesian capital market, several are 0.0058%. Both companies have the highest and the smallest area in the capital markets of developing countries. It means there are potential investments that provide optimal results in countries in the developing conditions. Pages 846 to 854
 
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The Relational Thinking Process of Junior High School Students in Solving Contextual Mathematical Problems based on Gender Differences

Didik Hermantoa, I Ketut Budayasab, Agung Lukitoc, a,b,cUniversitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia, aSTKIP PGRI Bangkalan, Jawa Timur, Indonesia, Email: adidikhermanto@mhs.unesa.ac.id, bketutbudayasa@unesa.ac.id, cagunglukito@unesa.ac.id

Thinking is a cognitive activity that occurs inside the human mind (Solso, 1995). In solving contextual problems, students are demanded to think to build a relationship between real situations and prior knowledge through some forms of relation. Such thinking process is called relational thinking process. Relational thinking is always present in human cognition, which underlies the process of thinking about everything from simple to something more complex (Doumas and Hummel, 2004). The thinking process that occurs in male students is different from female students (Jensen, 2008, p. 147-153). This study aims to describe the students' relational thinking processes in contextual mathematical problem-solving. Furthermore, this research is a qualitative descriptive study. In this study, the data analysis technique used is the Miles & Huberman (1992) flow, model. The results of this study concluded that, in solving problems, students read text and images on questions and found some information in the form of two different objects which were interpreted as what was known from the problems. Another information was found in the form of three sentences accompanied by question words and question mark symbols which are interpreted as what was asked from the problem. Based on the characteristics of relational thinking (Stephens & Wang, 2008), the male student belongs to "Established Relational Thinking", while the female student belongs to "Consolidating Relational Thinking". Pages 855 to 865
 
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Examining the Implementation of the Early Childhood Education Programs Parenting Program in Malang Raya with The Stufflebeam Approach

Ahmada, Ratih Permata Sarib, aPostgraduate Program, Gajayana University Malang, Indonesia, bInstitut Agama Islam Al-Qolam, Malang, Indonesia, Email: aahmad_t@unigamalang.ac.id, bratih@alqolam.ac.id

This evaluative research aims to examine the implementation of the Early Childhood Education Programs Parenting Program. The targets are the Kindergarten and Raudhatul Athfal Unit which organizes Early Childhood Education Programs parenting programs in Malang Regency, Malang City, and Batu City. Evaluative research with the CIPP model was carried out from June to November 2018, involving 123 respondents from the education department, Early Childhood Education Programs units, and students' parents who were determined by purposive sampling. The research data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, and documentation. The results of the study show: (1) In the context component, Early Childhood Education Programs institutions in Malang Raya have organized parenting programs referring to program policies nationally and locally as evidenced by the results of evaluation programs with high categories. (2) In the input component, Early Childhood Education Programs institutions in Malang Raya have optimized the use of existing program resources from aspects of the curriculum, parenting participants, resource persons, operational funds, and activity scenarios as evidenced by the results of program evaluation with high categories. (3) In the process component, Early Childhood Education Programs institutions in Malang succeeded in organizing parenting programs starting from program socialization, related party involvement in parenting, the relevance of parenting material, and parenting monitoring and evaluation methods used as evidenced by the high category evaluation program results. (4) In the product component, Early Childhood Education Programs institutions in Malang have succeeded in changing parents' paradigm of the importance of child development, successfully mapping parenting models in each research Early Childhood Education Programs institution and successfully identifying the sustainability level of the Early Childhood Education Programs parenting program as evidenced by the program evaluation results high category. In general, the Early Childhood Education Programs parenting program can improve the quality of parents, Early Childhood Education Programs units, and the community in shaping a superior generation and with Pancasila characteristics. Pages 866 to 880
 
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Empowerment of Coastal Women through Halal Certificate Training and Food Production of Home Industry in North Maluku Province, Indonesia

Misrinaa, Santoso Tri Raharjob, Binahayati Rusyidic, Budhi Gunawand, aPostgraduate Student Doctoral Program in Social Welfare Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, b,c,dFaculty of Social and Political Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, Email: asergimisrina@gmail.com

The double responsibility belongs to coastal women who are helping families, and it is the reason why empowerment is an important way to support and help coastal women to gain power in life. One of the government ways to support the economic empowerment of coastal women is by providing halal certificates for fishery products and fisheries for Food Production of Home Industry (PIRT) certificates. This article describes the importance of halal and PIRT certificates for processed fish products produced by coastal women in fisheries businesses. The method used in the research was qualitative and supported by quantitative data. Respondents were 50 women who had a processing seafood business in the City of Ternate, Bacan Island and Morotai Island. Research results showed that halal certificates and PIRT certificates are the most important factors in supporting product marketing. But the findings in this research are the role of LPPOM MUI and Health Departement in providing halal and PIRT certificates for women fisheries businesses that are still focused in Ternate City and are not yet spread on Bacan Island and Morotai Island. It affects the marketing process of processed fish products in both areas, so impact on the economic development of coastal communities in particular on the economic empowerment of women in MorotaiIsland and Bacan Island. Pages 881 to 896
 
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Differences in Clinical Competence and Knowledge in Nursing Processes Before and After Intervention Between Supervisor and Nurse in The Hospital Ward

Idawati Manurunga, Giri Udanib, a,bNursing Department, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia, Email: aidawatimanurung@yahoo.com

The performance requires nurses to primarily provide care in applying the nursing process. The process of supervision is to mentor the nurses so that care is applied in accordance with the standards. The research objective was to determine differences in knowledge and skills of nurses and completeness of documentation before and after the nursing intervention guidance and supervision is given. This research was conducted in patient wards at Immanuel Hospital in  Bandar Lampung in October-November 2019. The population is 165 nurses, with a sample of 50 nurses who worked at least 5 years. The research result shows an increase of the average value of knowledge and skills and completeness of documentation after the guidance and supervision  interventions. There is a significant difference in the average value of knowledge and skills and nursing documentation and completeness before and after the intervention guidance and supervision. The results also are used to reach the ability and skills of nurses to the hospital standards. It also could be the basic for ongoing practice supervision in hospitals in Lampung. Pages 897 to 908
 
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Hormonal Contraception and Menstrual Change

Deni Metri, Nurse Department, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia Email: denimetri08@gmail.com

Hormonal contraception is one of the many popular contraceptive alternatives to family planning programs. This program sets the birth time of a child to realize  family quality. However, no contraceptive is 100% perfect. For hormonal contraceptives, both types of pills, implants, and injections, there are advantages and disadvantages. Of them, side effects were found in the field, such as the alteration of menstruation (irregular menstrual periods or not even at all). The motivation behind this research is to decide the relationship of hormonal contraceptives with menstrual changes in the Public Health Centre (Puskesmas) Kotabumi II North Lampung District, 2018. This study is a quantitative research utilizing the systematic survey strategy with the cross-sectional methodology. The population in this study is the EFA using hormonal contraception in Puskesmas Kotabumi II, as many as 2899 people, with a sample of 81 people. The sampling technique utilizes proportional random sampling. Data assortment uses interviews. Data were examined by univariate (average) and bivariate (Chi-square test). The results showed 60.49% combination hormonal contraceptives, no combinations of 39.51%, and 60.49% change menstruation and menstrual unchanged, 39.51%. There is a relationship between hormonal contraception with menstrual changes (p = 0.007). There is a need for increased counseling and education activities in particular on hormonal contraception so that the acceptor can knowingly choose a hormonal contraception combination, and there is a need for monitoring of side effects of hormonal contraception so that if there is a change of menstruation it can be immediately addressed. Pages 909 to 922
 
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Analysis of Social Media Users among Adolescents and its Impact on the Moral Order and Social Ethics in Society

Sudarmajia, Hadi Pranotob, Mustikac, Agus Wibowod, Novi Herawadi Sudibyoe, Dedi Irawanf, M. Husainig  

a,c,fFaculty of Computer Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Lampung, Indonesia, bFaculty of Educational Guidance and Counseling, Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Lampung, Indonesia, dFaculty of Education Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Lampung, Indonesia, eDepartment of Computer Systems, Institut Informatika dan Bisnis Darmajaya,Lampung, Indonesia, gFaculty of Da’wah and Communication Studies, UIN Raden Intan Lampung, Indonesia. Email: amajidarma5022@gmail.com, bhadipranoto21@gmail.com, cdosenmustika@gmail.com, dbowokhoirunnas_khairunnasgcc@eocketmail.com, edibyoibi@darmajaya.ac.id, fdedi.mti@gmail.com, gm.husaini@radenintan.ac.id  

The development of information technology has a significant impact on social life, one of which is social media. There are three popular social media, including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. At present, teenagers aged 13 to 16 have a lot of access to social media. Many teenagers imitate what they see on social media, which would affect their mindset and lifestyle. In this era of social media, we often find various social media accounts owned by teenagers, while in general, they cannot use social media properly. It will undoubtedly affect growth and thinking patterns in society, especially in aspects of moral development, social-emotional development, motor development, language development, and ultimately behaviour (Parton, Thorpe, & Wattam, 1995). This article aims to analyse the influence of social media on teenagers. According to the literature review, there are several benefits of social media on children's development and, on the other hand, shows many negative effects of social media on adolescents. In-Law Number 20 the Year 2003 concerning the National Education System Chapter 1, article 1, number 14 states that Early Childhood Education is a coaching effort aimed at children from birth to the age of six carried out through the provision of educational stimuli to help physical and spiritual growth and development.  Because, teens have the opportunity to receive a better education. For example: the habit of playing social media without forgetting time, lazy in learning, addicted to playing online games, deception, lying, and most horrifying for teenagers is that they have not been able to utilize technological sophistication through cyberspace through social media and the real world. Special assistance is needed, and from relevant stakeholders is needed to anticipate the habit of using excessive social media, so that the negative impact will be even greater. Pages 923 to 937
 
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Students’ Achievement in Mathematics: Investigating the Effects of Assessments Criteria, Instructional Model and Adversity Quotient

Mustamin Idrisa, Ahmadb, Yusti Arinic

sUniversitas Tadulako, Kampus Bumi Tondo Sulawesi Tengah Indonesia, bUniversitas Gajayana, Jl. Mertojoyo Blok L Merjosari Malang Indonesia, cUIN Surakarta, Jl. Pandawa Kartasura Jawa Tengah Indonesia

Email: aIdris_tamin63@yahoo.co.id, bahmad_t@unigamalang.ac.id, carinivirgo29@gmail.com

This study aims to determine the effect of assessment criteria, learning models, and adversity quotient on mathematics learning outcomes. The sample consists of 280 junior high school students from SMP Negeri 1, SMP Negeri 2, and SMP Negeri 3 Palu taken by cluster random sampling technique. This is experimental research with a 2x2x2 factorial design. The research findings show that: (1) students’ mathematics learning outcomes in the analytical assessment group are higher than those of the holistic assessment group without considering the adversity quotient, (2) students’ mathematics learning outcomes in the PPKK model group are higher than those in the conventional learning model group without considering the adversity quotient, (3) specifically for the group of students given the PPKK model, the mathematics learning outcomes in the analytical assessment group are lower than those of the holistic assessment group, (4) specifically for the group of students given the conventional learning, the mathematics learning outcomes in the analytical assessment group are higher than those of holistic assessment group, (5) specifically for the group of students given an analytical assessment, the mathematics learning outcomes in the PPKK model group are higher than those of conventional learning group, (6) specifically for the group of students given a holistic assessment, the mathematics learning outcomes in the PPKK model group are higher than those of conventional learning group, (7) specifically for the  group of students with high adversity quotient, mathematics learning outcomes in analytical assessment group are higher than those of holistic assessment group, (8) specifically for the group of students with low adversity quotient, mathematics learning outcomes of analytical assessment group are higher than those of holistic assessment group, (9) specifically for the group of students high adversity quotient given the PPKK model, mathematics learning outcomes of analytical assessment group are higher than those of holistic assessment group, (10) specifically for the group of the students high adversity quotient given conventional learning model, mathematics learning outcomes of the analytical assessment group are higher than those of the holistic assessment group, (11) specifically for the the group of the students with low adversity quotient given the PPKK model, the mathematics learning outcomes of the analytical assessment group are lower than those of the holistic assessment group, (12) specifically for the group of the students with low adversity quotient given the conventional learning model, mathematics learning outcomes of the analytic assessment group are higher than those of the holistic assessment group, (13) specifically for the group of the students with high adversity quotient given the analytical assessment, the mathematics learning outcomes of the PPKK model are higher than those of the conventional learning, (14) for the the group of the students with high adversity quotient given holistic assessment, the learning outcomes of mathematics of the PPKK model are higher than those of conventional learning. Pages 939 to 964
 
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How Do Teacher-Educator Authors (TEAs) experience their Professional Development Through Writing for Publications?

Dedi Turmudia, Ali Saukahb, Bambang Yudi Cahyonoc

aDoctoral in ELT, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jawa Timur,  Indonesia, Lecturer Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Sumatera, Indonesia, b,cPostgraduate Program in ELT, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

Email: atdeditur@gmail.com, balisaukah@yahoo.com cyudic2000@yahoo.com

Prior studies in writing for a publication focused on the teacher-researchers in Humanize Language Teaching (HLT) journal and focused on the successful authors. This study broadened the scope out of HLT journals. The objectives; 1) how the teacher-educator authors (TEAs) perceived themselves as authors, 2) what reasons they reported their writing for and publishing, 3) what they said as the contributions of the writing for publication to their own personal and professional development (PD), and 4) how long they got their article published. 112 TEAs were involved in participating. It is a descriptive explorative qualitative with the written interview questions as an instrument. The results have shown that mostly considered as sharing authors and beginners, minority recognized as middle writers and writing articles due to obligations. Majority readers are academicians and few as TEFL consultants and practitioners. TEAs wrote articles due to promotion and hobby. Ranges of publication times were four months to one year. They considered writing for publication as a pathway to PD. The present study has amended the prior research. They confirmed to have authorship, authority, and authorization. Thus, writing for publication promotes and propels their career development and professional writing with different phases, qualities, and distinctive self-efficacy. Pages 965 to 988
 
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Augmented Reality in Support of Physics Laboratory Activities: A Systematic Literature Review

Arif Rahman Aththibbya Heru Kuswantob Mundilartoc

aGraduate School Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Lecturer Universitas Muhammadiyah Metro, Lampung, Indonesia, b,cUniversitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email: aaththibby.2017@student.uny.ac.id

Learning physics is considered a challenge for many students who have negative attitudes towards physics. The limited learning tools and laboratory-based learning approaches has not led students to the expected scientific process. Augmented reality (AR) can be a promising tool to overcome this challenge. This paper discusses the potential of AR in solving problems associated with laboratory-based physics learning. A systematic literature review is conducted, as a comprehensive analysis of the potential use of AR in laboratory-based physics learning. The study shows that the use of AR may possibly solve laboratory-based physics learning problems that have been experienced by physics instructors. Pages 989 to 1000
 
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Multicultural-Based Character Education Leadership Strategy in State High Schools

Nadzmi Akbara, Nurul Ulfatinb, I Nyoman Sudana Degengc, Ahmad Suriansyahd

aUniversitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, UIN Antasari, Indonesia, bDepartment of Educational, Administration, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, cDepartment of Educational Technology, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, dDepartment of Educational Management, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Indonesia

Email: anadzmiakbar@uin-antasari.ac.id, bnurul.ufatin.fip@um.ac.id, cnyoman.sudana.d.fip@um.ac.id, da.suriansyah@yahoo.co.id

At the level of implementation of multicultural-based character education, there are problems such as marginalisation of minority groups and uniformity of character education approaches towards majority and minority student groups, so that minorities are not served. This research focused on the potential of multicultural conflict and its anticipation as well as the strategy of equalising the presentation of character education to multicultural students. This research method uses a qualitative approach to the design of individual and multi-site site analysis. Data collection techniques are interviews, observation, and documentaries. Checking the validity of the data uses four criteria, namely with credibility, transferability, audibility, and conformability, then analysing interactively. The findings of this study are: (1) potential for multicultural conflict is found in: teachers and school residents in how they behave, speak and harass others, the introduction of anti-multiculturalism and groupings based on ethnicity and religion; (2) anticipation of multicultural conflicts; providing orientation and guidance, a system of supervision, integration and coordination with the community; and (3) leadership strategy: planning with deliberations with all parties, empowering all teachers to develop multicultural character, empowering all available resources, becoming an example model and working with various parties. Pages 1001 to 1015

 
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Modification of Mocaf Flour and Its Effect on Acceptance of Flakes with Formulation of Green Beans and Red Beans

Ardiansyah

Health Nutrition Department, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tanjung Karang, Sumatera, Indonesia

Email: ardiansyah9msi@gmail.com

Food diversification utilising local carbohydrate sources in making cassava-based staple foods offers one alternative with the use of modified mocaf flour in making flakes. The addition of green beans and red beans in making flakes is expected to increase the nutritional content and acceptability of flakes products. The purpose of this study was to determine the best formula of flakes with modified mocaf flour with the formulation of green bean flour and red bean flour. Formula 1, 50% green bean flour, 0% red bean flour, Formula 2, 40% green bean flour, 10% red bean, Formula 3, 30% green bean flour, 20% red bean flour, Formula 4, 20% green bean flour, red bean flour 30%, Formula 5, green bean flour 10%, red bean flour 40%, Formula 6, green bean flour 0%, red bean flour 50%. Flakes were tested hedonically on 25 panellists to find out the panellists' acceptance, and the nutritional content analysis. The results of the analysis of the acceptability of colour flakes from formula 1 to formula 6, 95% of panellists said they really liked them. The results of the one way ANOVA test with α = 0.05% flakes on colour, aroma, and texture concluded that there was no significant difference in the treatment of formulas for colours, aroma. One way ANOVA test results (α = 0.05%) flakes to taste concluded there were substantial differences in formula treatment to taste. The conclusion of this research is that the best formula in terms of nutritional value and acceptability of flavoured flakes is formula 1 (50% green bean, 0% red bean). Pages 1016 to 1034
 
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Use of Local Food Ingredients MOCAF (Modified Cassava Flour) and Rebon (Planktonic Shrimp) in Cookies as an Alternative Supplementary Food for Children

Ayu Unayaha, Wiwit Estutib, Uun Kunaepahc, a,b,cNutritional Studies Program, Poltekkes Kemenkes Tasikmalaya, Jawa Barat, Indonesia, Email: bestutiwesti68@gmail.com, bwiwit.estuti@dosen.poltekkestasikmalaya.ac.id

Toddlerhood is the most important period in the development of human children. This is due to this period being a period of very rapid growth and development. Besides, the age group of toddlers is a group that is prone to nutrition, because at this time if malnourished children will cause growth and development disorders which if not addressed early can continue into adulthood. On the other hand, the potential of local materials such as MOCAF and rebon pretty much produced that need to be utilized. Flour Cookies Rebon MOCAF and formulations are expected to become an alternative supplementary food for children under five. This study is a quasi-experimental study with treatment formulations MOCAF flour and Rebon 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30. Organoleptic properties assessed using the hedonic test form and processed using the Kruskal-Wallis test if there is continued with the influence of the Mann-Whitney test. Kamba density and nutrient levels are the best cookies product obtained through laboratory testing and processed using descriptive methods. The results showed that there is an influence on the formulation cookies in terms of color, aroma, and flavor (ρ = 0.00), whereas no effect on the texture (ρ = 0.738). A product based on the best cookies on the organoleptic properties of the panelists is flour formulation MOCAF and Rebon 90%: 10%. Best Cookies product density Kamba density of 0.77 g / ml. Results of the proximate analysis of the product that best cookies with a protein content of 9.09 / bk, fat content 22.72% / bk, and carbohydrate content of 55.14% / bk. Rebon and powder formulations MOCAF affect the color, aroma, and taste of cookies but does not change the texture of the cake. The best product is the formulation of flour cookies MOCAF and Rebon 90%: 10%, 20% protein. The best product is the formulation of flour cookies MOCAF and Rebon 90%: 10%, 20% protein Rebon and powder formulations MOCAF affect the color, aroma, and taste of cookies but does not affect the texture of the cake. The best product is the formulation of flour cookies MOCAF and Rebon 90%: 10%, 20% protein. Pages 1035 to 1050
 
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Formant Measurement of Indonesian Speakers in English Vowels

Dedy Subandowo1, Eva Faliyanti2, Bambang Eko Siagiyanto3

1Department of Applied Linguistics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary, 2,3Department of English Education, University Muhammadiyah Metro, Indonesia

Email: 1subandowo.dedy@hallgato.ppke.hu, 2evafaliyanti1980.gmail.com,   3bambangekos@ummetro.ac.id

This study investigated the formant measurement of Indonesian speakers in pronouncing English vowels, and aimed to calculate the average level of F1 and F2 to produce the English vowels. The participants were second-semester students at the University of Muhammadiyah Metro in Indonesia, with an age range between 20-22.  The data is primarily taken from the recordings of minimal English pairs, such as look-room, cat-kate, set-seat, cut-cute, hope-hope, hall-hurl, live-leave, father-family, get-ego, bear-bar. The results revealed that the pronunciation  of English vowels recorded by the Indonesian students seemed to be difficult, particularly in minimal word pairs. The Indonesian speakers found it difficult to distinguish the phonemes /i/ and /ɪ/, /ɛ/ and /ᴂ/, which are almost all close to /e/ in Bahasa Indonesia. The formants of phonemes /i/, /ɪ/, /ɛ/, /ᴂ/, and /ʌ/ are relatively produced higher than normal English. The production of English vowel /ʌ/ is identical to Indonesian vowel /a/ and phoneme /ɜ/ is pronounced close to /o/ /ɔ /, /ʊ/ to /u/ in Bahasa Indonesia. Pages 1051 to 1064